Role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

World Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 2.37). 01/2010; 16(25). DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v16.i25.3196
Source: DOAJ


AIM: To determine the clinical value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for the diagnosis of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHCC) by comparing the diagnostic sensitivity of DWI and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP).METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging examination was performed in 56 patients with suspected EHCC. T1-weighted imaging, T2-weighted imaging, MRCP and DWI sequence, DWI using single-shot spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with different b values (100, 300, 500, 800 and 1000 s/mm2), were performed. All cases were further confirmed by surgery or histopathological diagnosis. Two radiologists jointly performed the analysis of the DWI and MRCP images. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and signal-noise ratio were calculated for EHCC. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were tested using DWI with a b value of 500 s/mm2 and MRCP images, respectively.RESULTS: Histopathological diagnosis confirmed that among the 56 cases, 35 were EHCC (20 hilar and 15 distal extrahepatic), 16 were cholangitis, and 5 were calculus of bile duct. Thirty-three out of the 35 EHCC cases were detected by DWI. EHCC exhibited differential levels of high signal intensity in DWI and low signal intensity in the ADC map. The mean value for ADC was (1.31 ± 0.29) × 10-3 mm2/s. The detection rate of EHCC was significantly higher by DWI (94.3%) than by MRCP (74.3%) (P < 0.05). There was a significant difference in sensitivity (94.3% vs 74.3%), specificity (100% vs 71.4%), accuracy (96.4% vs 73.2%), positive predictive value (100% vs 81.3%), and negative predictive value (91.3% vs 62.5%) between DWI and MRCP in diagnosing EHCC.CONCLUSION: DWI has a high sensitivity for the detection of EHCC as it shows the EHCC lesion more unambiguously than MRCP does. DWI can also provide additional clinically important information in EHCC patients when added to routine bile duct MR imaging protocols.

Full-text preview

Available from:
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent technological achievements have enabled the transposition of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with good diagnostic quality into other body regions, especially the abdomen and pelvis. Many emerging and established applications are now being evaluated on the upper abdomen, the liver being the most studied organ. This article discusses imaging strategies for DWI on the upper abdomen, describes the clinical protocol, and reviews the most common clinical applications of DWI on solid abdominal organs.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Magnetic resonance imaging clinics of North America
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) allows the detection of malignancies in the abdomen and pelvis. Lesion detection and characterization using DWI largely depends on the increased cellularity of solid or cystic lesions compared with the surrounding tissue. This increased cellularity leads results in restricted diffusion as indicated by reduction in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Low pretreatment ADC values of several malignancies have been shown to be predictive of better outcome. DWI can assess response to systemic or regional treatment of cancer at a cellular level and will therefore detect successful treatment earlier than anatomical measures. In this review, we provide a brief technical overview of DWI, discuss quantitative image analysis approaches, and review studies which have used DWI for the purpose of detection and characterization of malignancies as well as the early prediction of treatment response.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recently, the clinical application of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) has been expanding to abdominal organs. However, only a few studies on gallbladder diseases have been published. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness and limitations of high b-value DWI for gallbladder diseases. METHODS: A total of 153 patients (mean age 60 ± 15 years, 78 males) who had undergone DWI for evaluating gallbladder wall thickening or polypoid lesions were included in this study. Of these 153 patients, 36 had gallbladder cancer and 117 had benign gallbladder diseases (67 chronic cholecystitis, 44 adenomyomatosis, four cholesterol polyp, one gallbladder adenoma, and one xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis). We evaluated the positive signal rate with DWI and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of each disease. RESULTS: The positive signal rate with DWI was significantly higher in gallbladder cancer (78 %) than in benign gallbladder diseases (22 %) (p < 0.001). The mean ADC value of gallbladder cancer was (1.83 ± 0.69) × 10(-3) mm(2)/s and that of benign gallbladder diseases was (2.60 ± 0.54) × 10(-3) mm(2)/s (p < 0.001). Benign gallbladder diseases with acute cholecystitis or a history of that had a higher positive signal rate with DWI (p < 0.001) and a lower ADC value (p = 0.018) than those without such conditions. CONCLUSION: DWI can contribute to the improvement of the diagnostic capability for gallbladder wall thickening or polypoid lesions by compensating for weaknesses of other modalities by its many advantages, although cases with acute cholecystitis or such history sometimes show false-positive on DWI.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Journal of Gastroenterology
Show more