ArticleLiterature Review

# Strategies to Optimize Concurrent Training of Strength and Aerobic Fitness for Rowing and Canoeing

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## Abstract

During the last several decades many researchers have reported an interference effect on muscle strength development when strength and endurance were trained concurrently. The majority of these studies found that the magnitude of increase in maximum strength was higher in the group that performed only strength training compared with the concurrent training group, commonly referred to as the 'interference phenomenon'. Currently, concurrent strength and endurance training has become essential to optimizing athletic performance in middle- and long-distance events. Rowing and canoeing, especially in the case of Olympic events, with exercise efforts between 30 seconds and 8 minutes, require high amounts of maximal aerobic and anaerobic capacities as well as high levels of maximum strength and muscle power. Thus, strength training, in events such as rowing and canoeing, is integrated into the training plan. However, several studies indicate that the degree of interference is affected by the training protocols and there may be ways in which the interference effect can be minimized or avoided. Therefore, the aim of this review is to recommend strategies, based on research, to avoid or minimize any interference effect when training to optimize performance in endurance sports such as rowing and canoeing.

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... Rowing requires high endurance 1 and strength capacities at the same time. 2,3 Accordingly, in addition to extensive endurance training, 1 resistance training 2 is also considered in competitive rowing. As strength and endurance training may interfere with each other, 4 resistance training methods without exhaustive effort are recommended for strength endurance sports. ...
... As strength and endurance training may interfere with each other, 4 resistance training methods without exhaustive effort are recommended for strength endurance sports. 3 Such a resistance training method without fatiguing effort can be conducted by velocity-based strength training (VBT). 5 During VBT, the training intensity is evaluated and controlled via the mean concentric velocity (MCV). ...
... This procedure could be particularly relevant and appealing for strength endurance sports, as traditional 1-repetition maximum (1RM) based strength training to failure (TRF) does not necessarily lead to higher strength or hypertrophy adaptations, 11 and excessive fatigue after TRF could hamper subsequent (endurance) training adaptations. 3,12 Against this background, the effects of intensity matched VBT with 10% velocity loss (VL10) versus TRF on performance surrogates in rowing were examined during a concurrent training setting. In addition, the effects of VL10 or TRF on the recovery and stress state 13 was examined. ...
Article
Purpose: The present intervention study examined the effects of intensity-matched velocity-based strength training with a 10% velocity loss (VL10) versus traditional 1-repetition maximum (1RM) based resistance training to failure (TRF) on 1RM and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) in a concurrent training setting. Methods: Using the minimization method, 21 highly trained rowers (4 females and 17 males; 19.6 [2.1] y, 1.83 [0.07] m, 74.6 [8.8] kg, V˙O2max: 64.9 [8.5] mL·kg-1·min-1) were either assigned to VL10 or TRF. In addition to rowing endurance training (about 75 min·d-1), both groups performed strength training (5 exercises, 80% 1RM, 4 sets, 2-3 min interset recovery, 2 times/week) over 8 weeks. Squat, deadlift, bench row, and bench press 1RM and V˙O2max rowing-ergometer ramp tests were completed. Overall recovery and overall stress were monitored every evening using the Short Recovery and Stress Scale. Results: Large and significant group × time interactions (P < .03, ηp2>.23, standard mean differences [SMD] > 0.65) in favor of VL10 (averaged +18.0% [11.3%]) were observed for squat, bench row, and bench press 1RM compared with TRF (averaged +8.0% [2.9%]). V˙O2max revealed no interaction effects (P = .55, ηp2=.01, standard mean difference < .23) but large time effects (P < .05, ηp2>.27). Significant group × time interactions (P = .001, ηp2>.54, SMD > |0.525|) in favor of VL10 were also observed for overall recovery and overall stress 24 and 48 hours after strength training. Conclusions: VL10 serves as a promising means to improve strength capacity at lower repetitions and stress levels in highly trained athletes. Future research should investigate the interference effects of VL10 in strength endurance sports and its effects when increasing weekly VL10 sessions within one macrocycle.
... In comparison with endurance training only, the concurrent integration of both strength (e.g., resistance training) and endurance training (e.g., cycling or running) into a single unified training programme has been demonstrated to significantly enhance body composition, V _ O 2 peak, MAP, GME, anaerobic capacity, and subsequent performance potential of individuals in endurance sports such as cycling (5,37,43), running (5,37), and kayaking (15). However, it must be noted that, despite enhancing endurance performance, relative to strength training alone, concurrent training has been shown to attenuate gains in muscle hypertrophy, maximal strength, rate of force development, and peak power output through a phenomenon commonly known as the interference effect (4,9,13,17,42). ...
... Several physiological adaptations have been proposed, which may explain the observed improvements in endurance performance as a result of concurrent training. These include (a) greater force production capability; (b) enhanced peak power output; (c) improved musculotendinous stiffness; and (4) superior GME because of a reduced relative energy expenditure at a given velocity or power output (17,37). It can be argued that improved GME is of particular importance to endurance athletes because improved efficiency will effectively translate to a reduced work load. ...
... Training Intervention. Based on a conjugated block periodization model (15)(16)(17)28,29), the 8-week training intervention for Strength training loads in the CT group were determined through the use of repetition zones matched with appropriate volume and recovery parameters (33)(34)(35) to elicit the required adaptive response (e.g., maximal strength). A detailed description of the strength training variables is given in Table 1. ...
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week concurrent strength and endurance training programme in comparison to endurance training only on several key determinants of hand cycling performance. Five H4 and five H3 classified hand cyclists with at least one year's hand cycling training history consented to participate in the study. Subjects underwent a battery of tests to establish body mass, body composition, VO2peak, maximum aerobic power, gross mechanical efficiency, maximal upper body strength, and 30 km time trial performance. Subjects were matched into pairs based upon 30 km time trial performance and randomly allocated to either a concurrent strength and endurance or endurance training only, intervention group. Following an 8-week training programme based upon a conjugated block periodisation model, subjects completed a second battery of tests. A mixed model, 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed no significant changes between groups. However, the calculation of effect sizes (ES) revealed that both groups demonstrated a positive improvement in most physiological and performance measures with subjects in the concurrent group demonstrating a greater magnitude of improvement in body composition (ES -0.80 vs. -0.22) maximal aerobic power (ES 0.97 vs. 0.28), gross mechanical efficiency (ES 0.87 vs. 0.63), bench press 1 repetition maximum (ES 0.53 vs. 0.33), seated row 1 repetition maximum (ES 1.42 vs. 0.43), and 30 km time trial performance (ES -0.66 vs. -0.30). In comparison to endurance training only, an 8-week concurrent training intervention based upon a conjugated block periodisation model appears to be a more effective training regime for improving the performance capabilities of hand cyclists.
... Actually, concurrent training seems to be a potential strategy for preventing and stabilizing multiple disease states due to its capacity to induce adaptations within skeletal muscle that neutralize a number of disorders impacting upon functional capacity and metabolic health, including sarcopenia (Pijnappels et al., 2008), type II diabetes, and obesity (Kelley et al., 2002). However, concurrent training has become a recurrent topic for researchers due to the controversial results of different studies (Cadore et al., 2014;García-Pallarés & Izquierdo, 2011). Hickson (1980) reported a compromised adaptation induced by concurrent training compared with training exercise mode alone (Leveritt et al., 1999), calling the phenomenon as 'interference effect' (Wilson et al., 2012). ...
... Since resistance and aerobic training are performed concurrently, seems to be important to understand if there is an optimal training design or sequence for improving the physiological adaptations to exercise (Collins & Snow, 1993). The intra-session exercise sequence might be an important variable in the concurrent training prescription (Chtara et al., 2005;García-Pallarés & Izquierdo, 2011) and may define the magnitude of impairment in strength (Leveritt & Abernethy, 1999) or aerobic capacity (Chtara et al., 2005) development after concurrent resistance and aerobic training. ...
... Sale et al. (1990) reported that the design of separate day resistance and aerobic training may be more effective to improve muscular strength than resistance and aerobic training on the same day. Concordantly, García-Pallarés & Izquierdo (2011) found that, the strength gains were significantly higher in the group that performed the training sessions on different days. Furthermore, Häkkinen et al. (2003) showed that after an extended training period of 21-weeks both concurrent resistance and aerobic as well as resistance training alone group resulted in similar gains in maximal lower body strength, but it was not the case in rapid force production. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper affords an update review over the state of art regarding the importance of physical fitness and the significance of different combination approaches between resistance and aerobic training, as well as conditioning methods exercise alone on physical fitness improvements, specifically explosive strength and cardiorespiratory fitness in prepubertal children. The main research conclusions can be summarized as: i) Resistance training can be reliable to improve muscle strength in prepubertal children; ii) A proper and quantifiable exercise frequency and intensity in aerobic training remains unclear; iii) No differences have been found between prepubertal girls and boys on strength and aerobic capacity improvements after intra-session concurrent training, resistance or aerobic training alone; iv) In adults, concurrent resistance and aerobic training seems to be more effective on improvements of aerobic capacity than aerobic training alone; v) Aerobic training biomechanically specific to the concurrent resistance training may minimize adaptation interference when concurrently training; vi) In adolescents, concurrent resistance and aerobic training is equally effective to improve explosive strength compared to resistance training alone, and more efficient in aerobic capacity than resistance training alone; vii) Optimum training sequence was determined by the individual purposes of the training program; viii) Performing aerobic prior to resistance training produces endurance gains, while performing resistance prior to aerobic training appears to be more adequate to obtain strength improvements; ix) In adults, performing concurrent training in different sessions seems to be more effective to improve muscular strength than intra-session concurrent training. These results can be helpful for coaches, teachers and researchers to optimize explosive strength and cardiorespiratory fitness training in sports club and school-based programs, as well as a reliable source for further researches.
... Actually, concurrent training seems to be a potential strategy for preventing and stabilizing multiple disease states due to its capacity to induce adaptations within skeletal muscle that neutralize a number of disorders impacting upon functional capacity and metabolic health, including sarcopenia (Pijnappels et al., 2008), type II diabetes, and obesity (Kelley et al., 2002). However, concurrent training has become a recurrent topic for researchers due to the controversial results of different studies (Cadore et al., 2014;García-Pallarés & Izquierdo, 2011). Hickson (1980) reported a compromised adaptation induced by concurrent training compared with training exercise mode alone (Leveritt et al., 1999), calling the phenomenon as 'interference effect' (Wilson et al., 2012). ...
... Hickson (1980) reported a compromised adaptation induced by concurrent training compared with training exercise mode alone (Leveritt et al., 1999), calling the phenomenon as 'interference effect' (Wilson et al., 2012). In fact, some studies reported that concurrent training may affect the development of muscle strength and/or power (García-Pallarés & Izquierdo, 2011;Izquierdo et al., 2005;Izquierdo-Gabarren et al., 2010), while others contradicted by showing a positive effect of concurrent training on maximal aerobic capacity (McCarthy et al., 1995;Silva et al., 2012), muscular strength (Davis et al., 2008a;Davis et al., 2008b;Gravelle & Blessing, 2000;Kraemer et al., 1995;Shaw et al., 2009), muscular endurance (Kraemer et al., 1995), and body composition (Rahnama et al. 2007). However, these studies have investigated concurrent training in young, adult and elderly populations (Chtara et al., 2005, Davis et al., 2008a, Holviala et al., 2010Takeshima et al., 2007). ...
... Since resistance and aerobic training are performed concurrently, seems to be important to understand if there is an optimal training design or sequence for improving the physiological adaptations to exercise (Collins & Snow, 1993). The intra-session exercise sequence might be an important variable in the concurrent training prescription (Chtara et al., 2005;García-Pallarés & Izquierdo, 2011) and may define the magnitude of impairment in strength (Leveritt & Abernethy, 1999) or aerobic capacity (Chtara et al., 2005) development after concurrent resistance and aerobic training. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper affords an update review over the state of art regarding the importance of physical fitness and the significance of different combination approaches between resistance and aerobic training, as well as conditioning methods exercise alone on physical fitness improvements, specifically explosive strength and cardiorespiratory fitness in prepubertal children. The main research conclusions can be summarized as: i) Resistance training can be reliable to improve muscle strength in prepubertal children; ii) A proper and quantifiable exercise frequency and intensity in aerobic training remains unclear; iii) No differences have been found between prepubertal girls and boys on strength and aerobic capacity improvements after intra-session concurrent training , resistance or aerobic training alone; iv) In adults, concurrent resistance and aerobic training seems to be more effective on improvements of aerobic capacity than aerobic training alone; v) Aerobic training biomechanically specific to the concurrent resistance training may minimize adaptation interference when concurrently training; vi) In adolescents, concurrent resistance and aerobic training is equally effective to improve explosive strength compared to resistance training alone, and more efficient in aerobic capacity than resistance training alone; vii) Optimum training sequence was determined by the individual purposes of the training program; viii) Performing aerobic prior to resistance training produces endurance gains, while performing resistance prior to aerobic training appears to be more adequate to obtain strength improvements; ix) In adults, performing concurrent training in different sessions seems to be more effective to improve muscular strength than intra-session concurrent training. These results can be helpful for coaches, teachers and researchers to optimize explosive strength and cardiorespiratory fitness training in sports club and school-based programs, as well as a reliable source for further researches.
... The interference effect refers to a compromise in muscle mass, strength, and power development which is often observed when resistance and endurance training are combined concurrently compared with resistance training alone (40). This may be of particular importance in cyclical endurance sports where high volumes of endurance training are traditionally prescribed (8,30). A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the interference between resistance and endurance training (20,37,52,76,78,89,103). ...
... These include (a) reductions in motor unit recruitment (37), (b) chronic depletion of muscle glycogen stores (20), (c) decreases in the muscle cross sectional area (52), (d) decreases in muscle force production (76,89), and (e) a reduction in total protein synthesis following endurance training (78,103). A review by García-Pallarés and Izquierdo (30) suggests several strategies to reduce the interference effect in highly trained rowers. Short training phases of around 5-week duration using highly concentrated training loads (.50% of the total training volume) which focus on the development of one resistance training component (e.g., strength, power, etc.) and one endurance training component (e.g., aerobic, anaerobic, etc.) have been suggested. ...
... Clearly, further research is warranted in this area. Based on the current literature, S&C coaches should consider implementing the following strategies to reduce any potential interference effect in rowers: (a) perform resistance-training on separate days to endurance training or at separate stages of the day (e.g., morning session is resistance training and evening session is endurance training or vice versa) and (b) consider prioritizing resistance training during the initial 12-16 weeks of preseason training for elite rowers, when the volume of endurance training is traditionally still low (8,30,100). ...
... Of note, the effects of ST on CRE in athletes in general and rowers, in particular, are crucial for performance during competition. For rowing, this is of particular interest because training-induced adaptations of strength training in addition to regular CRE-based rowing training (i.e., concurrent training) can be mitigated compared with single-mode ST in trained individuals (Coffey & Hawley, 2017;García-pallarés & Izquierdo, 2011). Previously, Lawton et al. (2011) summarized the literature on the effects of ST when integrated into regular rowing training on measures of physical fitness and sportspecific performance (Lawton et al., 2011). ...
... Thus, the purpose of this systematic review with metaanalysis was to examine the effects of ST vs. active controls on components of physical fitness (e.g., muscular fitness, CRE) and sport-specific performance (e.g., 2,000 m rowing ergometer performance, 20 min all-out) in rowing athletes (e.g., recreational, sub-elite, and elite athletes). With reference to the relevant literature (García-pallarés & Izquierdo, 2011;Lawton et al., 2011), we hypothesized that ST induces significant gains in measures of physical fitness (e.g., increase in 1-RM) and sport-specific performance (e.g., improved 2,000 m rowing performance) in rowers. ...
... Authors reported that combined maximum strength and muscular endurance training significantly improved lower limb maximum strength (e.g., leg press +2.4%), upper limb maximum strength (e.g., isometric pull +12.4%), and lower limb muscular endurance (e.g., leg press 30-RM +4.0%) in comparison with rowing only in elite rowers. Interestingly, adaptations to ST in addition to regular CRE-based training (concurrent training) can be mitigated compared with single-mode ST only in trained individuals (Coffey & Hawley, 2017;García-pallarés & Izquierdo, 2011). Given that the included studies conducted ST in addition to the regular CRE-based rowing training, future studies may need to examine whether a well-periodized program with ST only is more effective to improve maximum strength measures and/or sport-specific performance in rowers compared with concurrent training programs. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to examine the effects of strength training (ST) on selected components of physical fitness (e.g., lower/upper limb maximal strength, muscular endurance, jump performance, cardiorespiratory endurance) and sport-specific performance in rowers. Only studies with an active control group were included if they examined the effects of ST on at least one proxy of physical fitness and/or sport-specific performance in rowers. Weighted and averaged standardized mean differences (SMD) were calculated using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses were computed to identify effects of ST type or expertise level on sport-specific performance. Our analyses revealed significant small effects of ST on lower limb maximal strength (SMD = 0.42, p = 0.05) and on sport-specific performance (SMD = 0.32, p = 0.05). Non-significant effects were found for upper limb maximal strength, upper/lower limb muscular endurance, jump performance, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Subgroup analyses for ST type and expertise level showed non-significant differences between the respective subgroups of rowers (p ≥ 0.32). Our systematic review with meta-analysis indicated that ST is an effective means for improving lower limb maximal strength and sport-specific performance in rowers. However, ST-induced effects are neither modulated by ST type nor rowers’ expertise level. Abbreviations: CON: control group; ICC: intraclass correlation coefficient; CRE: cardiorespiratory endurance; F: female; IG: intervention group; INT: intervention group; M: male; Sets: number of sets per exercise; SMD: standardized mean differences; SMDwm: weighted mean SMD; ST: strength training; RCT: randomized controlled trial; Reps: repetitions; RM: repetition maximum; TF: training frequency (times per week); TI: training intensity (eg., % of 1 repetition maximum); TP: training periods (weeks)
... Coaches of sports requiring maximal effort over a short period of time (<60 s), such as track sprint cycling, sprint kayaking (200 m), and sprinting (athletics) often consider strength training (repetitive muscle actions against high loads) to be a fundamental aspect of an athlete's training programme. 1 Accordingly, sprint athletes from a range of sports routinely undertake strength training in addition to sport-specific training. 1,2 Despite the common prescription of strength training in elite sport, empirical evidence shows that transfer to sports performance varies. ...
... 1 Accordingly, sprint athletes from a range of sports routinely undertake strength training in addition to sport-specific training. 1,2 Despite the common prescription of strength training in elite sport, empirical evidence shows that transfer to sports performance varies. 3,4 Generally, there is positive transfer to sports performance, for example Blazevich and Jenkins 5 found strength training improved 20 m start time in elite junior sprinters. ...
Article
The objective of the study was to explore coaches’ philosophies regarding strength training (repetitive muscle actions against high loads) and the transfer of strength training to sports performance. Thirteen world class coaches and athletes from track cycling, Bicycle Moto-Cross (BMX), sprint kayaking, rowing and athletics sprinting were interviewed using an open-ended, semi-structured approach. Participants were asked about their coaching philosophies, design of athlete training programmes, strength training and its transfer to sports performance. A thematic analysis was conducted. Data trustworthiness was enhanced by methods of member checking and analyst triangulation. Coaches believed that task-specific strength is essential for sports performance. They reported that non-specific strength training (‘traditional’ gym-based strength exercises that are not specific to a sport movement) is important for increasing athletes’ muscle size and strength. This is typically used in conjunction with resisted sport movement training (for example, increased resistance running, pedalling or rowing), believed to achieve an effective transfer of enhanced muscle strength to sports performance. Coaches described the transfer process as complex, with factors associated with fatigue and coordination having particular significance. The importance that coaches place on coordination is supported by a theoretical model that demonstrates increases in muscle strength from strength training may need to be accompanied with a change in inter-muscular coordination to improve sport performance. The idea that each athlete needs to adapt intermuscular coordination in response to a change in his/her unique set of ‘organism constraints’ (e.g. muscle strength) is well described by the theory of ecological dynamics and Newell’s model of constraints.
... Consequently, limited research has investigated the physiological variables required for the 200-m event. As kayak propulsion requires high levels of rapid, cyclic, repetitive force production, particularly in the upper body (1), elite-level kayakers have traditionally utilized heavy weight training to enhance their peak force production (1,2), in addition to high volumes of specific on-water kayak training (1,2). As endurance training may negatively affect speed and force production capabilities (2,3), the specific influence of both aerobic capacity and strength on this sprint event cannot be accurately predicted. ...
... Consequently, limited research has investigated the physiological variables required for the 200-m event. As kayak propulsion requires high levels of rapid, cyclic, repetitive force production, particularly in the upper body (1), elite-level kayakers have traditionally utilized heavy weight training to enhance their peak force production (1,2), in addition to high volumes of specific on-water kayak training (1,2). As endurance training may negatively affect speed and force production capabilities (2,3), the specific influence of both aerobic capacity and strength on this sprint event cannot be accurately predicted. ...
Article
Full-text available
Current training and monitoring methods in sprint kayaking are based on the premise that upper-body muscular strength and aerobic power are both important for performance, but limited evidence exists to support this premise in high-level athletes. Relationships between measures of strength, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and 200-m race times in kayakers competing at national-to-international levels were examined. Data collected from Australian Canoeing training camps and competitions for 7 elite, 7 national and 8 club level male sprint kayakers were analyzed for relationships between maximal isoinertial strength (3-RM bench press, bench row, chin-up and deadlift), VO2max on a kayak ergometer, and 200-m race time. Correlations between race time and bench press, bench row, chin-up, and VO2max were -0.80, -0.76, -0.73, -0.02 and 0.71, respectively (90% confidence limits ∼±0.17). The multiple correlation coefficient for 200-m race time with bench press and VO2max was 0.84. Errors in prediction of 200-m race time in regression analyses were extremely large (∼4%) in relation to the smallest important change of 0.3%. However, from the slopes of the regressions, the smallest important change could be achieved with a 1.4% (±0.5%) change in bench-press strength and a 0.9% (±0.5%) change in VO2max. Substantial relationships were found between upper-body strength or aerobic power and 200-m performances. These measures may not accurately predict individual performance times, but would be practicable for talent identification purposes. Training aimed at improving upper-body strength or aerobic power in lowerperforming athletes could also enhance the performance in 200-m kayak sprints.
... Local, peripheral or muscular fatigue (LF) is one of the most analyzed indicator in the exercise physiology area, and, although it is well known, it has not been well defined and understood (Ferrari, Mottola, & Quaresima, 2004;Gómez-Campos, Cossio-Bolaños, Brousett Minaya, & Hochmuller-Fogaca, 2010). LF is an important variable on the training control in order to maximize the physiological adaptations and to avoid overtraining in high level athletes (García-Pallarés & Izquierdo, 2011). Sánchez-Medina & González-Badillo, (2011) validated the use of mean propulsive velocity loss (MPVL) to objectively quantify the LF during the ST. ...
... Equally, it has been found better strength increase on the group with less MPVL on the ST (15% against a 30%). Thereby, it seems desirable to keep a moderated fatigue state during the ST, not only to avoid overtraining and reduce the quantity and quality of training (García-Pallarés & Izquierdo, 2011), but also to achieve an improvement in the physical-sporting performance (Pareja-Blanco et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in the study of mechanisms produced during strength training. Mean propulsive velocity loss has been widely used by trainers and sports scientists in strength training control. The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between mean propulsive velocity loss and approximate entropy, and to prove its validity as an indicator of strength training. Eleven trained men participated voluntarily in this study. Subjects were submitted to four series of 10 repetitions of squats exercise on the Smith machine. The intensity was 65% 1RM and 60% level of effort (LE). During experimental trails, mean propulsive velocity (MPV) and approximate entropy (ApEn) were monitoring continuously with a 1000Hz sampling frequency by WIMU PROTM inertial device (RealTrack Systems, Almeria AND, Spain). Results show that both variables (entropy and mean propulsive velocity loss) follow the same tendency, Bastida Castillo, Alejandro. (2018). Relación Entre la Entropía Aproximada y la Pérdida de Velocidad Media Propulsiva Durante el Ejercicio de Media Sentadilla. Kronos 26(2). 2 suggesting ApEn to be a potential valid method for local fatigue quantification and complexity muscular behavior during strength training.
... C oncurrent training (CT) is widely described in the literature as an effective training method for improving aerobic capacity, muscle strength, and power (18,28). However, combining resistance and aerobic training has been reported to attenuate the training response induced by either type of training alone (13,14). This interference phenomenon (13) seems to be associated with a greater inhibitory effect on strength development than on aerobic capacity when CT is conducted (22). ...
... However, combining resistance and aerobic training has been reported to attenuate the training response induced by either type of training alone (13,14). This interference phenomenon (13) seems to be associated with a greater inhibitory effect on strength development than on aerobic capacity when CT is conducted (22). Nevertheless, some studies have shown no antagonistic effects on strength (30) or aerobic performance (33) after CT compared with performance after either form of stand-alone training. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to verify the effects of different aerobic training intensities combined with the same resistance training on neuromuscular and aerobic performances. Thirty-nine males were randomly assigned to a low-intensity group (LIG, n=10), a moderate-intensity group (MIG, n=10), a high-intensity group (HIG, n=10), and a control group (CG, n=6). The training program consisted on full squat (FS) with 70–85% of 1 repetition-maximum (1RMest) combined with jump and sprint exercises, followed by running at 80% (LIG), 90% (MIG), or 100% (HIG) of the maximal aerobic speed for 16–20 min. The training period lasted for 8-weeks, followed by 4-weeks of detraining (DT). Pre-training, post-training, and post-DT evaluations included 20-m sprints (0–10 m: T10; 0–20 m: T20), shuttle run (oxygen uptake: VO2max), countermovement vertical jump (CMJ), and maximal strength (1RMest) in FS. All the experimental groups showed significant improvements from pre to post-training (p<0.05) in T10 (LIG:4%; MIG:5%; HIG:2%), T20 (LIG:3%; MIG:4%; HIG:2%), CMJ (LIG:9%; MIG:10%; HIG:7%), 1RMest (LIG:13%; MIG:7%; HIG:8%), and in VO2max (LIG:10%, MIG:11%; HIG:10%). Comparing the changes between experimental groups, only 1RMest gains were higher in the LIG than HIG (p=0.04) and MIG (p=0.01). DT resulted in performance decrements, with minimal losses of VO2max for the LIG. It seems that performing concurrent training is beneficial for strength and aerobic development in healthy adults regardless of the aerobic training intensity. However, choosing lower intensities can lead to increased strength and are also recommended when the cardiorespiratory gains should be maintained for longer.
... A typical cycle can last up to eight weeks. Incidentally, one study commented that a block periodisation cycle of just five weeks evoked an improvement of performance in elite athletes in comparison to the traditional periodisation approach (Izquierdo, 2011). ...
... In one particular study interpreted by Izquierdo (2011), the researcher compared training induced changes in selected endurance and performance indicators between two groups of elite kayakers, in which one group followed a traditional periodisation model and the other group followed a block periodisation model for five weeks. The results of the study showed that during the short training phases, block periodisation resulted in a more effective means of improving kayaking specific performance when compared to the group of elite kayakers who indulged in the traditional periodisation. ...
Research
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An investigation into the effect of a block periodisation system in an elite olympic sprinter over the duration of three competitive seasons.
... Studies also suggest an inverse association between aerobic metabolism and race time for both (Borges et al., 2015;Ferrari et al., 2017). Thus, strength and conditioning coaches must plan strategies to improve aerobic fitness and muscle strength/power of paddlers (García-Pallarés and Izquierdo, 2011;Rawlley-Singh and King, 2020). Such development, however, should also consider Junior and U23 athletes. ...
... Thus, strength and conditioning coaches regularly prescribe dry-land training based on the bench press and pull for paddlers (García-Pallarés et al., 2009;Bielik et al., 2018). This factor explains why these exercises are adopted for studying the strength/power of these athletes (García-Pallarés et al., 2009;García-Pallarés and Izquierdo, 2011;Ualí et al., 2012;McKean and Burkett, 2014;Bielik et al., 2018). ...
Article
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This study aimed to compare the aerobic power (treadmill running) and muscle power (bench press and bench pull) of Junior/U23 paddlers from Slovakia who won medals in international championships with that of those who did not take the podium. Forty-three Slovak Junior/U23 paddlers (sprint = 24, medalists = 8, non-medalists = 16; slalom = 19, medalists = 11, non-medalists = 8) were tested in 2018 and 2019 after the world championships. The maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max) and the velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (vVO 2max) were determined by the incremental running protocol (0% slope and 1 km·h −1 increments every minute until volitional exhaustion). Mean maximal power from the entire concentric phase was recorded during bench press and bench pull exercises by the validated TENDO weightlifting analyzer. No interaction was obtained between medal and canoe discipline for VO 2max (p = 0.069, F = 3.495), vVO 2max (p = 0.552, F = 0.361) and absolute (bench press: p = 0.486, F = 0.495; bench pull: p = 0.429, F = 0.640) or relative (bench press: p = 0.767, F = 0.089; bench pull: p = 0.696, F = 0.155) mean maximal power. Conversely, a significant effect for the medal on the bench press (absolute p = 0.017, F = 6.170; relative p = 0.043, F = 4.384) and the bench pull (absolute p = 0.041, F = 4.470) mean maximal power were observed. Our study indicates the absolute mean power on the bench press as a prerequisite for success in international Junior/U23 championships of slalom and sprint canoeing. However, the mean power on bench pull seems to have a deeper influence on sprint paddlers when compared to slalom athletes. Regarding the aerobic power, the data from the treadmill testing did not reveal outcomes between medalists and non-medalists. This result can be associated with the lack of specificity of the incremental treadmill testing for canoeing, and future studies are encouraged to propose specific protocols to compare the aerobic power of medalists and non-medalists in international slalom and sprint championships.
... Team handball players must train for muscle mass, strength, power and agility performance, and aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity, and at the same time, thus, concurrent training is essential for high-level performance. However, concurrent training is known to influence the magnitude of strength gains, also known as the "interference phenomenon" (7). The interference phenomenon dictates that it is important to get the balance right between these different aspects of training (7). ...
... However, concurrent training is known to influence the magnitude of strength gains, also known as the "interference phenomenon" (7). The interference phenomenon dictates that it is important to get the balance right between these different aspects of training (7). To minimize the interference training of aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity, this modality was separated as much as possible from strength, speed, and agility training, and if combined in the same session, players were alternating the sequence. ...
Article
Bøgild, P, Jensen, K, and Kvorning, T. Physiological performance characteristics of Danish National Team Handball players 1990-2016: implications on position-specific strength and conditioning training. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-The aims of this study were: (a) to examine the anthropometric and physiological performance characteristics in male and female national team handball (TH) players before and after 2000; and (b) to compare anthropometry and physiological performance characteristics between court playing positions in male and female national TH players. Using a federal database containing physiological test data from 1990 to 2016 of more than 800 national A and U (under 21 years) TH players, data from 175 men and 138 women were extracted by their first appearance for pre- or post-2000 and sorted by playing positions. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Pre- vs. post-2000 male A showed no differences, whereas differences were found in male U, female A, and female U. General position-specific differences for both sexes were wings being lowest, lightest, and having lowest fat-free mass (FFM), pivots having higher body mass and FFM than back-court players, and higher %BF than wings. Back-court players and wings had higher jump and reach (JR) than pivots, and wings were faster on 30 m than pivots. Based on these findings, no general differences seem to exist before and after the year 2000 in the observed physiological parameters. The primary differences between playing positions were anthropometric, whereas the physiological performance characteristics, in general, did not differ between playing positions, except for the pivots' lower JR and the wings' faster 30 m, indicating that earlier documented differences in on-court work demands had not, in general, impacted the players' physiological performance characteristics.
... c Simultaneous increases of noncompatible fitness factors during training for a few weeks or more can inhibit adaptation of one or more factors, including learning new skills (14). For example, simultaneous increases in endurance factors, tends to favor endurance adaptations and can inhibit development of strength associated factors, such as muscle and connective tissue architecture (e.g., pennation angle, fascicle length, etc.) and especially explosive strength (rate of force development [RFD]) and power (7,15,46,64,65,68,93,119,128,170,171). ...
... It should be noted that the problematic effects of noncompatible factors and higher volumes of training, resulting from noncompatible fitness factors, may be compounded by ineffectual methods of training. These less productive methods include resistance training to failure or short interset rest periods that decrease recoverability or adaptation (65,95,96,125,135,161,174,187,190) and promote nonfunctional over-reaching and overtraining (22,72). ...
Article
Periodization can be defined as a logical sequential, phasic method of manipulating fitness and recovery phases to increase the potential for achieving specific performance goals while minimizing the potential for nonfunctional overreaching, overtraining, and injury. Periodization deals with the micromanagement of timelines and fitness phases and is cyclic in nature. On the other hand, programming deals with the micromanagement of the training process and deals with exercise selection, volume, intensity, etc. Evidence indicates that a periodized training process coupled with appropriate programming can produce superior athletic enhancement compared with nonperiodized process. There are 2 models of periodization, traditional and block. Traditional can take different forms (i.e., reverse). Block periodization has 2 subtypes, single goal or factor (individual sports) and multiple goals or factors (team sports). Both models have strengths and weaknesses but can be “tailored” through creative programming to produce excellent results for specific sports.
... Bu nöromüsküler adaptasyonlar artmış kas gücü ve performans artışına sebep olur. Güçlendirme egzersizlerinin kardiyovasküler adaptasyonları dayanıklılık egzersizlerine göre daha az belirgindir (40)(41)(42). Güçlendirme ve dayanıklılık antrenmanlarının kombinasyonu ile sadece güçlendirme antrenmanına göre daha düşük kuvvet ve güç elde edildiği gösterilmiştir. Bu etkiye interferans etkisi adı verilmiştir. ...
... However, to our knowledge, no previous study has analyzed the effect of different VL magnitudes during CT on strength and endurance performance. As inappropriate scheduling of concurrent endurance and strength training has previously been implicated in attenuated strength improvement, 21,22 it appears that the manipulation of training variables such as exercise sequence and residual fatigue is critical to avoid potential interferences in CT settings. Hence, in an attempt to gain greater understanding of the acute responses to exercise sequence and the level of fatigue induced within the RT set during concurrent endurance and strength training, we aimed to analyze the mechanical and physiological response to 4 experimental protocols differing in (1) training sequence and (2) ) volunteered to participate in this study. ...
Article
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Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the response to 4 concurrent training interventions differing in the training sequence and in the velocity loss (VL) threshold during strength training (20% vs 40%) on following endurance and strength performance. Methods: A randomized crossover research design was used. Sixteen trained men performed 4 training interventions consisting of endurance training (ET) followed by resistance training (RT), with 20% and 40% VL, respectively (ET + RT20 and ET + RT40), and RT with 20% and 40% VL, respectively, followed by ET (RT20 + ET and RT40 + ET). The ET consisted of running for 10 minutes at 90% of maximal aerobic velocity. The RT consisted of 3 squat sets with 60% of 1-repetition maximum. A 5-minute rest was given between exercises. The oxygen uptake throughout the ET and repetition velocity during RT were recorded. The blood lactate concentration, vertical jump, and squat velocity were measured at preexercise and after the endurance and strength exercises. Results: The RT40 + ET protocol showed an impaired running time along with higher ventilatory equivalents compared with those protocols that performed the ET without previous fatigue. No significant differences were observed in the repetitions per set performed for a given VL threshold, regardless of the exercise sequence. The protocols consisting of 40%VL induced greater reductions in jump height and squat velocity, along with elevated blood lactate concentration. Conclusions: A high VL magnitude (40%VL) induced higher metabolic and mechanical stress, as well as greater residual fatigue, on the following ET performance.
... It is currently uncertain what volume and intensity of running and ST are most likely to avoid the interference effect associated with concurrent training practices. One option to minimize attenuation of strength development is to organize activities into periods that concentrate on developing either strength or endurance adaptation [223]. This polarized approach to planning seems unnecessary and counterintuitive for distance runners who generally possess little ST experience, therefore require a minimal stimulus to create an adaptation. ...
Article
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Background Middle- and long-distance running performance is constrained by several important aerobic and anaerobic parameters. The efficacy of strength training (ST) for distance runners has received considerable attention in the literature. However, to date, the results of these studies have not been fully synthesized in a review on the topic. Objectives This systematic review aimed to provide a comprehensive critical commentary on the current literature that has examined the effects of ST modalities on the physiological determinants and performance of middle- and long-distance runners, and offer recommendations for best practice. Methods Electronic databases were searched using a variety of key words relating to ST exercise and distance running. This search was supplemented with citation tracking. To be eligible for inclusion, a study was required to meet the following criteria: participants were middle- or long-distance runners with ≥ 6 months experience, a ST intervention (heavy resistance training, explosive resistance training, or plyometric training) lasting ≥ 4 weeks was applied, a running only control group was used, data on one or more physiological variables was reported. Two independent assessors deemed that 24 studies fully met the criteria for inclusion. Methodological rigor was assessed for each study using the PEDro scale. ResultsPEDro scores revealed internal validity of 4, 5, or 6 for the studies reviewed. Running economy (RE) was measured in 20 of the studies and generally showed improvements (2–8%) compared to a control group, although this was not always the case. Time trial (TT) performance (1.5–10 km) and anaerobic speed qualities also tended to improve following ST. Other parameters [maximal oxygen uptake ($$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{2{ \hbox{max} }}}$$), velocity at $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{2{ \hbox{max} }}}$$, blood lactate, body composition] were typically unaffected by ST. Conclusion Whilst there was good evidence that ST improves RE, TT, and sprint performance, this was not a consistent finding across all works that were reviewed. Several important methodological differences and limitations are highlighted, which may explain the discrepancies in findings and should be considered in future investigations in this area. Importantly for the distance runner, measures relating to body composition are not negatively impacted by a ST intervention. The addition of two to three ST sessions per week, which include a variety of ST modalities are likely to provide benefits to the performance of middle- and long-distance runners.
... Specific endurance and strength training can improve the corresponding capacity. Studies have shown that anaerobic and anaerobic training could lead to adaptions in the cardiovascular system (such as cardiac output and stroke volume), muscular system (such as muscle fiber size mitochondrial density), and peripheral nervous system (such as motor units recruitment) (Garcia-Pallares and Izquierdo, 2011;Piacentini et al., 2013). However, only a few preliminary research explored the correction between exercise intensity and the activity of the central nervous system. ...
Article
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This study investigated the differences in morphometry and functional plasticity characteristics of the brain after long-term training of different intensities. Results showed that an aerobic group demonstrated higher gray matter volume in the cerebellum and temporal lobe, while an anaerobic group demonstrated higher gray matter volume in the region of basal ganglia. In addition, the aerobic group also showed significantly higher fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and degree centrality (DC) in the motor area of the frontal lobe and parietal lobe, and the frontal gyrus, respectively. At the same time, the anaerobic group demonstrated higher fALFF and DC in the cerebellum posterior lobe (family-wise error corrected, p < 0.01). These findings may further prove that different brain activation modes respond to different intensities of physical activity and may help to reveal the neural mechanisms that can classify athletes from different intensity sports.
... Tanto para o caso de melhoria da qualidade de vida quanto para o caso de aumento do rendimento de atletas durante a fase de treinamento, é importante saber manipular os parâmetros de treino para que se obtenha o resultado esperado nas competições. A velocidade de movimento utilizado nos treinos tem um papel importante nos resultados agudos e crônicos da força muscular, na potência e na hipertrofia, podendo ser manipulados para obter melhoras no desempenho atlético e mobilidade [1][2][3][4]. ...
... During Olympic rowing and canoeing activities, athletes stay under a load for 30 seconds to 8 minutes. For this reason, kayakers need maximum strength and muscle power with high maximal aerobic and anaerobic capacity [13]. Hence, a high level of phosphogen production is required at the beginning of the canoe race and the energy metabolism of the anaerobic glycolysis system towards the end [14]. ...
Article
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Background: ‪The aim of the study was to evaluate response of cardiovascular, metabolic and oxygen consumption kinetics at kayak paddling exercise in the normoxic and normobaric environment. Material and methods: Seven kayakers (age: 16±1.2 year; height: 165±8.3cm; body weight: 53±8kg; fat percentage: 17±4.4%;VO2max: 34.57±9.24 ml.kg-1.dk-1; Maximal La: 8.72±2.75 mM) with four years’ experience participated in the study. All subjects performed incremental maximal and sub-threshold constant load kayak paddling tests in normoxic and normobaric hypoxic conditions on different days. According to maximal tests results, the individual anaerobic threshold and VO2max values were determined. Results: VO2max, HRmax, peak power and maximal lactate values demonstrated statistical significant differences between the normobaric hypoxia and normoxic environment. The response of VO2max was found higher in the normoxic than the normobaric environment. Oxygen uptake kinetic was statistically (p<0.05) faster, and O2 values were lower (p<0.05) in the normoxic than the normobaric environment. Recovery kinetics was found to be statistically faster (p<0.05) in the hypoxia than in the normoxia environment. Conclusions: ‪The ATP supply in an anaerobic way was higher in the normoxic environment than in the normobaric environment, and lactate tolerance increased. Having faster oxygen uptake kinetics in the normoxic environment shows that the volume of oxygen deficit is lower. Faster recovery kinetics in normobaric hypoxia shows the positive effects of altitude on recovery.
... It has been suggested that the primary interference of endurance training on the enhancement of strength qualities occurs when peripheral metabolic functions (i.e., capillary density, oxidative enzymatic activity, mitochondria biogenesis) are targeted alongside the development of hypertrophy [60]. As these metabolic adaptations are characteristic of sprint interval training, there is a potential conflict between the development of hypertrophy alongside intense conditioning; however, this potential negative interaction can be alleviated by scheduling conditioning and strength training on separate days with up to 36 h between sessions (for example, Monday morning early strength training and Tuesday evening conditioning). ...
Article
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Combat sports have been practiced for millennia and today are predominant sports at the Olympic games, with international organizations that host world, continental and national championships at amateur standard. There are also an increasing number of professional combat sports with global audiences. The growing popularity of professional combat sports and their importance at the Olympic games have led to an increase in scientific studies that characterize the physical, physiological, nutritional, biomechanical and training strategies of combat sports athletes. These studies characterize combat sports as high-intensity sports which require training strategies to develop the high-intensity capabilities of athletes. Therefore, the aim of this article is to (i) summarize the physiological demands of combat sports; (ii) present the primary considerations required to program high-intensity conditioning for athletes; (iii) define and present key high-intensity conditioning methods; and (iv) provide guidance for scientists and coaches to help prepare athletes under common but differing circumstances.
... Concurrent training has been found to be inefficient in some studies, as the endurance training interferes with the hypertrophy development [1,2]. Others have found it useful [3,4]. Baar [5] recommends both nutritional strategies and temporal adjustments to the training scheme to make a successful concurrent training. ...
Article
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Background Concurrent training has gained popularity as a health-promoting activity. The focus of this study was to investigate the feasibility of tyre-pulling as a strength and endurance training exercise. Methods Thirty-four volunteered participants accepted to comply with an 8-week training program, and were by drawing lots divided into three groups: long-distance training, high-intensity interval training and control groups. The long-distance group exercised 60 min at 75–85% of HRmax three times a week. The high-intensity interval group also exercised three times a week with 10 intervals of 20 s and a rest of 10 s in an all-out intensity. The control group continued their ordinary activities. A test battery, measuring arm and leg strength, core strength, and endurance, were taken at the beginning and after 8 weeks. Anthropometric measurements and spirometry test were performed likewise. Results The high-intensity group had increased maximal oxygen uptake by 2.6 (2.2) mL kg⁻¹ min⁻¹. The number of repetitions in arm strength increased with 4.2 (3.5), for leg strength, the increase was 7.9 (9.2) repetitions. Leg strength increased in the long-distance group with 13.6 (14.7) repetitions and core strength increased with 30.3 (34.0), p ≤ 0.05. No significant changes were observed in the control group. Conclusions Tyre-pulling is feasible for training endurance and strength at both low and high intensities.
... Coaches should also be aware that sequencing ET and ST within CT affects performance outcomes in young (postpubertal) adolescent athletes. Adhering to previous recommendations could help minimize interference effects (García-Pallarés and Izquierdo, 2011;Baar, 2014;Murlasits et al., 2017). The ST→ET sequence may produce the best results in adolescent athletes but the order does not seem to differentially affect training adaptations in children. ...
Article
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Combining training of muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness within a training cycle could increase athletic performance more than single-mode training. However, the physiological effects produced by each training modality could also interfere with each other, improving athletic performance less than single-mode training. Because anthropometric, physiological, and biomechanical differences between young and adult athletes can affect the responses to exercise training, young athletes might respond differently to concurrent training (CT) compared with adults. Thus, the aim of the present systematic review with meta-analysis was to determine the effects of concurrent strength and endurance training on selected physical fitness components and athletic performance in youth. A systematic literature search of PubMed and Web of Science identified 886 records. The studies included in the analyses examined children (girls age 6–11 years, boys age 6–13 years) or adolescents (girls age 12–18 years, boys age 14–18 years), compared CT with single-mode endurance (ET) or strength training (ST), and reported at least one strength/power—(e.g., jump height), endurance—(e.g., peak V°O2, exercise economy), or performance-related (e.g., time trial) outcome. We calculated weighted standardized mean differences (SMDs). CT compared to ET produced small effects in favor of CT on athletic performance (n = 11 studies, SMD = 0.41, p = 0.04) and trivial effects on cardiorespiratory endurance (n = 4 studies, SMD = 0.04, p = 0.86) and exercise economy (n = 5 studies, SMD = 0.16, p = 0.49) in young athletes. A sub-analysis of chronological age revealed a trend toward larger effects of CT vs. ET on athletic performance in adolescents (SMD = 0.52) compared with children (SMD = 0.17). CT compared with ST had small effects in favor of CT on muscle power (n = 4 studies, SMD = 0.23, p = 0.04). In conclusion, CT is more effective than single-mode ET or ST in improving selected measures of physical fitness and athletic performance in youth. Specifically, CT compared with ET improved athletic performance in children and particularly adolescents. Finally, CT was more effective than ST in improving muscle power in youth.
... Next, plyometric training at a lower intensity or without some progressive overloads appears to be a less effective strategy than moderately high and progressive training, respectively. The training loads in the PLYO and CON groups were both maintained, so the stimulus for adaptation was potentially reduced and/or an interference effect occurred, due to concurrent endurance training (Davitt et al., 2014;García-Pallarés and Izquierdo, 2011). Some authors have reported that, for optimising maximal strength enhancement, the combination of training modalities (i.e., plyometrics and highintensity resistance training) is needed (De Villarreal et al., 2010). ...
Article
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of plyometric and jump training on physical performance in young male handball players. Twenty-six young male handball players were divided into two sub-groups to perform a five-week pre-season training programme supplemented with two ground-reactive protocols with an equal number of jumping exercises referred as to ground contacts: plyometric training (PLY; n = 14) and standard jump training (CON; n = 12). Before and after training, repeated sprint ability (RSA), jumping ability (JA), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and aerobic power at the anaerobic threshold (PAT) were measured. A two-factor analysis revealed significant time effects with improvements in fat mass (p = 0.012), maximal power during the incremental cycling test (p = 0.001) and PAT (p < 0.001), power decline (PDEC) and maximal power (Pmax) in the 5th repetition (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). The training-induced changes in absolute and relative peak power in the RSA test and absolute VO2max approached significance (p = 0.06, p = 0.053 and p = 0.06). No intervention time × exercise protocol effects were observed for any indices of JA, RSA and aerobic capacity. A five-week pre-season conditioning programme supplemented with only 15 sessions of plyometric exercise did not induce any additional benefits, compared to a matched format of standard jump training, in terms of improving jumping performance and maximal power in the RSA test. Aerobic capacity and the fatigue index in RSA were maintained under these two training conditions. Key words: plyometrics, jumping, youth, repeated sprint ability, team sport.
... These findings suggest that running describes a great relative external workload associated with the VT 1 response. Therefore, smaller errors in detecting ventilatory thresholds may have a greater negative impact on the running performance compared to other disciplines like cycling, for instance, misguided training prescription, undesirable physical adaptations, and a greater probability of the appearance of the interference phenomenon during concurrent training (García- Pallarés and Izquierdo, 2011). In turn, there is no clear agreement about which LT better reflects VT 2 intensities. ...
Article
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The aims of this study were (1) to establish the best fit between ventilatory and lactate exercise performance parameters in running and (2) to explore novel alternatives to estimate the maximal aerobic speed (MAS) in well-trained runners. Twenty-two trained male athletes ( V ˙ O2max 60.2 ± 4.3 ml·kg·min-1) completed three maximal graded exercise tests (GXT): (1) a preliminary GXT to determine individuals' MAS; (2) two experimental GXT individually adjusted by MAS to record the speed associated to the main aerobic-anaerobic transition events measured by indirect calorimetry and capillary blood lactate (CBL). Athletes also performed several 30 min constant running tests to determine the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). Reliability analysis revealed low CV (<3.1%), low bias (<0.5 km·h-1), and high correlation (ICC > 0.91) for all determinations except V-Slope (ICC = 0.84). Validity analysis showed that LT, LT+1.0, and LT+3.0 mMol·L-1 were solid predictors of VT1 (-0.3 km·h-1; bias = 1.2; ICC = 0.90; p = 0.57), MLSS (-0.2 km·h-1; bias = 1.2; ICC = 0.84; p = 0.74), and VT2 (<0.1 km·h-1; bias = 1.3; ICC = 0.82; p = 0.9l9), respectively. MLSS was identified as a different physiological event and a midpoint between VT1 (bias = -2.0 km·h-1) and VT2 (bias = 2.3 km·h-1). MAS was accurately estimated (SEM ± 0.3 km·h-1) from peak velocity (Vpeak) attained during GXT with the equation: MASEST (km·h-1) = Vpeak (km·h-1) * 0.8348 + 2.308. Current individualized GXT protocol based on individuals' MAS was solid to determine both maximal and submaximal physiological parameters. Lactate threshold tests can be a valid and reliable alternative to VT and MLSS to identify the workloads at the transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism in well-trained runners. In contrast with traditional assumption, the MLSS constituted a midpoint physiological event between VT1 and VT2 in runners. The Vpeak stands out as a powerful predictor of MAS.
... En esta y otras disciplinas deportivas donde se ha aplicado en el entrenamiento combinado o concurrente de fuerza muscular y resistencia cardiorrespiratoria durante periodos comprendidos entre 6 y 47 semanas sí se han detectado beneficios del rendimiento específico del deportista. Algunos de los mecanismos que parecen ser los responsables de estas mejoras son: 1) el aumento de la fuerza muscular parece mejorar la eficiencia mecánica, la coordinación muscular y los patrones de reclutamiento motor; 2) un aumento global de la fuerza puede facilitar cambios y correcciones en el modelo técnico y biomecánico de competición; y 3) el aumento de la fuerza muscular y la coordinación puede reducir la intensidad relativa que cada ciclo de esfuerzo supone para el deportista y, por lo tanto, ser así más resistente en el tiempo y poder vencer la resistencia a mayor velocidad ( García-Pallarés & Izquierdo, 2011;Hoff, Gran & Helgerud, 2002). ...
Article
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... Estudios llevados a cabo con palistas de alto nivel, sugieren que fases de entrenamiento cortas, entorno a las 5 semanas, usando altas cargas enfocadas a la mejora de un objetivo (> 50% de volumen total de entrenamiento), y enfocándose en el desarrollo de dos objetivos por fase (uno para fuerza y otro para resistencia) suponen un estímulo más efectivo para la mejora del rendimiento en atletas altamente entrenados, comparado con el enfoque tradicional (García-Pallarés & Izquierdo, 2011).Volumen, frecuencia y fallo muscularLa mayoría de los estudios han encontrado efectos negativos para el entrenamiento de fuerza cuando la frecuencia de esté era mayor a 3 días a la semana dentro de un entrenamiento concurrente(García-Pallarés & Izquierdo, 2011). Por lo que en todas las fases el número de sesiones de entrenamiento con resistencias será como máximo 3 a la semana. ...
Preprint
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El objetivo de este trabajo de fin de grado es el de aportar una propuesta de planificación anual para un remero de categoría máster. Para ello, se han analizado los requerimientos fisiológicos del deporte, los factores fisiológicos que determinan el rendimiento y cómo estos factores se ven afectados con el paso de los años. La propuesta de entrenamiento trata de contrarrestar los efectos negativos del envejecimiento para disminuir, en la medida de lo posible, la caíga en el rendimiento, a la vez que se intenta evitar el fenómeno de interferencia.
... Next, plyometric training at a lower intensity or without some progressive overloads appears to be a less effective strategy than moderately high and progressive training, respectively. The training loads in the PLYO and CON groups were both maintained, so the stimulus for adaptation was potentially reduced and/or an interference effect occurred, due to concurrent endurance training (Davitt et al., 2014;García-Pallarés and Izquierdo, 2011). Some authors have reported that, for optimising maximal strength enhancement, the combination of training modalities (i.e., plyometrics and highintensity resistance training) is needed (De Villarreal et al., 2010). ...
Data
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... Using a conjugated block periodisation model (6,7,8), the 8-week training programme for both groups was divided into two phases. Phase one focused upon development of muscular hypertrophy and/or aerobic capacity; whilst, phase two focused upon the development of maximal strength and/or anaerobic threshold. ...
... Previous work has indicated that the relief period between strength and aerobic training (even when strength is conducted prior to aerobic training) can influence both acute and chronic strength performance and adaptations (Docherty and Sporer, 2000;Sporer and Wenger, 2003;Robineau et al., 2016). Previous work has indicated that strength and aerobic stimuli should be separated by ≥6 h if impairments in strength development are to be avoided (García-Pallarés and Izquierdo, 2011;Robineau et al., 2016). This suggestion is supported by recent work indicating that combined strength and continuous and intermittent rowing conducted with a 4-h relief period resulted in maintenance of muscle characteristics during 70 days of bed rest (Murach et al., 2018). ...
Article
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The physiological challenges presented by space flight and in microgravity (μG) environments are well documented. μG environments can result in declines muscle mass, contractile strength, and functional capabilities. Previous work has focused on exercise countermeasures designed to attenuate the negative effects of μG on skeletal muscle structure, function, and contractile strength and aerobic fitness parameters. Exposure to μG environments influences both strength and aerobic type physical qualities. As such, the current exercise recommendations for those experiencing μG involve a combination of strength and aerobic training or “concurrent training.” Concurrent training strategies can result in development and maintenance of both strength and aerobic capabilities. However, terrestrial research has indicated that if concurrent training strategies are implemented inappropriately, strength development can be inhibited. Previous work has also demonstrated that the aforementioned inhibition of strength development is dependent on the frequency of aerobic training, modality of aerobic training, the relief period between strength and aerobic training, and the intra-session sequencing of strength and aerobic training. While time constraints and feasibility are important considerations for exercise strategies in μG, certain considerations could be made when prescribing concurrent strength and aerobic training to those experiencing human space flight. If strength and aerobic exercise must be performed in close proximity, strength should precede aerobic stimulus. Eccentric strength training methods should be considered to increase mechanical load and reduce metabolic cost. For aerobic capacity, maintenance cycle and/or rowing-based high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) should be considered and cycle ergometry and/or rowing may be preferable to treadmill running.
... have shown that CT affects the development of muscle strength and power (i. e., interference effect) [3][4][5][6][7], others have indicated that CT has no inhibitory effect on strength and aerobic development compared to strength training alone [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. The interference between strength and aerobic training can be explained by the training pro-Sousa AC et al. ...
Article
Concurrent resistance and aerobic training(CT) has been applied to optimize both strength and aerobic performance. However, it should be carefully prescribed, as there are some factors, such as the training intensity, which have strong influence on training adaptations. Thus, we conducted a systematic review to analyze the scientific evidence regarding aerobic and resistance exercise intensities during CT and their effect on performance outcomes. The effects of exercise intensity on a subsequent detraining period were also assessed. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, the risk of bias was assessed, and the percentage of changes and effect sizes were quantified. CT improved running times (10m, 30m and 10km) and strength performance (one-repetition maximum and countermovement jump) regardless of exercise intensity used (4%-47%, ES=0.4-2.8). Nevertheless, higher aerobic training intensities (≥lactate threshold intensity) resulted in higher aerobic gains (5%-10%, ES=0.3-0.6), and greater neuromuscular adaptations were found when higher resistance loads (≥70% of maximal strength) were used (10-14%, ES=0.4-1.3). Most of the training-induced gains were reversed after 2-4 weeks of detraining. Although further research is needed, it seems that higher intensities of aerobic or resistance training induce greater aerobic or neuromuscular gains, respectively. Nevertheless, it seems that higher resistance training loads should be combined with lower aerobic training intensities for increased strength gains and minimal losses after detraining.
... En general, se recomienda comenzar con unos volúmenes de 8-10 repeticiones por serie realizadas sobre un peso que se pueda movilizar unas 20 veces (20RM) o más, y no pasar de 4-6 repeticiones por serie realizadas sobre 15RM [189]. En este sentido, parece que no es necesario llegar hasta el agotamiento o la fatiga, tal y como se ha venido recomendando desde algunas instituciones en los últimos años. ...
... 2 As such, monitoring body composition, training and performance are commonly implemented with high performance swimmers to determine if positive adaptations have taken place in response to the training stimuli imposed. 3 Majority of the longitudinal research in the swimming literature has focused on tracking long term body composition changes and physiological variables such as blood lactate levels, biomechanical parameters such as stroke length and stroke rate, and how changes in these parameters contributes to overall swimming performance. [4][5][6][7] For example, while the optimal body composition for performance is likely to vary between individuals, previous research tracking the seasonal and long-term changes in body composition have shown increases in lean mass and reductions in fat mass to be associated with significant improvements in swimming performance in elite and collegiate swimmers. ...
Article
This study aimed to (1) track changes in body composition, lower body force-time characteristics, and swim start performance over a competitive season, and (2) investigate the intra-individual associations between changes in body composition and lower body force-time characteristics to swim start performance in five high performance swimmers (three males, two females). Over a ∼12-month period, body composition, lower body force-time characteristics and swim start performance were assessed at three time points via DXA scan, squat jump and swim start performance test (start times to 5 and 15 m and several kinematic and kinetic outputs). Throughout a competitive season of concurrent swimming and dry-land resistance training, improvements in lower body lean mass and squat jump force-time characteristics were observed. However, changes in start times varied between athletes. Total body and lower body lean mass both displayed large negative correlations with the time spent in the entry and propulsive underwater phases ( r = –0.57 to –0.66), along with a large positive correlations with glide time ( r = 0.56–0.53). Additionally, lower body lean mass exhibited large to very large positive correlations with the flight phase ( r = 0.70–0.73). Overall, these findings provide some insight into the potential magnitude of change in body composition, lower body force-time characteristics and swim start performance in high performance swimmers within a season. The large to very large correlations between increased lower body lean mass and SJ force-time metrics to improvements in aspects of start performance may provide useful information to coaches and sports scientists.
... O volume de treinos dos remadores é elevado 33 , com cerca de três horas por dia em duas sessões diárias, fazendo com que em alguns casos não seja possível intervalo acima de 8 horas entre treino específico e estímulo com pesos 6 . Considerando que a fadiga residual do treinamento de resistência específico pode prejudicar o rendimento do desenvolvimento de força subsequente 34 , a literatura tem sugerido que, ao seguir a lógica concorrente, o treino de força deva preceder o específico ou ser realizado, pelo menos, 8 horas após o treino específico 34 . ...
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Atualmente, não existem referenciais publicados no Brasil sobre o contexto real de treinamento para futuras prescrições e conduções de pesquisas com intervenções no remo. Por isso, o presente estudo objetivou mostrar a prescrição e o controle do treino de equipes de diferentes países participantes da 2014 World Rowing Coaches Conference. Para isso, dezoito sujeitos (oito brasileiros, dois australianos, dois suecos, um húngaro, um neozelandês, um italiano, um chinês, um peruano e um dinamarquês), responderam um questionário aplicado. Em água, as prescrições mostram prevalência de 56% até 67% de treinos contínuos em baixa/moderada intensidade (≤4mmol.L-1), sem diferença estatística entre as nacionalidades (χ2=0,57 p=0,44). As prescrições de treinamento com pesos mostraram uma frequência semanal de três sessões em 95% dos casos, com mais de 60 min de duração. Dentre os exercícios considerados mais importantes nas prescrições, destacam-se: i) agachamento, ii) remada em decúbito ventral, iii) levantamentos olímpicos, iv) supino e vi) levantamento terra. Esses dados fornecem importantes referenciais para futuras pesquisas e para aplicações práticas na prescrição de treinos contextualizados e específicos para o remo.
... Accurate quantification of high-intensity interval training is important, since this type of training is commonly integrated into the programmes of sprint kayak athletes (Paquette et al., 2019), and has been shown to provide an effective stimulus for improving race performance (Yang et al., 2017). Moreover, given that sprint kayak athletes need to develop both aerobic and anaerobic capacities concurrently (García-Pallarés & Izquierdo, 2011), the high musculoskeletal strain and large neuromuscular fatigue associated with high-intensity training needs to be Table III. Mean (± SD) time-in-zone (min) for the high-intensity Interval (HIIT) and sprint interval (SIT) on-water sprint kayak training sessions. ...
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This study examined the utility of novel measures of power output (PO) compared to traditional measures of heart rate (HR) and stroke rate (SR) for quantifying high-intensity sprint kayak training. Twelve well-trained, male and female sprint kayakers (21.3 ± 6.8 y) completed an on-water graded exercise test (GXT) and a 200-, 500- and 1000-m time-trial for the delineation of individualised training zones (T) for HR (5-zone model, T1-T5), SR and PO (8-zone model, T1-T8). Subsequently, athletes completed two repeat trials of a high-intensity interval (HIIT) and a sprint interval (SIT) training session, where intensity was prescribed using individualised PO-zones. Time-in-zone (minutes) using PO, SR and HR was then compared for both HIIT and SIT. Compared to PO, time-in-zone using HR was higher for T1 in HIIT and SIT (P < 0.001, d ≥ 0.90) and lower for T5 in HIIT (P < 0.001, d = 1.76). Average and peak HR were not different between HIIT (160 ± 9 and 173 ± 11 bpm, respectively) and SIT (157 ± 13 and 174 ± 10 bpm, respectively) (P ≥ 0.274). In HIIT, time-in-zone using SR was higher for T4 (P < 0.001, d = 0.85) and was lower for T5 (P = 0.005, d = 0.43) and T6 (P < 0.001, d = 0.94) compared to PO. In SIT, time-in-zone using SR was lower for T7 (P = 0.001, d = 0.66) and was higher for T8 (P = 0.004, d = 0.70), compared to PO. Heart rate measures were unable to differentiate training demands across different high-intensity sessions, and could therefore misrepresent the training load in such instances. Furthermore, SR may not provide a sensitive measure for detecting changes in intensity due to fatigue, whereas PO may be more suitable.
... Previous studies have suggested that the varying modalities, intensities, frequencies, volumes and sequence of training, and between-mode recovery, may play roles in mediating the interference effect [3]. Although the responses of each variable to such programs remain controversial, several studies indicate that the degree of interference can be minimized or avoided, such as performing endurance training first and having short recovery periods (less than 3-8 hours) [9,10]. These training variables may allow adequate recovery to improve the subsequent training adaptation. ...
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Objective: Military populations require a range of physical capabilities to meet the demands of the military profession. It is not known whether a specific within-session balance of the core components of physical fitness provides more effective training adaptations. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of combinations of high-intensity endurance training, resistance training, anaerobic training and plyometric training. Methods: Twenty-eight healthy young cadets participated in an 8-week training program. Training was performed 6 days per week. Testing occurred before and after the 8-week training regimen. The pre- and post-training measures included the basic physiological and performance levels. Results: Physiological indices, such heart rate, heart rate variability, anaerobic power and maximal oxygen uptake, responded positively to training (P < 0.05). The components of physical fitness, such as muscle maximal strength and endurance, 600 all-out effort, 5000-m run time and 18-km military load carriage, were also significantly improved (P > 0.05). However, the jump capacity did not significantly increase. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that during short-term integrative training, the lower-limb muscle maximal power did not improve. Given that many military tasks demand explosive (power) abilities, a switch to integrative training may have far greater consequences for transferring the benefits of the training program to military human performance.
... earlier studies have shown the effectiveness of specific conditioning methods, as endurance training (Wong and Harber 2006), strength training (Hendrickson et al. 2010, Kay andFiatarone Singh 2006), and more recently concurrent training (Alves et al. 2016a(Alves et al. , b, 2017 to improve body composition and physical fitness levels in childhood. In fact, abovementioned studies revolutionized and contradicted the initial ideas concerning to the effects of conditioning methods, as strength training could lead to injuries and influence the natural child growth (Faigenbaum et al. 1996), or even concurrent training may affect the development of muscle strength and/or power in young or elderly (García-Pallarés andIzquierdo 2011, Izquierdo-Gabarren et al. 2010). ...
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Introduction: The aim of the study was to compare the effects of ten-week multicomponent training with different exercise frequencies on body composition (BC) and physical fitness (PF) in overweight and obese young children. Methods: 40 children, aged 12-15 (14.77±1.49), were randomly selected and assigned to experimental groups to train three times/week (EG1) or two times/week (EG2) for 10 weeks and a CG group (no training program). Results: It was shown that experimental groups (EG1 and EG2) improved similarly aerobic capacity (3.8% and 3.5%, respectively), muscular strength (29.7% and 25.2%), flexibility (6.1% and 9.9%), body mass index (5.0% and 4.6%), and body fat (6.4% and 5.6%) from pre- to post-training. CG group showed no significant improvements on BC and PF variables. Conclusion: Short-term multicomponent training seems to be effective on PF improvements, independently of the exercise frequency, in overweight and obese young children. However, it seems to be more effective to perform a multicomponent exercise training three times/week to improve muscular strength, body mass index, and decrease body fat percentage. This knowledge should be considered by professionals in physical education or youth sport in order to adapt practical tasks depending on the training purposes.
... Resistance training (RT) is a key component within most athletes' training routines (Parsons, 2010;García-Pallarés and Izquierdo, 2011) and if carried out at appropriate frequency and duration, RT increases muscular mass and strength . Furthermore, strength gains attained from appropriate strength training often transfer to improved sporting performance measures such as jump height (Fitzpatrick et al., 2019) and sprint performance (Harries et al., 2018). ...
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Measurement of muscle specific contractile properties in response to resistance training (RT) can provide practitioners valuable information regarding physiological status of individuals. Field based measurements of such contractile properties within specific muscle groups, could be beneficial when monitoring efficacy of training or rehabilitation interventions. Tensiomyography (TMG) quantifies contractile properties of individual muscles via an electrically stimulated twitch contraction and may serve as a viable option in the aforementioned applications. Thus, aims of this study were; (i) to investigate the potential use of TMG to quantify training adaptations and differences, in response to exercise specific lower limb RT; and (ii) investigate any associations between TMG parameters and accompanying muscle architectural measures. Non-resistance trained male participants (n = 33) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 single-exercise intervention groups (n = 11 per group); back squat (BS), deadlift (DL), or hip thrust (HT). Participants completed a 6-week linearized training program (2× per week), where the assigned exercise was the sole method of lower body training. Pre- and post-intervention testing of maximal dynamic strength was assessed by one repetition maximum (1RM) of BS, DL, and HT. Radial muscle belly displacement (Dm) and contraction time (Tc) were obtained via TMG from the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) pre- and post-intervention, alongside muscle architectural measures (pennation angle and muscle thickness). All three groups displayed significant increases all 1RM strength tests (p < 0.001; pη2 = 0.677–0.753). Strength increases were accompanied by significant overall increases in RF muscle thickness (p < 0.001, pη2 = 0.969), and pennation angle (p = 0.007, pη2 = 0.220). Additionally, an overall reduction in RF Dm (p < 0.001, pη2 = 0.427) was observed. Significant negative relationships were observed between RF Dm and pennation angle (p = 0.003, r = −0.36), and with RF Dm and muscle thickness (p < 0.001, r = −0.50). These findings indicate that TMG is able to detect improved contractile properties, alongside improvements in muscle function within an untrained population. Furthermore, the observed associations between Dm and muscle architecture suggest that TMG contractile property assessments could be used to obtain information on muscle geometry.
... strategies, based on research, to avoid or minimize any interference effect when training to optimize performance in these endurance sports [23]. The created model of validity based on the strength preparation of kayak rowers performed competition on the short distances (200, 500 m). ...
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Background and Study Aim. The paper is dedicated to the problem of the strength testing and training using the ergometer rowing performance in the flat water kayak sport. The aim of the research was to create a model of validity based on the relationship between the ergometer and on-water performance competition rowing. Material and Methods. Nineteen 15-17 years old male kayak rowers during the off-season were randomly divided into two groups. An experimental group trained according the same program as the control group, but two times a week a part of the common strength training exercises was substituted with a high-intensity strength training using the ergometer rowing. A whole amount of strength loading on all the rowers of the two groups was equal. Validity of testing and training of the ergometer rowing in the kayak sport was evaluated using interclass correlation between competition performance on 500 m on-water kayak and ergometer rowing. Results. Strong significant correlation is revealed between competition performance of on-water kayak and ergometer rowing before and after the off-season (| r | = 0.892, 0.902, p <0.001), that shows rather good validity. Other result of the correlation analysis shows good prognostic ability of the ergometer performance regarding competition performance of on-water kayaking (| r | = 0.913). Conclusions. The proposed model based on the relationship between the ergometer and on-water performance competition rowing shows rather good validity of the strength testing and training in the on-water kayak sport.
... running, rowing and canoeing), concurrent training is a common practice due to its positive effect on uni-directional performance development. 55,56 In endurance sports, the benefit of implementing additional strength training has been confirmed in various studies. 55,57,58 Therefore, concurrent training is superior to endurance-only training with better effects after combining endurance and strength training than strength and endurance training and bears no interference effects on endurance performance. ...
Article
Background: Concurrent strength and endurance training could interfere with adaptation, which primarily affects long-term strength development. However, so far, research on this theme has rarely focused on ways to optimize concurrent strength and endurance training in team sports. Objectives: This paper aims to summarize the literature on the effects of concurrent training on aerobic and anaerobic energy pathways as well as strength and jump performance measures in team sports (invasion games) to provide recommendations for its application. Methods: A systematic literature review according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted. Various reliable sources with only experimental studies investigating the effect of concurrent training on sport-specific performance measures in team sports (invasion games) were included. Two researchers independently evaluated the risk of bias with the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Results: From 1649 records, 24 were included: 12 in children/adolescents ( n = 428; aged up to 18 years) and 12 in adults ( n = 620; aged 19–30 years), respectively. Thirteen of 24 studies reported improved endurance (V˙O 2max , YoYoIR) and strength (CMJ, SJ and 1RM) performance by adding additional resistance training in young and adult team sport players with different training status, and nine of 24 studies reported more pronounced interference effects in older and more experienced players. Discussion: Concurrent training can improve endurance and strength performance in team sports athletes. However, it is revealed that concurrent training can lead to diminished effects, which might be minimized by extended recovery time between sessions, adapted sequencing order and endurance exercise modality. With maturity and developing training status, an increased importance of these variables was documented.
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Combined training (CT) may combine strength and endurance training within a given time period, but it can also encompass additional protocols consisting of velocity, balance, or mobility as part of the same intervention. These combined approaches have become more common in soccer. This systematic review was conducted to (1) characterize the training protocols used in CT studies in soccer, (2) summarize the main physiological and physical effects of CT on soccer players, and (3) provide future directions for research. Methods: A systematic review of Cochrane Library, PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The PICOS were defined as follows: P (soccer players of any age or sex); I (CT combining strength and endurance or sprinting or balance or mobility training); C (the control group (whenever applicable), with or without comparative interventions in addition to usual soccer training); O (acute and/or chronic responses: biochemical, physiological and physical); S (must have at least two groups, either randomized or non-randomized). The database search initially identified 79 titles. From those, eight articles were deemed eligible for the systematic review. Three studies analyzed acute responses to concurrent training, while the remaining five analyzed adaptations to CT. In those tested for acute responses, physiological (hormonal) and physical (strength and power external load, internal load) parameters were observed. Adaptations were mainly focused on physical parameters (strength and power, sprints, jumps, repeated sprint ability, aerobic, change-of-direction), with relatively little focus on physiological parameters (muscle architecture). Short-term responses to CT can affect hormonal responses of testosterone after resistance training with internal and external load. In turn, these responses’ effects on strength and power have produced mixed results, as have adaptations. Specifically, strength and hypertrophy are affected to a lesser extent than speed/power movements. Nevertheless, it is preferable to perform CT before endurance exercises since it is a limiting factor for interference. Volume, intensity, rest between sessions, and athletes’ fitness levels and nutrition dictate the degree of interference.
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In Ausdauersportarten muss eine muskuläre Leistung über wiederholte Muskelaktionen erbracht werden. Eine Steigerung der Leistung ist deshalb sowohl über verbesserte energetische als auch neuromuskuläre Voraussetzungen möglich. Letzteres kann über ein grundlegendes oder spezifisches Krafttraining (z. B. Fahrten mit erhöhtem Bootswiderstand) verbessert werden. Im Gegensatz zum spezifischen Krafttraining war der Nutzen eines grundlegenden Krafttrainings zur Steigerung der ausdauerorientierten muskulären Leistung in Ausdauersportarten lange Zeit unklar. Wird Ausdauertraining mit einem grundlegenden Krafttraining kombiniert, ist oftmals trotz gleichem Ausdauertrainingseffekt im Vergleich zum isolierten Training der Krafttrainingseffekt reduziert . Trotz dieser Interferenz kann ein grundlegendes Krafttraining auch bei Eliteathleten die komplexe Ausdauerleistung steigern . Die positive Wirkung ist dabei weniger auf eine Muskelhypertrophie, sondern auf Veränderungen der Faserstruktur, des Muskel-Sehnen-Komplexes sowie der neuromuskulären Ansteuerung zurückzuführen. Dadurch verbessert sich die Bewegungsökonomie, die maximale Leistung, der Kraftanstieg oder auch der anaerobe Energiestoffwechsel und infolgedessen die komplexe Ausdauerleistung . Allerdings sind auch negative Auswirkungen eines grundlegenden Krafttrainings bekannt. Es stellt sich also weniger die Frage, ob ein grundlegendes Krafttraining für Ausdauerathleten sinnvoll ist. Entscheidend für den positiven Effekt ist das „Wie?“.
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Currently, velocity-based training (VBT) is one of the hot topics in sport science and among strength and conditioning coaches. However, its wide use has spread some misunderstandings of the fundamental concepts of this methodology. It should be highlighted that this is not a new training method, but rather, a new approach that enables more accurate, frequent, and objective control of resistance training intensity and volume. The VBT approach is no other thing than recording lifting velocity every repetition during resistance training. The quantification of actual repetition velocities achieved during resistance training sessions provides a more consistent and precise understanding of training effects, opening up the possibility to establish causal relationships between stimuli and response, which is one of the main and most important targets of research and practice in sport science. As such, VBT can be defined as a resistance training method that uses movement velocity to improve training process and enhance training effects, via a deeper understanding of the input signal (actual training load) and the output signal (changes in performance). Through this chapter we will see how VBT contributes to improve the resistance training methodology, as well as discuss its potential benefits, limitations, and practical implications.
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Modern military operations place unique and intense physiological and psychological demands upon the soldier. In order to help adapt to and cope with such demands, a high level of physical preparedness must be seen as a fundamental requirement of all military personnel. Indeed, the modern soldier needs to be more agile, more capable, more able to survive and more resilient than the enemy in order to ensure victory on the battlefield. Soldiers who are physically fit can be seen as a critical force multiplier. Not only do they demonstrate improved mission performance, but they may also be more resilient for both the physical and psychological demands of sustained military operations. Furthermore, physically fit soldiers may be less susceptible to injury and demonstrate better physical and mental health over the long term than less fit individuals.
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Haraldsdottir, K, Sanfilippo, J, Dawes, S, and Watson, A. Contribution of lean mass distribution on aerobic fitness and performance in NCAA division I female rowers. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2022-The purpose of this study was to determine the relative influence of total lean body mass (LBM), body fat percentage (BF%), upper extremity lean mass (ULM), lower extremity lean mass (LLM), and trunk lean mass (TLM) on maximal aerobic capacity (V̇o2max) and time to exhaustion (Tmax) in female collegiate rowers. One hundred seven female collegiate rowers (aged 18-22 years) performed maximal progressive rowing ergometer testing to determine V̇o2max and Tmax. Body mass, LBM, BF%, ULM, LLM, and TLM were determined by using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Separate multivariable linear regression models were performed to predict V̇o2max and Tmax by using LBM and BF% as predictors. In addition, separate linear regression models were used to predict V̇o2max and Tmax with ULM, LLM, and TLM as covariates. Subjects were aged 20 ± 3 years. V̇o2max was significantly predicted by LBM (r2 = 0.29, p < 0.001), but not BF% (r2 = 0.002, p = 0.79). Similarly, Tmax was significantly predicted by LBM (r2 = 0.25, p < 0.001), but not BF% (r2 = 0.003, p = 0.19). V̇o2max was significantly predicted by LLM (r2 = 0.12, p < 0.01), but not ULM (r2 = 0.08, p = 0.68) or TLM (r2 = 0.09, p = 0.17), and Tmax was significantly predicted by TLM (r2 = 0.09, p = 0.02), but not ULM (r2 = 0.07, p = 0.89) or LLM (r2 = 0.08, p = 32). Among female collegiate rowers, whole body LBM is a significant predictor of both V̇o2max and Tmax. However, LLM is a stronger predictor of V̇o2max while TLM is a stronger predictor Tmax, although each of these relationships has a low coefficient of determination. These findings suggest that aerobic fitness and performance may be influenced by regions of lean mass differently.
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Flat-water kayaking is one of the best-known competitive canoeing disciplines in Australia and across the European countries. From a stationary start, paddlers are required to paddle their kayaks with maximal effort along the length of the competing distance. The ultimate criterion of kayak performance is the time taken to paddle a designated competition distance. In flat-water racing, events are contested over 500 and 1000 metres. To approximate the ultimate criterion over these distances, the velocity of the kayak should be measured. Furthermore, other factors that affect performance, such as force, power, technique and aerobic fitness, would all provide a valuable insight to the success of the kayak paddler. Specific research performed examining the physiological demands on kayak paddlers demonstrate high levels of both aerobic power and anaerobic capacity. It is the purpose if this review to present the published physiological data relating to men's and women's kayaking. With a number of recent publications, a need for an updated review is necessary. The present review summarises recent data on anthropometrics, physiological characteristics of successful and unsuccessful kayak athletes and methods of physiological testing. Due to the fact that more data have been reported for male competitors than for their female counterparts, the demands of kayaking on male athletes will be the main focus for this review. The review also suggests areas for future research into flatwater kayaking performance. Understanding the physiological requirements of kayaking can assist coaches and athletes in a number of ways. During competition or training, such information is helpful in the selection of appropriate protocols and metabolic indices to monitor an athlete's performance improvements and assess an athlete's suitability for a particular race distance. Furthermore, it may aid the coach in the development of more specific training programs for their athletes.
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Background High resistance training enhances muscular strength, and recent work has suggested an important role for metabolite accumulation in this process. Objective To investigate the role of fatigue and metabolite accumulation in strength gains by comparing highly fatiguing and non-fatiguing isotonic training protocols. Methods Twenty three healthy adults (18–29 years of age; eight women) were assigned to either a high fatigue protocol (HF: four sets of 10 repetitions with 30 seconds rest between sets) to maximise metabolic stress or a low fatigue protocol (LF: 40 repetitions with 30 seconds between each repetition) to minimise changes. Subjects lifted on average 73% of their 1 repetition maximum through the full range of knee extension with both legs, three times a week. Quadriceps isometric strength of each leg was measured at a knee joint angle of 1.57 rad (90°), and a Cybex 340 isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure the angle-torque and torque-velocity relations of the non-dominant leg. Results At the mid-point of the training, the HF group had 50% greater gains in isometric strength, although this was not significant (4.5 weeks: HF, 13.3 (4.4)%; LF, 8.9 (3.6)%). This rate of increase was not sustained by the HF group, and after nine weeks of training all the strength measurements showed similar improvements for both groups (isometric strength: HF, 18.2 (3.9)%; LF, 14.5 (4.0)%). The strength gains were limited to the longer muscle lengths despite training over the full range of movement. Conclusions Fatigue and metabolite accumulation do not appear to be critical stimuli for strength gain, and resistance training can be effective without the severe discomfort and acute physical effort associated with fatiguing contractions.
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This study determined the effects of a 10-week strength training program on running economy in 12 female distance runners who were randomly assigned to either an endurance and strength training program (ES) or endurance training only (E). Training for both groups consisted of steady-state endurance running 4 to 5 days a week, 20 to 30 miles each week. The ES undertook additional weight training 3 days a week. Subjects were tested pre and post for [latin capital V with dot above]O2, max, treadmill running economy, body composition, and strength. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to determine significant differences between and within groups. The endurance and strength training program resulted in significant increases in strength (p < 0.05) for the ES in both upper (24.4%) and lower body (33.8%) lifts. There were no differences in treadmill [latin capital V with dot above]O2, max and body composition in either group. Running economy improved significantly in the ES group, but no significant changes were observed in the E group. The findings suggest that strength training, when added to an endurance training program, improves running economy and has little or no impact on [latin capital V with dot above]O2, max or body composition in trained female distance runners. (C) 1997 National Strength and Conditioning Association
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MILLET, G. P., B. JAOUEN, F. BORRANI, and R. CANDAU. Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and V̇O2 kinetics. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 34, No. 8, pp. 1351-1359, 2002. Purpose: It has been suggested that endurance training influences the running economy (CR) and the oxygen uptake (V̇O2) kinetics in heavy exercise by accelerating the primary phase and attenuating the V̇O2 slow component. However, the effects of heavy weight training (HWT) in combination with endurance training remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a concurrent HWT+endurance training on CR and the V̇O2 kinetics in endurance athletes. Methods: Fifteen triathletes were assigned to endurance+strength (ES) or endurance-only (E) training for 14 wk. The training program was similar, except ES performed two HWT sessions a week. Before and after the training period, the subjects performed 1) an incremental field running test for determination of V̇O2max and the velocity associated (VV̇O2max), the second ventilatory threshold (VT2); 2) a 3000-m run at constant velocity, calculated to require 25% of the difference between V̇O2max and VT2, to determine CR and the characteristics of the V̇O2 kinetics; 3) maximal hopping tests to determine maximal mechanical power and lower-limb stiffness; 4) maximal concentric lower-limb strength measurements. Results: After the training period, maximal strength were increased (P < 0.01) in ES but remained unchanged in E. Hopping power decreased in E (P < 0.05). After training, economy (P < 0.05) and hopping power (P < 0.001) were greater in ES than in E. V̇O2max, leg hopping stiffness and the V̇O2 kinetics were not significantly affected by training either in ES or E. Conclusion: Additional HWT led to improved maximal strength and running economy with no significant effects on the V̇O2 kinetics pattern in heavy exercise.
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Thirty-five healthy men were matched and randomly assigned to one of four training groups that performed high-intensity strength and endurance training (C; n = 9), upper body only high-intensity strength and endurance training (UC; n = 9), high-intensity endurance training (E; n = 8), or high-intensity strength training (ST; n = 9). The C and ST groups significantly increased one-repetition maximum strength for all exercises (P < 0.05). Only the C, UC, and E groups demonstrated significant increases in treadmill maximal oxygen consumption. The ST group showed significant increases in power output. Hormonal responses to treadmill exercise demonstrated a differential response to the different training programs, indicating that the underlying physiological milieu differed with the training program. Significant changes in muscle fiber areas were as follows: types I, IIa, and IIc increased in the ST group; types I and IIc decreased in the E group; type IIa increased in the C group; and there were no changes in the UC group. Significant shifts in percentage from type IIb to type IIa were observed in all training groups, with the greatest shift in the groups in which resistance trained the thigh musculature. This investigation indicates that the combination of strength and endurance training results in an attenuation of the performance improvements and physiological adaptations typical of single-mode training.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of 8 wk of resistance training to failure versus not to failure training regimens at both moderate and low volumes for increasing upper-body strength and power as well as cardiovascular parameters into a combined resistance and endurance periodized training scheme. Forty-three trained male rowers were matched and then randomly assigned to four groups that performed the same endurance training but differed on their resistance training regimen: four exercises leading to repetition failure (4RF; n = 14), four exercises not leading to failure (4NRF; n = 15), two exercises not to failure (2NRF; n = 6), and control group (C; n = 8). One-repetition maximum strength and maximal muscle power output during prone bench pull (BP), average power during a 20-min all-out row test (W 20 min), average row power output eliciting a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol x L(-1) (W 4 mmol x L(-1)), and power output in 10 maximal strokes (W 10 strokes) were assessed before and after 8 wk of periodized training. 4NRF group experienced larger gains in one- repetition maximum strength and muscle power output (4.6% and 6.4%, respectively) in BP compared with both 4RF (2.1% and j1.2%) and 2NRF (0.6% and -0.6%). 4NRF and 2NRF groups experienced larger gains in W 10 strokes (3.6% and 5%) and in W 20 min (7.6% and 9%) compared with those found after 4RF (-0.1% and 4.6%), whereas no significant differences between groups were observed in the magnitude of changes in W 4 mmol x L(-1) (4NRF = 6.2%, 4RF = 5.3%, 2NRF = 6.8%, and C = 4.5%). An 8-wk linear periodized concurrent strength and endurance training program using a moderate number of repetitions not to failure (4NRF group) provides a favorable environment for achieving greater enhancements in strength, muscle power, and rowing performance when compared with higher training volumes of repetitions to failure in experienced highly trained rowers.
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Simultaneously training for both strength and endurance results in a compromised adaptation, compared with training for either exercise mode alone. This has been variously described as the concurrent training effect or the interference effect. It now appears that the genetic and molecular mechanisms of adaptation induced by resistance- and endurance-based training are distinct, with each mode of exercise activating and (or) repressing specific subsets of genes and cellular signalling pathways. This brief review will summarize our current understanding of the molecular responses to strength and endurance training, and will examine the molecular evidence for an interference effect when concurrent training is undertaken. A better understanding of the activation and interaction of the molecular pathways in response to these different modes of exercise will permit sport scientists to develop improved training programs capable of maximizing both strength and endurance.
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This study examined the effects of heavy resistance training on dynamic exercise-induced fatigue task (5 x 10RM leg-press) after two loading protocols with the same relative intensity (%) (5 x 10RM(Rel)) and the same absolute load (kg) (5 x 10RM(Abs)) as in pretraining in men (n=12). Maximal strength and muscle power, surface EMG changes [amplitude and spectral indices of muscle fatigue], and metabolic responses (i.e.blood lactate and ammonia concentrations) were measured before and after exercise. After training, when the relative intensity of the fatiguing dynamic protocol was kept the same, the magnitude of exercise-induced loss in maximal strength was greater than that observed before training. The peak power lost after 5 x 10RM(Rel) (58-62%, pre-post training) was greater than the corresponding exercise-induced decline observed in isometric strength (12-17%). Similar neural adjustments, but higher accumulated fatigue and metabolic demand were observed after 5 x 10RM(Rel). This study therefore supports the notion that similar changes are observable in the EMG signal pre- and post-training at fatigue when exercising with the same relative load. However, after training the muscle is relatively able to work more and accumulate more metabolites before task failure. This result may indicate that rate of fatigue development (i.e. power and MVC) was faster and more profound after training despite using the same relative intensity.
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Drinkwater, E.J., T.W. Lawton, R.P. Lindsell, D.B. Pyne, P.H. Hunt, and M.J. McKenna. Training leading to repetition failure contributes to bench press strength gains in elite junior athletes. J. Strength Cond. Res. 19(2):382-388. 2005. The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of training leading to repetition failure in the performance of 2 different tests: 6 repetition maximum (6RM) bench press strength and 40-kg bench throw power in elite junior athletes. Subjects were 26 elite junior male basketball players (n 12; age = 18.6 +/- 0.3 years; height = 202.0 +/- 11.6 cm; mass = 97.0 +/- 12.9 kg; mean SD) and soccer players (n = 14; age = 17.4 +/- 0.5 years; height = 179.0 +/- 7.0 cm; mass = 75.0 +/- 7.1 kg) with a history of greater than 6 months' strength training. Subjects were initially tested twice for 6RM bench press mass and 40-kg Smith machine bench throw power output (in watts) to establish retest reliability. Subjects then undertook bench press training with 3 sessions per week for 6 weeks, using equal volume programs (24 repetitions X 80-105% 6RM in 13 minutes 20 seconds). Subjects were assigned to one of two experimental groups designed either to elicit repetition failure with 4 sets of 6 repetitions every 260 seconds (RF4x6) or allow all repetitions to be completed with 8 sets of 3 repetitions every 113 seconds (NF8x3). The RF4X6 treatment elicited substantial increases in strength (7.3 +/- 2.4 kg, + 9.5%, p < 0.001) and power (40.8 +/- 24.1 W, + 10.6%, p < 0.001), while the NF8X3 group elicited 3.6 +/- 3.0 kg (+ 5.0%, p < 0.005) and 25 +/- 19.0 W increases (+ 6.8%, p < 0.001). The improvements in the RF4x6 group were greater than those in the repetition rest group for both strength (p < 0.005) and power (p < 0.05). Bench press training that leads to repetition failure induces greater strength gains than nonfailure training in the bench press exercise for elite junior team sport athletes.
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The present investigation compared the effects of three selected mesocycle-length weight training programs using partially equated volumes on upper and 10wer body strength. Ninety-two previously weight-trained males were tested at five intervals (T1 through T5) on free- weight bench press and parallel back squat strength before, during, and after 16 weeks of training. Groups 1 and 2 trained with programs consisting of 5×10-RM at 78.9% of 1-RM and 6×8-RM at 83.3% of 1-RM, respectively, while keeping the amount of sets, repetitions, and training resistance (relative intensity) constant. Group 3 trained with a periodization program involving 4 weeks of 5×10-RM at 78.9% of 1-RM, 4 weeks of 6×8-RM with 83.3% of 1-RM, 4 weeks of 3×6-RM with 87.6% of 1-RM, and 4 weeks of 3×4-RM with 92.4% of 1-RM. Group 4 served as a non-weight-training control group. A 4×5 (Group × Test) MANOVA with repeated measures on test revealed that pretest normalized bench press and squat strength values were statistically equal when the study began. For the bench press at T2, results revealed that Groups 1,2, and 3 were significantly different from Group 4 but not from each other. At T3, T4, and T5, Group 3 demonstrated significantly different strength levels in the bench press from Groups 1,2, and 4. Groups 1 and 2 were not significantly different from Group 4. For the squat exercise at T2, T3, and T4, Groups 2 and 3 were significantly different from Groups 1 and 2 but not from each other. At T5, Group 3 was significantly different from Groups 1, 2, and 4. Group 2 was significantly different from Groups 1 and 4, and Group 1 was only significantly different from Group 4. It was concluded that a mesocycle-length weight training program incorporating periodization is superior in eliciting upper. and 10wer body strength gains when compared to programs with partially equated volumes.
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The purpose of this study was to determine how different training modes would influence blood levels of growth hormone (hGH) and selected physiological parameters. Three training groups were established: LIFT, in which subjects trained with free weights and a Universal Gym three times per week with three sets at six to eight repetitions per lift (75 percent of one-repetition maximum) for 10 weeks; RUN, in which subjects ran at 75 percent of HR max three times per week; and COMBO, in which subjects underwent both LIFT and RUN training. Resting hGH levels were determined before and after training, and the hGH response to a single bout of exercise was determined at one, four, eight and 10 weeks. Each subject was tested for one-repetition (1 RM) strength in the bench and leg press during weeks one and 10 of training. Resting and exercise response blood samples were taken from an anticubital vein and centrifuged, and the serum was analyzed for hGH by radioimmunoassay techniques. The results of the hormonal measurements indicate that except for a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the resting levels of hGH in the LIFT group, training did not alter hGH levels at rest. The 10 weeks of exercise training did not change the basic hGH response to a single bout of exercise in the LIFT and COMBO groups, but did shift the hGH peak of RUN subjects from four to eight minutes by the eighth week of training. The non-hormonal factors affected were: [latin capital V with dot above]O2 max of RUN and COMBO was significantly higher (p < 0.05) above LIFT; LBM and upper body strength of LIFT and COMBO was significantly elevated (p < 0.05) than RUN; and significant gains (p < 0.05) in lower body strength occurred only in LIFT, The data indicate that 10 weeks of exercise training does not significantly alter the basic hGH response to a single bout of exercise, but can influence the appearance of the hormonal peak. The results also show that a training program involving both running and lifting can produce the same gains in [latin capital V with dot above]O2 max and upper body strength as single-activity programs, but does not produce lower body strength gains. (C) 1991 National Strength and Conditioning Association
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This study examined the effects of manipulating volume and intensity on strength and power in experienced male athletes. Subjects (N = 22) were tested for maximum strength in the squat and bench press lifts, vertical jump (VJ), lean body mass (LBM), and neural activation levels (IEMG). They trained 3 days a week for 12 weeks according to a linear periodization model (n = 8), an undulating periodization model (n = 5), or a nonperiodized control model (n = 9). Training volume and relative intensity were equated for all groups. Maximal squat, bench press, and LBM all improved significantly in each group, and changes in maximal strength correlated significantly with changes in LBM. IEMG levels were generally unchanged and did not correlate with changes in strength. The VJ increased significantly through training, but there were no differences between groups. Changes in VJ were not significantly correlated with changes in squat, LBM, or IEMG levels. The results indicate that in short-term training using previously trained subjects, no differences in maximal strength are seen when training volume and relative intensity are equated. (C) 1994 National Strength and Conditioning Association
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Concurrent strength and endurance training reportedly compromises strength gains and the ability to produce explosive movements. Possible reasons for compromises in strength-power adaptations with concurrent training are an increased likelihood of overtraining; differences in the organization of neuromuscular recruitment patterns; alterations in the concentrations of various hormones and differences in activation or repression of various anabolic/catabolic processes at the muscular level; and shifts in protein isozymes such as myosin. Recent research suggests that strength training may enhance endurance performance, although there are reasons to believe that resistance training can also be detrimental. Further research is necessary to determine the extent to which strength adaptations are compromised with concurrent training, and the mechanism(s) by which combined training negatively affects strength. It is recommended that the training of athletes takes into account the physiological demands of the sport and unique needs of the individual athlete in designing a training program in order to optimize performance. (C) 1990 National Strength and Conditioning Association
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Variation or periodization of training is an important concept in designing weight-training programs. To date, the majority of studies examining periodization of weight training have used a traditional strength/power training model of decreasing training volume and increasing training intensity as the program progresses. The majority of these studies have used males as subjects and do support the contention that periodized programs can result in greater changes in strength, motor performance, total body weight, lean body mass, and percent body fat than nonperiodized programs. However, studies are needed examining why periodized training is more beneficial than nonperiodized training. Studies are also needed examining the response of females, children, and seniors to periodized weight-training programs and the response to periodized models other than the traditional strength/power training model. (C) 1999 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
The present investigation compared the effects of three selected mesocycle-length weight training programs using partially equated volumes on upper and lower body strength. Ninety-two previously weight-trained males were tested at five intervals (T1 through T5) on freeweight bench press and parallel back squat strength before, during, and after 16 weeks of training. Groups 1 and 2 trained with programs consisting of 5x10-RM at 78.9% of 1-RM and 6x8-RM at 83.3% of 1-RM, respectively, while keeping the amount of sets, repetitions, and training resistance (relative intensity) constant. Group 3 trained with a periodization program involving 4 weeks of 5x10-RM at 78.9% of 1-RM, 4 weeks of 6x8-RM with 83.3% of 1-RM, 4 weeks of 3x6-RM with 87.6% of 1-RM, and 4 weeks of 3x4-RM with 92.4% of 1-RM. Group 4 served as a non-weight-training control group. A 4x5 (Group x Test) MANOVA with repeated measures on test revealed that pretest normalized bench press and squat strength values were statistically equal when the study began. For the bench press at T2, results revealed that Groups 1, 2, and 3 were significantly different from Group 4 but not from each other. At T3, T4, and T5, Group 3 demonstrated significantly different strength levels in the bench press from Groups 1, 2, and 4. Groups 1 and 2 were not significantly different from Group 4. For the squat exercise at T2, T3, and T4, Groups 2 and 3 were significantly different from Groups 1 and 2 but not from each other. At T5, Group 3 was significantly different from Groups 1, 2, and 4. Group 2 was significantly different from Groups 1 and 4, and Group 1 was only significantly different from Group 4. It was concluded that a mesocycle-length weight training program. incorporating periodization is superior in eliciting upper and lower body strength gains when compared to programs with partially equated volumes. (C) 1993 National Strength and Conditioning Association