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As formas de avaliação alternativas, tais como apresentação de pôster e diários de aprendizagem, têm sido criticadas por não serem instrumentos confiáveis, válidos ou práticos. O objetivo deste artigo é demonstrar como esses dois tipos de avaliação alternativa têm sido usados em cursos de graduação e pós-graduação para avaliar os alunos de forma bem sucedida, com critérios claros de modo a permitir uma participação no processo de avaliação como um todo.PALAVRAS-CHAVE: avaliação alternativa, apresentação de poster, diário de aprendizagem.
Alternatives in assessment such as poster presentation and learning log have
been criticized for not being reliable, valid or practical tools. This article aims at
showing how these two types of alternative assessment have been used at
both undergraduate and graduate levels to evaluate students’ performance
successfully by presenting clear scoring criteria guidelines and allowing
students to participate in the assessment process as a whole.
KEY WORDS: alternative assessment, poster presentation, learning log.
Every teacher has faced the dilemma of having to see a student
fail a course when, in fact, he should not. The passing grade allied to the
one-shot test format of assessment has been the norm in most
undergraduate and graduate courses. As a result, teachers will hear
students complain about the tests and the grades they have achieved as
being unfair, and non-representative of what they actually know. Recently,
for example, a student of mine changed the theme of his final graduation
paper in order to propose a new assessment system for the university.
The reason which led him to such change in topic was his frustration
with the fact that he had reached the end of his Language Arts course
and not a single teacher had offered him a reasonable explanation for
adopting the one-shot test as the only option for evaluation. Moreover,
he had never found congruence between the questions being asked on
* Paper presented at I CLAFPL, in Florianópolis, in 2006.
** Professora da Universidade do Estado da Bahia.
Recebido em 12 de agosto de 2008
Aceito em 8 de outubro de 2008
the tests and the content of courses. He always felt that the tests were
testing memory rather than actual knowledge. Unfortunately, he is not
the only one to feel that way. I am sure many of us can remember tests
we took in high school or at university which seemed to measure
absolutely nothing. We would study for the test and believe that we
knew the subject matter only to find out a few weeks after the test that
we could not remember a single word of what we thought we had learned.
Therefore, I believe it is high time we, teachers, started to think about
other forms of assessment that better fulfill students needs and better
answer questions such as “How am I doing?” and “How can I do better?”
which are the main queries testing promises to deal with.
As a learner I had always felt much of the same frustration my
student feels today, so when I became a teacher, I tried to search for
ways of assessing learning that would give me answers to the two
questions. As a result, I have been using poster presentation and learning
log as alternatives to the one-shot test. In addition, a final paper and in-
class activities have also been part of the assessment scheme depending
on the content of the course. These multiple measures have given me
the opportunity to check both the product and the process of learning in
ways that the traditional test has never done.
This article aims at showing that the principles of language
assessment, i.e. practicality, validity and reliability, also apply to these
types of alternative assessment and which issues should be taken into
account when deciding on what assessment task to use in a course. This
second argument is based on a proposal by Herman et al. (1992, p. v-
vi). Among the issues presented by these authors I have chosen five
which I believe best justify the use of alternatives in assessment such as
poster presentation and learning log.
1 A
Alternative assessment is different from traditional testing in that
it actually asks students to show what they can do. Students are evaluated
SIGNÓTICA, v. 20, n. 2, p. 235-252, jul./dez. 2008
on what they integrate and produce rather than on what they can recall
and reproduce. The main goal of alternative assessment is to “gather
evidence about how students are approaching, processing, and completing,
real life tasks in a particular domain”(G
ARCIÁS and PEARSON, 1994, p.
357). This means that students must feel that the end result of the task
will answer the two questions posed in the introduction: How am I doing?
How can I get better?
Bailey (1998) and Brown (2004) contrast traditional and alternative
assessment listing their characteristics as a set of opposite poles. Among
the concepts shown are: continuity, time, response format, authenticity
of tasks, teamwork, contextualization of tasks, amount of feedback, and
score interpretation. It is true that by presenting these concepts as
opposite poles, for example, one-shot versus continuous, there might be
a risk of interpreting everything that is related to traditional as bad and
everything that is related to alternative as good. Caution must be taken
here so as to understand that in between the two extremes of the
continuum there is a gray area which should be taken into account. A
poster presentation, for example, is a one-shot type of assessment but it
is done in group. The learning log, on the other hand, is a continuous type
of assessment but is written individually. So, it is better if we see this set
of characteristics as a guideline and choose the best of each side in
order to be able to reach the best result possible.
1.1 Poster presentation
As it is well known by anyone who has attended a conference, a
poster presentation is a way of showing the results of a study that is
either finished or is still in progress. The poster should be designed in a
way that it speaks for itself so that the reader can understand exactly
what the main objective of the research project was and how and what
results were obtained. The presenter stands by the poster during the
presentation and discusses issues that may be raised by the audience.
Posters are usually hung on the walls during the whole conference but
the presentation itself only takes place once or twice during the event.
The idea of the poster presentation was adapted to be used during
the courses I teach so that students can show they have read and
understood a scientific article chosen from a list given at the beginning
of the course. Students select their group members and prepare a poster
based on the guidelines shown in Figure 1 below. These guidelines are
presented and discussed on the first day of class.
Students are also given the five dimension criteria scale presented
in Figure 2 (see the Appendix) so that they know how exactly their
presentation will be evaluated.
A poster presentation is different from the traditional oral
presentation of articles
in the way it is delivered and, most importantly,
in the way different types of intelligence can be tapped. Christison (1998,
p. 7) presents a taxonomy of activities which address multiple intelligences
in the classroom showing how multiple intelligence theory (G
1983) can inform teaching and learning. While an oral presentation favors
learners who are linguistically and, sometimes, visually intelligent, the
poster presentation will also include learners who are kinesthetically
intelligent since everyone must walk around throughout the presentation,
and the logically intelligent given the connections that are made during
the session. In addition, both interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences
will be addressed given the cooperative and reflective nature of the
Therefore, I have not found any drawbacks so far in using poster
presentation as an assessment tool.
1.2 Learning log
A log is much like a diary or a journal in which students keep
track of their learning experiences during the course. According to
Genesee and Upshur (1996, p.119), “journals are written conversations
SIGNÓTICA, v. 20, n. 2, p. 235-252, jul./dez. 2008
between students and teachers”. Students are asked to write about their
learning experiences and provide feedback on these experiences. Among
the benefits of keeping a journal, one of the most important is that it
gives students the opportunity to become more involved in their own
learning process and become aware of this ownership. A learning log is
a structured journal so that learners can focus their entries in specific
ways. In the courses I teach, students are asked to keep a log throughout
the semester and to hand it in every two weeks or so. A discussion is
held at the beginning of the course so that students know exactly what is
expected and the type of questions they will answer in their logs. As
learners hand in their logs, I read their comments and write back to them
answering their questions or posing new questions which will help them
understand the learning process better. In the case of intensive 30-hour-
one-week courses, the logs are handed in at the end of the week and
handed back two weeks later with my comments. Learners are
encouraged to contact me after receiving their commented logs in order
to clarify doubts or simply add any other information they might feel is
useful for their learning.
Figure 3 (see the Appendix) presents the questions students are
asked to answer in their learning log for the course on second language
acquisition I teach at both undergraduate and graduate levels:
Assigning a grade to a learning log might sound contradictory.
After all, a learning log is meant to be a reflective tool in which students
can self-monitor their achievement. However, the institution requires
that students receive at least three numerical grades during the course
and I have to adhere to the rules.
Brown (2004, p. 263) presents seven steps for using journals as
assessment instruments. One of the steps suggested states that teacher
should “carefully specify the criteria for assessing or grading journals.”
Therefore, students are given the set of criteria shown in Figure 4 (see
the Appendix). Moreover, they will also receive my summative written
remarks on what they wrote.
Given the fact that students are used to traditional testing, their
initial reaction to these forms of assessment is one of puzzlement.
However, the feedback given at the end of the course has always been
positive for both learning log and poster presentation.
2 P
Alternative assessment has come under a severe attack regarding
the three pillars which sustain the field of assessment, namely, practicality,
reliability and validity. However, “proponents of alternative assessment
do not suggest that we overlook these criteria, for any quality assessment
must adhere to them” (HUERTA-MACIÁS, 1995, p. 8).
2.1 Practicality
Practicality has to do with expenses, time, administration and
scoring issues (B
ROWN, 2004). It is important that an assessment tool,
whether it is considered alternative or not, fulfill these requirements if it
is to be considered meaningful to both learners and institutions. There is
no point in devising an assessment tool that is too time-consuming or that
will require expensive material, especially in our public university context.
Both the poster presentation and the learning log are practical
tools. They are not expensive to the institution since any photocopies, or
paper and pencil are needed. The students are the ones who could
complain about this issue but as explained above, the poster can be
handwritten and any piece of brown paper will do. As for the learning
log, I usually ask students to use any old notebook they might have at
home left over from past semesters. All they need is a couple of sheets
of paper to keep their notes.
Time is not a problem either. The amount of time spent in a poster
presentation may be established according to the school calendar. The
same amount of time that would be set aside for a traditional multiple
SIGNÓTICA, v. 20, n. 2, p. 235-252, jul./dez. 2008
choice test may be used for the poster presentation. The presentations
will take place concurrently, so the amount of time needed will depend
mainly on the number of groups in class.
There is no need for hiring extra personnel to administer these
two types of assessment. Students are their own assessors and monitors.
The teacher is a mere spectator and feedback giver in both situations.
While students are standing by their posters and discussing the topic
with classmates, the teacher mingles with the group and stands by each
poster for ten minutes or so in order to fill out the scoring sheet. The
scoring sheet contains the same dimensions and descriptions shown in
Figure 2 (in the Appendix). Scoring procedures are clear and objective
as will be further discussed in section 3.4.
Brown (2004) argues that practicality is not very high for learning
logs but personally I have never had problems with that. Given the fact
that students are instructed to write one or maybe two paragraphs in
answering each question, the amount of time spent on reading and grading
them is not much longer than the time I would spend correcting an open
ended test, for example.
2.2 Validity
A test is considered valid if it measures what it is supposed to
measure. For example, if a student is asked to answer a multiple choice
test that requires grammatical judgment in order to be assessed in how
well he can speak the language, this test lacks content validity. The task
must match the content. The learner should be asked to perform the
behavior that is being measured (B
ROWN, 2004).
According to Huertas-Marcías (1995, p. 9), “alternative
assessment presents the best of all worlds in that it looks at actual
performance on real-life tasks, such as writing, reading, participation in
collaborative work, and doing a demonstration in front of a group”. Both
the poster presentation and the learning log are real-life tasks and students
can see their achievement through the feedback given by their classmates
and the teacher. This feedback is given after the poster is presented by
both the group and the teacher. As for the log it varies according to the
type of course: for regular one-semester courses, students turn in their
logs every two weeks and a written dialogue is kept between teacher
and student throughout. Given the short nature of intensive one-week
courses, feedback is delayed for two or three weeks since learners will
hand in their logs at the end of the course. Moreover, the content and
face validity of the log is high since the log entries are closely interwoven
with the course objectives.
2.3 Reliability
The reliability of an assessment tool is best understood if we
analyze the causes of unreliability. Student-related unreliability is quite
familiar to most of us. If a student is ill or anxious or any other
psychological factor interferes with his performance on the day of the
test, this factor might mask the true score. A teacher may be stricter
than another in correcting the test and this will result in rater unreliability.
Or even if it is the same teacher and she is having a bad day, for example,
she might give a lower grade on a composition. The best solution is to
have clear and public criteria which can be discussed with students in
order to avoid the usual complaint we hear from students all the time
“how come I got a 7 and he got an 8 if our answers are the same?”. The
criteria used for assessing the poster presentation and the learning log
will be discussed in detail in section 3.4.
Reliability, as well as validity, can be insured by including in the
process a clear set of criteria and the triangulation required by qualitative
research (H
UERTA-MACIÁS, 1995). Thus, when I use poster presentation,
students receive an assessment scale which tells them exactly what
they have to present and how each item will be graded (see Figure 2 in
the Appendix) Besides, the triangulation requirement is fulfilled by asking
students who presented the poster at the end of their presentation what
they have learned from it; by asking the whole group for a critical view
SIGNÓTICA, v. 20, n. 2, p. 235-252, jul./dez. 2008
of the group’s presentation and by giving my own evaluation of the whole
3 I
In addition to adhering to the testing principles discussed above,
the design of any kind of assessment system should be informed by
elements of instructional practice. Herman, Aschbacher and Winters
(1992) present ten key assessment issues which can guide teachers in
the use of alternative measures of student achievement. I have chosen
to discuss the five issues which have best served to guide my use of
poster presentation and learning log as measurement tools of the learning
3.1 There must be congruence between assessment and instructional
Whether it is a language course or a content course such as
Discourse Analysis or Second Language Acquisition, the objectives of
the course must be stated clearly so that the outcomes can be assessed
fairly and thoroughly. “A clear statement of course objectives can also
serve as criterion for students to assess their progress in language
learning during a course of instruction” (G
ENESEE and UPSHUR, 1996, p.
20). Therefore, learners are given a description of the course on the
first day of class including goals, methodology, assessment tools and
assessment criteria.
The discussion led on the first day of class provides students with
a clear idea of what will be expected of them and how they can evaluate
their progress. Figure 5 (see the Appendix) shows the objectives for the
second language acquisition course and the assessment tools.
Objectives (a) and (c) will be assessed by reading their learning
logs; objective (d) will be assessed during the poster presentation;
objective (b) will be assessed through in-class data analysis activities
and objective (e) will surface in their final paper.
Therefore, there is a
clear match between the objectives and the assessment proposed.
3.2 Both process and product of learning should be examined
Most traditional tests are examples of assessment of product.
However, “one of the disturbing things about tests is the extent to which
many people accept results uncritically, while other believe that all testing
is invidious” (B
AILEY, 1998, p. 204).
Many students have rebelled against traditional tests criticizing
their validity (“they don’t test what we were taught”) and their reliability
(“the teacher wasn’t fair when she graded my test”). This type of testing
has also been criticized by applied linguists (B
ROWN, 2004; BAILEY, 1990;
EATON, 1988) who argue that tests are inauthentic and no feedback is
provided to students among other negative aspects.
Learning is a process and should be assessed as such and not as
a result of a single product. The learning log seems to fulfill the
requirement as an effective assessment tool of the learning process. A
log is an account of “one’s thoughts, feelings, reactions, assessments,
ideas, or progress toward goals, usually written with little attention to
structure, form, and correctness” (B
ROWN, 2004, p. 260). Students are
not evaluated on how well they can write in English but on how well
they can reflect on their learning process and can connect theory and
practice. The feedback I give students focuses mainly on content rather
than on form. Some students do ask for feedback on the latter but this is
usually given as I write my own comments on what they wrote.
The process of putting together and presenting the poster is
assessed at the end of the presentation. Students sit with the members
of their group and discuss the following questions:
a) What did you learn as a result of this presentation?
b) How well did the group gel?
c) How would you evaluate the group performance?
SIGNÓTICA, v. 20, n. 2, p. 235-252, jul./dez. 2008
Their ideas are written down and handed in so that I can compare
their evaluation to mine.
3.3 A match between the task and the outcome is key to effective
As mentioned in 3.1, given the fact that the objectives are clearly
stated in the course description, student outcome always matches the
task. The feedback learners have given me regarding both the poster
presentation and the learning log show me that these tasks are both
meaningful and effective in making it clear to them where they are in
their learning process. The excerpts below are comments written by
students regarding these assessment tools.
I know that I can not generalize but the poster presentation is a good
exercise for me to make the subject easier. If you can do that you
learn more and help other students to learn too. (E.)
At least for me the poster presentation worked very well, it is a kind
of possibility to dress the knowledge in fantasy and it is a little bit
difficult but pleasant. (A.)
At first I was a bit nervous but then I felt relaxed because we were all
interacting and discussing our own ideas. I didn’t feel on the spotlight.
In the beginning I thought I hadn’t learned anything but as I was
writing the log I realized how much of the content stayed. (C.)
What worked well for me was the production of this log. As I told
you on the second day, I have been trying to develop my reading
and writing abilities and as a result of that ease my learning process
of English. (P.)
The people who visited our poster were very interested in discussing
about the topic because it is very relevant in our routine as teachers.
So, we could conclude that without motivation there is less
development in class and we, as teachers, should always help our
students to keep their motivation most of the time. (C.)
Their feedback on the tasks has shown me that both types of
assessment are successful. The feeling that they have learned something
by the end of the course gives them a sense of accomplishment which
they might not have had if I had opted to evaluate their knowledge with
a test.
3.4 Criteria are critical – without them assessment remains an isolated,
episodic activity
Setting criteria for assessing the poster presentation was quite a
challenging task. What should be taken into account and how to break it
down into a logical set of dimensions that would make sense to students
were my main concerns. I had to describe the dimensions for evaluating
student performance and write a scale of values to rate those dimensions.
This process provided me with the opportunity to review the goals of the
course as well as the dimensions required in the presentation of the
According to Herman et al. (1992, p. 45), “criteria are necessary
because they help you judge complex, human performance in a reliable,
fair and valid manner”. Given the wide range of answers in alternative
assessment, tasks must be judged according to the quality and the process
of arriving at a complex response. Therefore, we need criteria or scoring
guidelines in order to assure reliability and validity.
Scoring criteria must be made public and discussed with students.
Public discussion of criteria “informs students during the formative period
of instruction, not simply at the end of a unit or course when it is too late
to make improvements” (H
ERMAN et al., 1992, p. 48). It also helps learners
to see what is expected of them and the teachers perspective on their
The scoring criteria designed for both the poster presentation and
the learning log have suffered a number of modifications along the years
based on student feedback and my own observation of the tasks. One
SIGNÓTICA, v. 20, n. 2, p. 235-252, jul./dez. 2008
change that has been made recently is the number of points assigned to
layout. Students disagreed with the two points I had originally planned
for this dimension and suggested that it be changed to one. I agreed with
their suggestion since this is not an advertising or design course but a
course in second language acquisition.
3.5 An assessment system with multiple measures taken over time
provides the most comprehensive feedback on student growth
The assessment system I have devised for my courses comprises
a poster presentation, a learning log and a final paper.
The system allows
triangulation since various facets of the learning process will be revealed
by each one of the assessment tools. In addition, each assessment
instrument matches one or more instructional objectives thus providing a
clear view of how much students have achieved throughout the course.
The multiple measures adopted allow me to have a reasonable
idea of how much was learned and how much of this learning might be
actually put into practice in their own classrooms in the future.
The challenge of designing an assessment system that is practical,
reliable, valid and at the same time is viewed by learners as a reflection
of their learning process is paramount. Whether we are dealing with
language courses or content courses, learners deserve a chance to assess
their own learning and to feel satisfied with the results in the end.
One shot tests and their results should be viewed more critically
by all teachers, especially when there is a mismatch between how classes
are taught and how students are tested.
Alternative assessment tools such as the poster presentation and
the learning log presented in this article can be used in place of more
traditional approaches to testing since they attend to both the principles
of testing as well as the principle of process evaluation.
Matching instructional objectives to assessment and having clear
scoring criteria guidelines eliminate any kind of suspicion one might have
in relation to the use of alternative assessment in the classroom.
Alternative assessment “has the power to tell a story” (H
ACIÁS, 1995, p. 10). It tells the story of how much learners have grown
during the course and how much the course has affected this growth. In
addition, alternative assessment provides information for other types of
decision making such as grading, passing and failing, and above all, areas
of the course that need improvement.
All in all, as this paper clearly shows, poster presentations and
learning logs have provided evidence to the assumption that they can not
only be used as trustworthy instruments for assessing the learning
process, but also serve as an invaluable tool for the teacher to reflect on
her course goals.
As formas de avaliação alternativas, tais como apresentação de pôster e
diários de aprendizagem, têm sido criticadas por não serem instrumentos
confiáveis, válidos ou práticos. O objetivo deste artigo é demonstrar como
esses dois tipos de avaliação alternativa têm sido usados em cursos de
graduação e pós-graduação para avaliar os alunos de forma bem-sucedida,
com critérios claros de modo a permitir uma participação no processo de
avaliação como um todo.
PALAVRAS-CHAVE: avaliação alternativa, apresentação de poster, diário de
1 Oral presentations, sometimes denominated ‘seminar’, are often used by
university professors as an assessment tool.
2 Given the focus of this article only part of the document describing the
course was included.
SIGNÓTICA, v. 20, n. 2, p. 235-252, jul./dez. 2008
3 For the course in second language acquisition, in-class data analysis
activities are also part of the assessment.
BAILEY, K. M. Learning about language assessment: dilemmas, decisions, and
directions. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 1998.
BROWN, H. D. Language assessment: principles and classroom practices. White
Plains: Pearson Education Longman, 2004.
CHRISTISON, M. An introduction to MI theory and second language learning. In:
REID, J. (Ed.). Understanding learning styles in second language learning.
New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents, 1998. p. 1-14.
GARDNER, H. Frames of mind: the theory of multiple intelligences. New York:
Basic Books, 1983.
GARCIÁS, G. E.; PEARSON, P. D. Assessment and diversity. In: DARLING-HAMMOND,
L. (Ed.). Review of research in education. Washington, D.C.: American
Education Research Association, 1994. p. 337-391.
GENESEE, F.; UPSHUR, J. A. Classroom-based evaluation in second language
education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
HEATON, J. B. Writing English language tests. London: Longman, 1988.
HERMAN, J. L.; ASCHBACHER, P. R.; WINTERS, L. A practical guide to alternative
assessment. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 1992.
HUERTA-GARCIÁS, A. Alternative assessment: response to commonly asked
questions. TESOL Journal, Alexandria, VA, v. 5, n. 1, p. 8-11, Autumn 1995.
Special issue : Alternative assessment.
The article you will read about affective factors in SLA will be presented as a
poster. Here are some guidelines to help you organize your presentation.
The Organization of the Room
Posters will be displayed around the room. While two (or more) members of the
group stand by the poster to present it and answer questions, the others will walk
around visiting the other groups’ posters. Members of the group should alternate
between standing by the poster and visiting the other presentations.
The Poster Presentation
A poster is a static, visual medium (usually of the paper and board variety) that
you use to communicate ideas and messages. The difference between poster and
oral presentations is that you should let your poster do most of the ‘talking’; that
is, the material presented should convey the essence of your message. However,
that does not mean that you can disappear to the cafeteria or wherever you want.
At least two members of the group have to ‘stand-by-your-poster’! Your task as
the presenter is to answer questions and provide further details; to bask in praises
or suffer difficult questions; and to convince others that what you have done is
excellent and worthwhile.
The purpose of poster presentation is not to have boards upon boards of
information. Better to hand out a report in that case. You should limit your poster
to the size of a flip chart sheet.
The format of the poster presentation
Your poster must contain the following sections:
a) The title of the article, the name of the writer(s) and the name of the group
b) A summary of the article.
c) A summary of your own views on the subject.
d) A set of questions you would like others to discuss with you.
You may find any other creative way of presenting the ideas in the article (role
play, activities for the audience to take part in, or whatever you believe will add to
the presentation). You shouldn’t present everything as if you were giving a lecture.
OTE: You do not have to spend a lot of money on printing or professional poster
making techniques. You may use your imagination to create your poster and use
crayons, pictures, or whatever you like.
Figure 1 - Guidelines for the poster presentation
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Your presentation will be graded according to the criteria scheme below:
Summary of article: 2 points
2 Summary is complete and leaves no important information out. Language is
clear, coherent and concise. Writer does not insert his own comments and/or
1.5 Summary leaves out one of the main points in the article. Language is
sometimes confusing or ideas are not always coherent. Writer does not insert his
own comments and/or opinion.
1 Summary is too short to the point that the reader has only a very
superficial and incomplete idea of what the article is about.
Group view: 2 points
2 Complete; group understood article; opinion is coherent and pertinent.
1.5 Group didn’t understand the main point in the article; opinion sometimes
1 Too short/vague; reader has no idea what group actually thought of the
Discussion questions: 2 points
2 Clear and enough in number to lead to meaningful discussion
1.5 Clear but mainly comprehension/yes-no question.
1 Not enough questions or questions led to little or no discussion.
Layout: 2 points
2 Well designed and easy to read.
1.5 Well designed but left out one of the items (title, summary, etc)
1 Confusing making it difficult to understand message.
Presentation: 2 points
2 All group members participated and seemed to be familiar with topic.
Explanation is clear and well prepared. Group included a creative way of
presenting the ideas through a role play, activity, etc.
1.5 Not all group members participated although explanation was clear.
1 Presentation given by one member of group only or explanation was not
clear enough.
Figure 2 - Assessment criteria for the poster presentation
Throughout the course you will keep a learning log. At the end of every class
session you will answer the following questions in your log:
a) What did you learn today?
b) How will you apply this knowledge to your teaching?
c) What worked well / didn’t work well for you in today’s class?
Figure 3 - Learning log guidelines
Your log is worth 5 points and will be assessed according to the following
5 points. Student understood the main content of the lesson and can reflect on
his learning process making connections between the content and self.
Comments show that learner is aware of the applicability of the issues
discussed in class.
3 points. Student shows understanding of content but does not always make
clear connections between content and self or between theory and practice.
1 point. Log is a mechanical account of what happened during the lesson. There
is little
awareness of the learning process. Student rarely connects theory and practice.
Figure 4 - Learning log assessment criteria
3. What are the course objectives?
By the end of the course you will:
(a) have a clearer understanding of the topics which have been addressed by
researchers who have studied second language learner development.
(b) be familiar with some of the techniques used to analyze data
(c) connect some of the proposed theories with your teaching practice
(d) be able to read and understand academic articles in SLA.
(e) be in a position to go on and study specific aspects of second language
4. How will you be assessed?
Assessment for the course is in four parts:
(a) A poster presentation to be held on (date). 10 points
(b) A learning log to be handed in on (date). 5 points
(c) A 3,000-word final paper to be handed in on (date). 10 points
(d) In-class data analysis activities. 5 points
Figure 5 - Course objectives and assessment
... Sometimes it is also emphasized [3] that it has to be created multiple times. However it is not consistent to some methods of using posters in education for example when pupils or students themselves are the authors of the posters [4][5][6][7]. ...
Conference Paper
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Posters represent traditional teaching aids that are used in education around the world. Their main functions are educational, aesthetic and motivational. However, do posters have the expected educational effect at the current time when children are affected by a large amount of information and their perception is determined by digital technologies? The aim of the paper is to present the results of research aimed at the educational effectiveness of posters placed in common areas of schools. The main method of quantitative research was a natural pedagogical experiment, where the independent variable was the application of the created posters, the dependent variable was the level of knowledge, the indicator of knowledge was the number of points achieved in didactic tests. The sample was approximately 1000 secondary school pupils (aged 10 to 15) from ten elementary schools in the Czech Republic. The time of experiment during one year. Based on the research, it is possible to state that the highest increase in knowledge was indicated after a year of application in the common areas of schools for the poster with the least amount of information content. Research has shown that even today, when children's attention is extensively influenced by digital media, posters placed in common areas of schools fulfill an educational function, but in order to make optimal use of their educational potential, it is necessary to choose their design carefully. Keywords: Educational effectiveness, elementary school, knowledge, poster, research.
... Other than acquiring scientific knowledge and improving presentation skills; poster presentation will improve other personal attributes to the studentcharacter such as confidence; self-esteem; creativity; professionalism and inter-professional interaction [1,2,4,8]. Poster presentation has shown to be a practical; reliable and valid tool in assessing the performance and progress of university students [9]. ...
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Poster templates have been widely used in presenting clinical information or research results in medical seminars and scientific conferences. Posters represent a simple, fast and straightforward way to present ideas, communicate accomplishments and evaluate progress and achievements. The use of interactive materials within the poster such as illustrations, graphs and maps makes it easy to be presented and understood. Posters could also be used as a teaching method in academic environment and have been commonly used as educational tool. Few attempts have been made to use this method as a self-learning tool by university students. This paper discusses an attempt to implement poster presentation as a self-regulating learning tool for undergraduate dental students, to help them develop their scholarly role and professional skills in innovative way.
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Z: Araştırmanın amacı, Matematik dersinde karşılaşılan kavram yanılgılarının giderilmesinde öğrenme günlüklerinin etkisinin incelenmesi olarak belirlenmiştir. Çalışmada deneysel modellerden ön test-son test kontrol gruplu desen kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu 2009-2010 eğitim ve öğretim yılı ilköğretim okulu 6. sınıfa devam eden toplam 78 öğrenci oluşturmuştur. Araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak araştırmacılar tarafından geliştirilen, geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmaları yapılmış "İki Aşamalı Açık Uçlu Kavram Yanılgılarını Belirleme Ölçeği kontrol ve deney gruplarına ön test ve son test olarak uygulanmıştır. Uygulama sonucunda elde edilen veriler ile kovaryans analizi yapılmıştır. Araştırmanın bulguları, öğrenme günlüklerinin öğrencilerin sahip oldukları kavram yanılgılarını gidermede olumlu yönde etkili olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Ayrıca deney grubuna uygulanan öğrenme günlüklerinin, kız öğrencilerin kavram yanılgılarını gidermede, erkek öğrencilere göre daha etkili olduğu belirlenmiştir. Anahtar sözcükler: Öğrenme günlükleri, kavram, kavram yanılgısı ABSTRACT: The purpose of the studywas to investigate the effect of learning logs on overcoming students' misconceptions in Maths classes. In the study, pre-test post-test control group design wasused. Participants of the study consisted of 78 6 th grade students in 2009-2010 academic year. Data of the research were collected through a Two-phasedOpen Ended Scale for identifying misconceptions.The scale was developed by the researcher and validity and reliability analyses were carried out accordingly. Later, the scale was implemented as pre-test and post-testto the control and experimental groups. Gathered data were analyzed using Covariance analysis method. Findings of the research have shown that the application of learning logs hasa positive effect on remedying students' misconceptions. It has also been found out that learning logs have been more effective to reduce female students' misconceptions when compared to those of male students'. 1. GİRİŞ Teknolojik gelişme ve küreselleşme süreci ile toplumsal yapı ve sistemler hızlı bir değişim sürecine girmiştir. Bireyin farklı alanlardaki değişimlere uyumu iyi bir eğitim ile mümkündür. Çünkü iyi bir eğitim bireye kendini yetiştirme, geliştirme, bireysel yeteneklerini sonuna kadar kullanma, analitik düşünme, sentez yapabilme, sorunları çözme ve etkili iletişim kurma gibi beceriler kazandırma fırsatını verir. Planlı eğitimin yapıldığı okullarda öğretme-öğrenme süreci içinde, öğrencilerin kazanması gereken pek çok kavram bulunmaktadır. Bilginin yapı taşlarını oluşturan kavramlar doğru olarak anlaşılmaz ve yorumlanmaz ise, olay ve olgular arasında bağlantı kurulamaz. Dolayısıyla eğitim-öğretim sürecinde öğrencilerin başarılı olabilmeleri için gerekli kavramları doğru öğrenmeleri kaçınılmaz bir gerekliliktir. Ülgen'inde (2004) belirttiği gibi kavramlara hâkim olan bireyler dünyayı doğru bir şekilde anlamlandırarak ilkeler geliştirebilirler. Kavramları doğru bir şekilde öğrenen bireyler olay ve olguları daha kolay bir şekilde algılar ve çözümler.
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Posters are traditional teaching aids and have been used in technical education for many years. But do they really have the expected educational effect? Do they still contribute to raising the knowledge level of children, whose perception is determined by digital technologies? The paper presents the results of a quantitative research on the educational effectiveness of posters with technical content, where the sample was represented by approximately 500 pupils of older school age. The main research method was a natural pedagogical experiment, where the application of created posters corresponded to the independent variable and the level of knowledge was assigned to the dependent variable. A statistically significant increase in knowledge during one-year experiment was indicated only for a poster containing the least amount of information.
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Sborník obsahuje rozšířené abstrakty účastníků sedmnáctého ročníku mezinárodní vědecko-odborné konference Trendy ve vzdělávání 2019, konané pod záštitou rektora Univerzity Palackého v Olomouci prof. Mgr. Jaroslav Millera, M. A., Ph.D. a děkanky Pedagogické fakulty Univerzity Palackého v Olomouci prof. PaedDr. Libuše Ludíkové, CSc., 15. až 17. května 2019 ve Velkých Losinách.
Discusses the use of alternative assessment procedures in English-as-a-Second-Language classrooms, focusing on three issues: (1) definitions of alternative assessment; (2) issues related to validity, reliability, and objectivity that are often raised as objections to alternative assessment; and (3) the power of alternative assessment to provide knowledge about students. (Contains 12 references.) (MDM)
Language assessment: principles and classroom practices. White Plains: Pearson Education Longman
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BROWN, H. D. Language assessment: principles and classroom practices. White Plains: Pearson Education Longman, 2004.
Review of research in education
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GARCIÁS, G. E.; PEARSON, P. D. Assessment and diversity. In: DARLING-HAMMOND, L. (Ed.). Review of research in education. Washington, D.C.: American Education Research Association, 1994. p. 337-391.