• [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This literature survey identifies the importance of effective eye care technique, to prevent ocular complications in critically ill patients. The factors that lead to the development of such complications are outlined. Details are given of a survey of 20 intensive care units (ICUs), conducted to identify common eye care techniques. The conclusion from this review is that there is little which identifies the efficacy of current eye care techniques commonly used in ICUs. There is a need for research studies which demonstrate the best substance for maintaining eye lubrication and eyelid closure, in the care of critically ill patients.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1993 · Intensive and Critical Care Nursing
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lower respiratory tract infections in intubated patients include ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). These infections are increasingly caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, which colonize the patient's oropharynx and enter the lower respiratory tract around the endotracheal tube cuff or through the lumen. Progression of colonization to VAT and, in some patients, to VAP is related to the quantity, types, and virulence of invading bacteria versus containment by host defenses. Diagnostic criteria for VAT and VAP overlap in terms of clinical signs and symptoms, and they share similar microbiologic criteria when endotracheal sputum aspirate samples are used. In addition, the diagnosis of VAP requires a new and persistent infiltrate on a chest radiograph, which may be difficult to assess in critically ill patients, and a significant bacterial culture of a endtotracheal aspirate or bronchoalveolar lavage specimen. Current guidelines for the management of VAP strongly recommend the use of early, appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy based on patient risk factors for multidrug-resistant pathogens. An alternative model focused on VAT, using serial surveillance of endotracheal aspirate specimens to identify multidrug-resistant pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibilities, would allow earlier, targeted antibiotic treatment that could improve outcomes in patients, prevent VAP, and provide an attractive model for clinical research trials.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In critically ill intubated patients, signs of respiratory infection often persist despite treatment with potent systemic antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to determine whether aerosolized antibiotics, which achieve high drug concentrations in the target organ, would more effectively treat respiratory infection and decrease the need for systemic antibiotics. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study performed from 2003 through 2004. The medical and surgical intensive care units of a university hospital. Critically ill intubated patients were randomized if: 1) > or = 18 yrs of age, intubated for a minimum of 3 days, and expected to survive at least 14 days; and 2) had ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis defined as the production of purulent secretions (> or = 2 mL during 4 hrs) with organism(s) on Gram stain. Of 104 patients monitored, 43 consented for treatment and completed the study. No patients were withdrawn from the study for adverse events. Aerosol antibiotic (AA) or aerosol saline placebo was given for 14 days or until extubation. The responsible clinician determined the administration of systemic antibiotics (SA). Patients were followed for 28 days. Primary: Centers for Disease Control National Nosocomial Infection Survey diagnostic criteria for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and clinical pulmonary infection score. Secondary: white blood cell count, SA use, acquired antibiotic resistance, and weaning from mechanical ventilation. Most patients had VAP at randomization. With treatment, the AA group had reduced signs of respiratory infection: reduced Centers for Disease Control National Nosocomial Infection Survey VAP (14/19; 73.6%) to (5/14; 35.7%) vs. placebo (18/24; 75%) to (11/14; 78.6%), reduction in clinical pulmonary infection score, lower white blood cell count at day 14, reduced bacterial resistance, reduced use of SA, and increased weaning (all p < or = .05). In critically ill patients with ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis, AA decrease VAP and other signs and symptoms of respiratory infection, facilitate weaning, and reduce bacterial resistance and use of systemic antibiotics.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2008 · Critical care medicine
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    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Critical Care
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    Preview · Article · Sep 2005 · Critical care (London, England)
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Canadian Nutrition Support Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs), published in 2003, were designed to improve nutrition support practices in intensive care units (ICUs). However, their impact to date has been modest. This study aimed to identify important barriers and enablers to implementation of these guidelines. Case studies were completed at 4 Canadian ICUs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 7 key informants at each site. During the interviews, the key informants were asked about their perceptions of the barriers and enablers to implementation of the Canadian Nutrition Support CPGs. Interview transcripts were analyzed qualitatively, using a framework approach. Resistance to change, lack of awareness, lack of critical care experience, clinical condition of the patient, resource constraints, a slow administrative process, workload, numerous guidelines, complex recommendations, paucity of evidence, and outdated guidelines were cited as the main barriers to guideline implementation. Agreement of the ICU team, easy access to the guidelines, ease of application, incorporation into daily routine, education and training, the dietitian as an opinion leader, and open discussion were identified as the primary enabling factors. Although consistent across all sites, the influence of these factors seemed to differ by site and profession. Our findings suggest that implementation of the Canadian Nutrition Support CPGs is profoundly complex and is determined by practitioner, patient, institutional, and guideline factors. Further research is required to quantify the impact of each barrier and enabler and the mechanism by which they influence guideline adherence.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Nutrition in Clinical Practice
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebral microdialysis (MD) is able to detect markers of tissue damage and cerebral ischaemia and can be used to monitor the biochemical changes subsequent to head injury. In this prospective, observational study we analysed the correlation between microdialysis markers of metabolic impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) and investigated whether changes in biomarker concentration precede rises in ICP. MD and ICP monitoring was carried out in twenty-five patients with severe TBI in Neurointensive care. MD samples were analysed hourly for lactate:pyruvate (LP) ratio, glutamate and glycerol. Abnormal values of microdialysis variables in presence of normal ICP were used to calculate the risk of intracranial hypertension developing within the next 3 h. An LP ratio >25 and glycerol >100 micromol/L, but not glutamate >12 micromol/L, were associated with significantly higher risk of imminent intracranial hypertension (odds ratio: 9.8, CI 5.8-16.1; 2.2, CI 1.6-3.8; 1.7, CI 0.6-3, respectively). An abnormal LP ratio could predict an ICP rise above normal levels in 89% of cases, whereas glycerol and glutamate had a poorer predictive value. Changes in the compound concentrations in microdialysate are a useful tool to describe molecular events triggered by TBI. These changes can occur before the onset of intracranial hypertension, suggesting that biochemical impairment can be present before low cerebral perfusion pressure is detectable. This early warning could be exploited to expand the window for therapeutic intervention.
    No preview · Article · May 2008 · Acta Neurochirurgica
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