A Prospective Study of Total Gastrectomy for CDH1-Positive Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

Departments of Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford Comprehensive Cancer Center, Stanford, CA, USA.
Annals of Surgical Oncology (Impact Factor: 3.93). 03/2011; 18(9):2594-8. DOI: 10.1245/s10434-011-1648-9
Source: PubMed


Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome. Up to 30% of families with HDGC have mutations in the E-cadherin gene, CDH1. The role of prophylactic versus therapeutic gastrectomy for HDGC was studied prospectively.
Eighteen consecutive patients with CDH1 mutations and positive family history were studied prospectively, including 13 without and 5 with symptoms. Proportions were compared by Fisher's exact test, and survival by the Breslow modification of the Wilcoxon rank-sum test.
Each patient underwent total gastrectomy (TG), and 17 (94%) were found to have signet ring cell adenocarcinoma. Twelve of 13 asymptomatic patients had T1, N0 cancer, and only 2/12 (16%) had it diagnosed preoperatively despite state-of-the-art screening methods. Each asymptomatic patient did well postoperatively, and no patient has recurred. For five symptomatic patients, each (100%) was found to have signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (P = 0.002 versus asymptomatic) by preoperative endoscopy; three (60%) had lymph node involvement and two (40%) had distant metastases at time of operation. Two-year survival was 100% for asymptomatic and 40% for symptomatic patients (P < 0.01).
The data show that asymptomatic patients with family history of HDGC and CDH1 mutation have high probability of having signet ring cell adenocarcinoma of the stomach that is not able to be diagnosed on endoscopy; when symptoms arise, the diagnosis can be made by endoscopy, but they have metastases and decreased survival. Surveillance endoscopy is of limited value, and prophylactic gastrectomy (PG) is recommended for patients with family history of HDGC and CDH1 mutations.

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Available from: Allison W Kurian, Jan 02, 2014
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    • "Screening for FGC is a critical procedure and since it has a higher risk of incidence, prophylactic gastrectomy is recommended to the members who have inherited the mutant gene (Chen et al., 2011). The importance of screening for prevention is that it will decrease cancer incidence and mortality by lowering the annual burden of society for cancer treatment and control (Winawer, 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death. It has a poor prognosis with only 5-10% of hereditary etiology. If it is diagnosed, it could be helpful for screening the other susceptible members of a family for preventive procedures. Usually it is identified by symptoms such as presence of cancer in different members of family, some special type of pathology such as diffused adenocarcinoma, having younger age and multiple cancer syndromes. Hence, designing a registry program can be a more practical way to screen high risk families for a preventive program. Materials and methods: Based on the inclusion criteria, a questionnaire was prepared. After pilot on a small number of patients, the actual data was collected from 197 patients and processed in SPSS 16.0. Results: Totally, 11.8% of the patients were younger than 45 years old. Blood type 'A' was dominant and males had a higher risk behavior with higher consumption of unhealthy food. Adenocarcinoma was reported in majority of cases. 21.8% of the patients had the including criteria for familial gastric cancer (FGC). Conclusions: The high percentage of FGC population compared to the other studies have revealed a need to design an infrastructural diagnostic protocol and screening program for patients with FGC, plus preventive program for family members at risk which could be done by a precise survey related to frequency and founder mutations of FGC in a national registry program.
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    • "In the English literature, there are at least twenty-six reported cases of colorectal carcinoma occurring in CDH1-associated HDGC kindreds; an additional eight cases of colorectal carcinoma exist in families with a history of diffuse gastric carcinoma that have tested negative for CDH1 mutations and did not meet the criteria for hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) [8-10,12,13,15,18,24-30]. It is likely that a proportion of these cases represent sporadic colorectal carcinomas unrelated to HDGC. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary diffuse gastric carcinoma is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome associated with mutations of the E-cadherin gene (CDH1). E-cadherin is normally involved in cell-cell adhesion, so it not surprising that individuals with this syndrome are predisposed to develop malignancies with dyshesive morphologies at a young age, such as diffuse (signet ring cell) gastric carcinoma and lobular breast carcinoma. Herein we describe the first reported case of primary appendiceal signet ring cell carcinoma arising in a CDH1-associated hereditary diffuse gastric carcinoma kindred with synchronous primary diffuse gastric carcinoma. A 51- year old woman, with known CDH1 mutation carrier status and a prior history of lobular breast carcinoma underwent prophylactic total gastrectomy which revealed multifocal intramucosal signet ring cell carcinoma. An appendectomy was performed at the same time due to a prior episode of presumed appendicitis, with pathologic examination significant for a primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the appendix. As appendiceal signet ring cell carcinoma is exceedingly rare, the occurrence of this neoplasm in this patient, with this particular morphology, provides credence for it being part of the hereditary diffuse gastric carcinoma spectrum of malignancies.
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    • "However, this synonymous codon substitution may lead to different kinetics of mRNA translation, thus yielding a protein with different final structure and function [40]. In silico analysis suggests that these sequence alterations may affect splicing and protein conformations [41]. Moreover, we identified one patient with an exon 3 mutation at codon 90 (268C>T), which had never been reported in the literature. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mismatch repair (MMR) and germline E-cadherin (CDH1) mutations are two of the major pathways of carcinogenesis in familial gastric cancer (GC). A total of 260 sporadic and 66 familial GC patients were enrolled and molecular and survival differences were compared. Familial GC patients had earlier onset and were diagnosed at an earlier stage and had both a better 5-year overall survival rate and 3-year disease-free survival rate compared with sporadic GC patients. Only in diffuse type GC, the MSI-H phenotype and abnormal MMR protein expression were significantly higher in familial GC than in sporadic GC. In MSI-H GC, MLH1 promoter methylation was slightly higher in sporadic GC than familial GC (50% versus 23.1%), while the frequency of MMR gene mutation was slightly higher in familial GC than in sporadic GC (15.4% versus 3.1%). All of the patients with MMR gene mutation had diffuse type GC. Among familial GC patients with CDH1 mutation, most patients (72.3%) had diffuse type GC. In summary, for familial GC patients, we recommend screening of MSI status and CDH1 mutation especially for diffuse type GC. Because of the low incidence, mutation analysis of MMR gene might be considered in MSI-H familial GC with diffuse type only.
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