Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China
Fujian Provincial Centre for Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases and Chemical Poisoning, Fuzhou, China. American Journal of Public Health
(Impact Factor: 4.55).
03/2011; 101(5):834-41. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2010.193656
We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China.
In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 μg/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression.
Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 μg/dL vs 20%, 7.1 μg/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year.
Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby.
Available from: Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman
- "They also reported that blood Pb level was associated with gender, ethnic group, education level, smoking, alcohol consumption, drinking water sources and residential location (Liou et al., 1994). Lin et al. (2011) investigated the environmental Pb pollution and its impact on children's blood Pb level in a rural area of China, reporting that 86% of 379 children (b 15 years old) living near Pb mines and processing plants, had elevated levels of Pb (N 15 μg/dL). "
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ABSTRACT: Lead (Pb) poisoning in children is a major public health catastrophe worldwide. This report summarises both exposure pathways and blood Pb levels in children below 7years of age and adults (above 18years) from the Adudu community living near a lead-zinc mine in Nasawara, Nigeria. The average and median blood Pb levels in children and adults were 2.1 and 1.3μg/dL, 3.1 and 1.8μg/dL, respectively. However, Pb in 14% of adults' blood exceeded 5μg/dL, which is the recommended threshold blood Pb concentration in adults as established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Furthermore 68% of adults' blood exceeded blood Pb action level of 2μg/dL. For children, 11.4% and 31% of the blood samples exceeded 5μg/dL and 2μg/dL, respectively, while no safe blood Pb level in children has been recommended. In Nasawara, a significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between the various age groups in children with 2-4years old having the highest levels and 6year old children having the lowest Pb levels. Although this study did not detect elevated levels of Pb in children's blood in regions such as Zamfara, Nigeria and Kabwe, Zambia, a high percentage of samples exceeded 2μg/dL. Soils, floor dusts, water and crops also reveal that Pb contamination in the study area could potentially be the major cause of blood Pb in the community exposed to mining. This study also observed a significant correlation between water Pb levels of adults and blood Pb levels, suggesting that water is the major exposure pathway. This analysis highlights the need to properly manage mining activities so that the health of communities living in the vicinity of a Pb-Zn mine is not compromised.
Available from: Mary Ellen Mortensen
- ". One of these described mercury exposure from gold mining in Indonesia , and one described blood lead levels in teenagers employed in an auto repair business in Turkey . Two studies described occupational take-home exposures of lead in children living with parents who were employed in mining and smelting industries  . Worker education and improved industrial hygiene practices are well-known interventions that could be implemented and have been effective in reducing occupational take-home exposures in developed countries. "
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ABSTRACT: Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between lead powder use, as folk skin care, and blood lead level (BLL) in children, we studied 222 children up to 14-years old living in a Chinese rural area and administered a face to face interview with their parents to collect information on lead powder use and other potential exposure. We measured children's BLL at baseline and 2 years later after an intervention. The children were divided into three categories according to their use of lead powder: regular use, irregular use and never use. We applied multivariate linear regression to determine the association between lead powder use and elevated BLL. The average BLL of all children was 18 μg/dl; 56% of them had BLL of 10 μg/dl or higher. Lead powder use was significantly associated with elevated BLL. After adjusting for potential confounders the BLL of regular and irregular users was higher than non-users by 3.11 μg/dl and 1.47 μg/dl, respectively. Duration of lead powder use was positively associated with BLL, but the time since last use was inversely associated. A significant BLL reduction was observed 2 years later, and the greatest reduction (21 μg/dl) was seen in the youngest group of regular users. This study showed that traditional use of lead powder for a skin care purpose was a major contributor to elevated BLL in these children.
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