The role of immune semaphorins in multiple sclerosis

Department of Neurology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.
FEBS letters (Impact Factor: 3.17). 03/2011; 585(23):3829-35. DOI: 10.1016/j.febslet.2011.03.033
Source: PubMed


The nervous and immune systems have similar functional characteristics. Both have an intricate network of synaptic connections and an exquisite communication system that enable intercellular signal transduction. Although semaphorins were originally identified as guidance cues in neural development, accumulating evidence indicates that several semaphorins called 'immune semaphorins', such as Sema3A, 4A, 4D, 6D and 7A, are critically involved in various phases of the immune response by regulating immune cell-cell contacts or cell migration. In this review, we present recent knowledge on the functions of semaphorins and their receptors in the immune system and their potential roles in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), a representative CNS autoimmune disease, and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).

Download full-text


Available from: Tatsusada Okuno, Mar 18, 2014
  • Source
    • "In another study, the known immunosuppressive function of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was attributed in part to their ability to secrete sema3A which, by binding to NP-1, was found to inhibit T cell proliferation [17]. Becoming a frontier player in the regulation of immune responses and the maintenance of self-tolerance, sema3A should be expected to be involved in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases [18,19]. The study by Catalano [20] was the first to report on the defective expression of sema3A in CD4 T cells derived from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Semaphorin 3A (sema3A) and neuropilin-1 (NP-1) play a regulatory role in immune responses and have a demonstrated effect on the course of collagen induced arthritis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of sema3A and NP-1 in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the specific effect of sema3A on the auto-reactive properties of B cells in SLE patients. Thirty two SLE and 24 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were assessed and compared with 40 normal individuals. Sema3A serum levels were measured and correlated with SLE disease activity. The in vitro effect of sema3A in reducing Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) expression in B cells of SLE patients was evaluated. Sema3A serum levels in SLE patients were found to be significantly lower than in RA patients (55.04 ± 16.30 ng/ml versus 65.54 ± 14.82 ng/ml, P = 0.018) and lower yet than in normal individuals (55.04 ± 16.30 ng/ml versus 74.41 ± 17.60 ng/ml, P < 0.0001). Altered serum sema3A levels were found to be in inverse correlation with SLE disease activity, mainly with renal damage. The expression of both sema3A and NP-1 on B cells from SLE patients was significantly different in comparison with normal healthy individuals. Finally, when sema3A was co-cultured with cytosine-phosphodiester-guanine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN)-stimulated B cells of SLE patients, their TLR-9 expression was significantly reduced, by almost 50% (P = 0.001). This is the first study in which a reduced serum level of sema3A was found in association with SLE disease activity. It also raises the possibility that sema3A may have a regulatory function in SLE.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Arthritis research & therapy
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thymocytes must complete an elaborate developmental program in the thymus to ultimately generate T cells that express functional but neither harmful nor useless TCRs. Each developmental step coincides with dynamic relocation of the thymocytes between anatomically discrete thymic microenvironments, suggesting that thymocytes' migration is tightly regulated by their developmental status. Chemokines produced by thymic stromal cells and chemokine receptors on the thymocytes play an indispensable role in guiding developing thymocytes into the different microenvironments. In addition to long-range migration, chemokines increase the thymocytes' motility, enhancing their interaction with stromal cells. During the past several years, much progress has been made to determine the various signals that guide thymocytes on their journey within the thymus. In this review, we summarize the progress in identifying chemokines and other chemoattractant signals that direct intrathymic migration. Furthermore, we discuss the recent advances of two-photon microscopy in determining dynamic motility and interaction behavior of thymocytes within distinct compartments to provide a better understanding of the relationship between thymocyte motility and development.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We determined Semaphorin 7a (Sema7a) localization and abundance in naive corneas and in corneas after nerve-transecting lamellar flap surgery, and determined the effect of Sema7a supplementation on corneal nerve regeneration and inflammation. Immunolocalization and Western blot analyses were performed to evaluate the abundance of Sema7a in naive corneas and corneas undergoing nerve regeneration after lamellar corneal surgery in thy1-YFP+ neurofluorescent mice. We used compartmental cultures of dissociated trigeminal ganglion cells to determine the effect of Sema7a exposure on neurite outgrowth in vitro. Finally, a Sema7a pellet was implanted under the corneal flap after lamellar transection surgery to determine the neuronal and inflammatory effects of Sema7a supplementation in vivo. Sema7a was expressed in the corneal epithelium and stromal keratocytes, but was more abundant in the epithelium (74.3%) compared to the stroma (25.7%, P = 0.02). Sema7a expression was increased significantly in the cornea after lamellar corneal surgery and was localized to stromal cells near the regenerating nerve fronds. Exposure of trigeminal neurites to Sema7a (20 nM) in the side compartment increased neurite length significantly. The implanted Sema7a pellet increased significantly YFP+ inflammatory cell influx into the cornea as well as increased corneal nerve length. Sema7a is expressed constitutively in the cornea, and potently stimulates nerve regeneration and inflammatory cell influx. Therefore, this immune semaphorin links nerve regeneration and inflammatory processes in the cornea.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
Show more