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Slyšte volání muezzinovo : České země a arabský svět ve starším středověku (do roku 1300) /



Pod názvem: Centrum blízkovýchodních studií, Fakulta filozofická - ZČU v Plzni Monografie představuje badatelský výstup z grantového projektu Grantové agentury č. 404/08/J013 "Pastýři černohlavých" 210 výt.
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A NEAR EASTERN HAPLOTYPE IN THE BURIAL OF A YOUNG MAN WITH A FISSURE IN THE SKULL FROM THE EARLY MEDIEVAL CEMETERY AT TETÍN In the paper, the results of the anthropological investigation of graveNo. 7 fromthe earlymedieval cemetery at Tetín are published. At the same time, the partial results of a pilot archeogenetical project are presented. According to the basic data, the individual was of the male gender, belonged to the adultus I stage (20–30 years), and was about 167 cmtall. According to the pathological finding, he suffered froma congenital cerebral herniation (cephalocele, hernia cerebri) between parietal bones, caused by a congenial limited fissure of the skull (cranioschisis). For the purpose of prediction of geographical origin, an analysis of the Y chromosome was carried out and theG2 haplogroup was predicted (defined by theM201mutation), which probably arose in the Near East or in South Asia from the F haplogroup. Its spread took place during the Neolithic agricultural revolution.
King Roger II of Sicily (1101-54) sponsored the work of Prince Idrisi, the Arab geographer/cartographer who produced a world guide and a map of the world drawn on silver. They sent travellers all over the then known world and when two out of three reports agreed they recorded their findings. Some copies of the silver map are reproduced here and the author tries to decipher them and to correct some of the mistakes perpetrated by Jaubert, a previous translator of Idrisi. -Eileen Turner.
Odoric of Pordenone (c. 1275/85-1331), a Franciscan friar and one of the chief travelers to Asia during the later Middle Ages, traveled between 1314/1318 and 1330 to the "eastern parts of the world" (orientalium partium), and on the return journey he may have visited Tibet (or some of its outlying areas). After his return in 1330, he dictated an account of his travels, which soon became a best-seller. Since it included many descriptions and facts not mentioned in Marco Polo's "Il Milione", the text became an important source both for the fictitious account of "John Mandeville" and the famous Catalan Atlas of 1375. There are many mysteries about Odoric and his travels, including some doubt as to whether he was actually in China. In addition, very little is known about his missionary activities in China and about his journey back to Europe. One of the everlasting questions is: Was he really in Tibet, as mentioned in his account?
"From Prizes of War to Domestic Merchandise: The Changing Face of Slavery in Catalonia and Aragon, 1000-1300." Most investigations of medieval slavery have concentrated on the disappearance of Roman slavery before the year 1000 or on the expanding slave trade in the fourteenth and fifteenth century. This article examines how new power relations affected the nature of slavery in Catalonia and Aragon between 1000 and 1300, as the military balance in the Iberian peninsula shifted in favor of the Christian north. Acquired through war and distributed through a tributary economy, Muslim slaves were at first not easily integrated into the world of their owners. The rise of a commercial economy, however, transformed slavery into primarily an urban phenomenon. As artisans and prosperous burghers acquired slaves for domestic labor, women began to appear much more frequently than men on the slave market and were more firmly attached to the households of their owners than earlier. Slavery was therefore not a mere ves...