Determination of β-blockers in pharmaceutical and human urine by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescence detection and studies on the pharmacokinetics

College of Material, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, China.
Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences (Impact Factor: 2.73). 02/2011; 879(13-14):871-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2011.02.032
Source: PubMed


A novel method for simultaneous determination of atenolol, metoprolol and esmolol was proposed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection. Poly-β-cyclodextrin (Poly-β-CD) was used as an additive in the running buffer to improve the separation of three analytes. The conditions for CE separation, ECL detection and effect of Poly-β-CD were investigated in detail. The three β-blockers with very similar structures were well separated and detected under the optimum conditions. The linear ranges of the standard solution for atenolol and esmolol were 2.5-125 μmol/L with a detection limit (S/N=3) of 0.5 μmol/L, and for metoprolol was 0.5-25 μmol/L with a detection limit of 0.1 μmol/L. For three β-blockers from spiked aqueous and urine samples, the accuracy and precision including intraday and interday experiments were performed by calculating the recovery, the relative standard deviations of the ECL intensity and the migration time, respectively. The developed method was applied to the determination of metoprolol content in commercial pharmaceutical, and the analytical results are in good agreement with the nominal value with recoveries in the range of 98.7-105%. The proposed method was also applied to the monitoring of pharmacokinetics for metoprolol in human body.

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    ABSTRACT: A second-order multivariate calibration method based on a combination of unfolded partial least-squares (U-PLS) with residual bilinearization (RBL) has been applied to second-order data obtained from excitation-emission fluorescence matrices for determining atenolol in human urine, even in the presence of background interactions and fluorescence inner filter effects, which are both sample dependent. Atenolol is a cardioselective beta-blocker, which is considered a doping agent in shoot practice, so that its determination in urine can be required for monitoring the drug. Loss of trilinearity due to analyte-background interactions which may vary between samples, as well as inner filter effects, precludes the use of methods like parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) that cannot handle trilinearity deviations, and justifies the employment of U-PLS. Successful analysis required to include the background in the calibration set. Unexpected components appear in new urine samples, different from those used in calibration set, requiring the second-order advantage which is obtained from a separate procedure known as residual bilinearization (RBL). Satisfactory results were obtained for artificially spiked urines, and also for real urine samples. They were statistically compared with those obtained applying a reference method based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
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    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of chromatographic science
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