Article

Ontogenetic profile of ecto-5′-nucleotidase in rat brain synaptic plasma membranes

Laboratory for Molecular Biology and Endocrinology, Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, University of Belgrade, Mike Petrovica 12-14, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.
International journal of developmental neuroscience: the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 2.58). 03/2011; 29(4):397-403. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2011.03.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73; EC 3.1.3.5, e-5NT) is regarded as the key enzyme in the extracellular formation of adenosine, which acts as a neuromodulator and important trophic and homeostatic factor in the brain. In the present study, we have investigated e-5NT activity, kinetic properties concerning AMP hydrolysis and the enzyme protein abundance in the purified synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) preparations isolated from whole female rat brain at different ages. We observed pronounced increase in AMP hydrolyzing activity in SPM during maturation, with greatest increment between juvenile (15-day-old) and pre-pubertal (30-day-old) rats. Immunodetection of e-5NT protein in the SPM displayed the reverse pattern of expression, with the maximum relative abundance at juvenile and minimum relative abundance in the adult stage. Negative correlation between the enzyme activity and the enzyme protein abundance in the SPM indicates that e-5NT has additional roles in the synaptic compartment during postnatal brain development, other than those related to AMP hydrolysis. Determination of kinetic parameters, K(m) and V(max), suggested that the increase in the enzyme activity with maturation was entirely due to the increase in the enzyme catalytic efficiency (V(max)/K(m)). Finally, double immunofluorescence staining against e-5NT and presynaptic membrane marker syntaxin provided first direct evidence for the existence of this ecto-enzyme in the presynaptic compartment. The results of the study suggest that e-5NT may be a part of general scheme of brain development and synapse maturation and provide rationale for the previously reported inconsistencies between enzyme immunohistochemical and biochemical studies concerning localization of e-5NT in the brain.

Full-text

Available from: Ivana Grkovic, Jun 09, 2014
  • Source
    • "However, reciprocal trends between eN activity and protein level were demonstrated , such that the highest specific activity of the enzyme was detected at diestrus, when the abundance of the enzyme protein was low. It is already demonstrated in several physiological contexts that the rate of eN activity does not necessarily correlate with the enzyme protein abundance (Stanojevic et al., 2011; Brisevac et al., 2012; Da Silva et al., 2012) and that the activity of eN may increase or decrease due to changes in kinetic properties rather than variations in the enzyme abundance. Interestingly , besides hydrolysis of AMP, eN was also reported to function as cell adhesion molecule, involved in recognition , migration, synaptic plasticity and remodeling (Zimmermann, 1992; Zimmermann et al., 2012 ). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 17β-estradiol (E2) crucially affects several processes in the hippocampus of both sexes. E2 acts upon estradiol receptors ERα and ERβ, influencing target gene expression and/or modulates intracellular signaling cascades. Another potent modulator of hippocampal function is nucleoside adenosine, the final product of ectonucleotidase cascade, enzymes which hydrolyze extracellular ATP to adenosine. The last and rate-limiting step of the hydrolysis is catalyzed by membrane-bound ecto-5′-nucleotidase (eN). Previous findings obtained on adenosine metabolism in brain suggest that eN may be modulated by ovarian steroids Therefore, the present study reports that the activity and protein abundance of membrane-bound eN fluctuates across the estrus cycle in the hippocampal synaptosomes of female rats. Further, we analyzed the role of E2 and its intracellular receptors on the expression of eN in ovariectomized females. We found that E2 upregulated eN activity and protein abundance in the hippocampal synaptosomes. Application of nonspecific ER antagonist, ICI 182,780 and selective ERα and ERβ agonists, PPT and DPN, respectively, demonstrated the involvement of both receptor subtypes in observed actions. Selective ERα receptor agonist, PPT, induced upregulation of both the protein level and activity of eN, while application of selective ERβ receptor agonist, DPN, increased only the activity of eN. In both cases, E2 entered into the intracellular compartment and activated ER(s), which was demonstrated by membrane impermeable E2-BSA conjugate. Together these results imply that E2-induced effects on connectivity and functional properties of the hippocampal synapses may be in part mediated through observed effect on eN.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016 · Neuroscience
  • Source
    • "Ecto-5′-Nucleotidase Assay Ecto-5′-nucleotidase assay was performed in the reaction medium containing the following: 5 mM MgCl 2 and 50 mM Tris- HCl buffer, pH 7.4 and 20 μg of SPM proteins (Stanojevic et al. 2011). The reaction was initiated by the addition of 1.0 mM AMP (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (e-5NT), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked membrane protein, catalyzes a conversion of AMP to adenosine, which influences nearly every aspect of brain physiology, including embryonic and postnatal brain development. The present study aimed to investigate a pattern of expression, activity and kinetic properties of e-5NT in the hippocampal formation and synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) preparations in rats at postnatal days (PDs) 7, 15, 20, 30 and 90. By combining gene expression analysis and enzyme histochemistry, we observed that e-5NT mRNA reached the adult level at PD20, while the enzyme activity continued to increase beyond this age. Further analysis revealed that hippocampal layers rich in synapses expressed the highest levels of e-5NT activity, while in layers populated with neuronal cell bodies, the enzyme activity was weak or absent. Therefore, activity and expression of e-5NT were analyzed in SPM preparations isolated from rats at different ages. The presence of two protein bands of about 65 and 68 kDa was determined by immunoblot analysis. The 65-kDa band was present at all ages, and its abundance increased from PD7 to PD20. The 68-kDa band appeared at PD15 and increased until PD30, coinciding with the increase of e-5NT activity, substrate affinity and enzymatic efficiency. Since distinct e-5NT isoforms may derive from different patterns of the enzyme protein N-glycosylation, we speculate that long-term regulation of e-5NT activity in adulthood may be effectuated at posttranslational level and without overall change in the gene and protein expression.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of Molecular Neuroscience
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nucleotides and nucleosides play an important role in neurodevelopment acting through specific receptors. Ectonucleotidases are the major enzymes involved in controlling the availability of purinergic receptors ligands. ATP is co-released with several neurotransmitters and is the most important source of extracellular adenosine by catabolism exerted by ectonucleotidases. The main ectonucleotidases are named NTPDases (1-8) and 5'-nucleotidase. Adenosine is a powerful modulator of neurotransmitter release. Caffeine blocks adenosine receptor activity as well as adenosine-mediated neuromodulation. Considering the susceptibility of the immature brain to caffeine and the need for correct purinergic signaling during fetal development, we have analyzed the effects of caffeine exposure during gestational and lactational periods on nucleotide degradation and ectonucleotidase expression from the hippocampi of 7-, 14- and 21-days-old rats. Nucleotides hydrolysis was assessed by colorimetric determination of inorganic phosphate released. Ectonucleotidases expression was performed by RT-PCR. ATP and ADP hydrolysis displayed parallel age-dependent decreases in both control and caffeine-treated groups. AMP hydrolysis increased with caffeine treatment in 7-days-old rats (75%); although there was no significant difference in AMP hydrolysis between control (non caffeine-treated) rats and 14- or 21-days caffeine-treated rats. ADP hydrolysis was not affected by caffeine treatment. Caffeine treatment in 7- and 14-days-old rats decreased ATP hydrolysis when compared to the control group (19% and 60% decrease, respectively), but 21-days-treated rats showed an increase in ATP hydrolysis (39%). Expression levels of NTPDase 1 and 5 decreased in hippocampi of caffeine-treated rats. The expression of 5'-nucleotidase was not affected after caffeine exposure. The changes observed in nucleotide hydrolysis and ectonucleotidases expression could promote subtle effects on normal neural development considering the neuromodulatory role of adenosine.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Neurochemical Research
Show more