Article

The expanding Lyme Borrelia complex--clinical significance of genomic species?

Institute for Hygiene and Applied Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection (Impact Factor: 5.77). 04/2011; 17(4):487-93. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2011.03492.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Clin Microbiol Infect 2011; 17: 487–493
Ten years after the discovery of spirochaetes as agents of Lyme disease in 1982 in the USA, three genomic species had diverged from the phenotypically heterogeneous strains of Borrelia burgdorferi isolated in North America and Europe: Borrelia afzelii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (further B. burgdorferi), and Borrelia garinii. Whereas B. burgdorferi remained the only human pathogen in North America, all three species are aetiological agents of Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Another seven genospecies were described in the 1990s, including species from Asia (Borrelia japonica, Borrelia turdi, and B. tanukii), North America (Borrelia andersonii), Europe (Borrelia lusitaniae and Borrelia valaisiana), and from Europe and Asia (Borrelia bissettii). Another eight species were delineated in the years up to 2010: Borrelia sinica (Asia), Borrelia spielmanii (Europe), Borrelia yangtze (Asia), Borrelia californiensis, Borrelia americana, Borrelia carolinensis (North America), Borrelia bavariensis (Europe), and Borrelia kurtenbachii (North America). Of these 18 genomic species B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi and B. garinii are the confirmed agents of localized, disseminated and chronic manifestations of Lyme borreliosis, whereas B. spielmanii has been detected in early skin disease, and B. bissettii and B. valaisiana have been detected in specimens from single cases of Lyme borreliosis. The clinical role of B. lusitaniae remains to be substantiated.

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    • "complex is a group of more than 20 genospecies, however evident pathogenicity is mainly attributed to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii and B. afzelii. Admittedly, other genospecies are also isolated from patients with symptoms of borreliosis, but their pathogenesis is not clear [5]. "

    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
    • "complex is a group of more than 20 genospecies, however evident pathogenicity is mainly attributed to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii and B. afzelii. Admittedly, other genospecies are also isolated from patients with symptoms of borreliosis, but their pathogenesis is not clear [5]. "

    No preview · Article · Nov 2015
    • "In most cases, an early symptom of a Borrelia infection is the localized skin manifestation erythema migrans (EM), which usually appears at the site of the tick bite and expands within days to weeks after infection. Disseminated Borrelia infections may involve neurologic, joint and/or skin manifestations and occur weeks to months after the primary infection (Stanek et al., 2011). However , we and others have earlier shown that most people infected seem to remain asymptomatic (Fryland et al., 2011; Huegli et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a common and increasing tick-borne disease in Europe. The risk of acquiring a Borrelia infection after a tick bite is not fully known. Therefore, we investigated the incidence of Borrelia infection after a bite by a Borrelia-infected tick and if the Borrelia load and/or the duration of tick-feeding influenced the risk of infection. During 2008-2009, ticks and blood samples were collected from 1546 tick-bitten persons from Sweden and the Åland Islands, Finland. Follow-up blood samples were taken 3 months after the tick bite. The duration of tick feeding was microscopically estimated and Borrelia was detected and quantified in ticks by real-time PCR. Anti-Borrelia antibodies were detected in sera using ELISA tests and immunoblot. Five percent (78/1546) of the study participants developed Borrelia infection (LB diagnosis and/or seroconversion) after a tick bite (45% bitten by Borrelia-infected ticks and 55% bitten by uninfected ticks). Of these, 33 developed LB (whereof 9 also seroconverted) while 45 participants seroconverted only. Experience of non-specific symptoms was more frequently reported by Borrelia-infected participants compared to uninfected participants. All who seroconverted removed "their" ticks significantly later than those who did not. The Borrelia load in the ticks did not explain the risk of seroconversion. Regional and sex differences in the Borrelia seroprevalence were found. The risk of developing a Borrelia infection after a bite by a Borrelia-infected tick is small but increases with the duration of tick feeding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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