Physical activity in U.S. adults. Compliance with the Physical Activity Guideline for Americans

Department of Health, Nutrition and Exercise Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58108-6050, USA.
American journal of preventive medicine (Impact Factor: 4.53). 04/2011; 40(4):454-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2010.12.016
Source: PubMed


To date, no study has objectively measured physical activity levels among U.S. adults according to the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (PAGA).
The purpose of this study was to assess self-reported and objectively measured physical activity among U.S. adults according to the PAGA.
Using data from the NHANES 2005-2006, the PAGA were assessed using three physical activity calculations: moderate plus vigorous physical activity ≥150 minutes/week (MVPA); moderate plus two instances of vigorous physical activity ≥150 minutes/week (M2VPA); and time spent above 3 METs ≥500 MET-minutes/week (METPA). Self-reported physical activity included leisure, transportation, and household activities. Objective activity was measured using Actigraph accelerometers that were worn for 7 consecutive days. Analyses were conducted in 2009-2010.
U.S. adults reported 324.5 ± 18.6 minutes/week (M ± SE) of moderate physical activity and 73.6 ± 3.9 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity, although accelerometry estimates were 45.1 ± 4.6 minutes/week of moderate physical activity and 18.6 ± 6.6 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity. The proportion of adults meeting the PAGA according to M2VPA was 62.0% for self-report and 9.6% for accelerometry.
According to the NHANES 2005-2006, fewer than 10% of U.S. adults met the PAGA according to accelerometry. However, physical activity estimates vary substantially depending on whether self-reported or measured via accelerometer.

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    • "To date, most data on physical activity among older adults is based on self-report, yet these activity calculations can underestimate energy expenditure because they do not consider spontaneous physical activities and often fail to record the complexity and multidimensional nature of active behavior that occurs during normal daily life (Kashiwazaki et al., 2009; Leonard et al., 1997; Snodgrass, 2012). Moreover, population studies such as NHANES in the United States have documented marked overestimations of activity by self-report compared to accelerometry (Troiano et al., 2008; Tucker et al., 2011). In fact, a panel of experts recently concluded that self-report physical activity energy expenditure measurements " are so poor that they are wholly unacceptable for scientific research " (Dhurandhar et al., 2015: 1109). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Accelerometry provides researchers with a powerful tool to measure physical activity in population-based studies, yet this technology has been underutilized in cross-cultural studies of older adults. The present study was conducted among older adults in an urban setting in India with the following three objectives: (1) to compare average activity levels obtained through different durations of monitoring (1, 3, and 7 days); (2) to document differences in physical activity patterns by sex and age; and (3) to evaluate links between measures of physical activity and anthropometrics, as well as between activity parameters and measures of household size, work status, and social cohesion. Methods: The present study uses data from a physical activity substudy of the World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE-PA). This study of 200 older adults (49-90 years old; 72 males, 128 females) in urban India combines 7 continuous days of ActiGraph GT3X accelerometry with anthropometric and sociodemographic data. Results: Results reveal overall low activity levels, with significantly lower activity energy expenditure (AEE) among females (P < 0.05). No significant differences were documented in activity level by monitoring duration. Age was negatively correlated with AEE in men (P < 0.01) and women (P < 0.001). AEE was positively correlated with BMI in men (P < 0.01) and women (P < 0.05). Finally, women who were more socially integrated had greater AEE (P < 0.01). Conclusions: This study illustrates the utility of accelerometry for quantifying activity levels in aging populations in non-Western nations. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · American Journal of Human Biology
    • "The importance of physical activity on health and disease prevention is unequivocal (Paffenbarger, Hyde, Wing, & Hsieh, 1986); however, few adults (approximately 10–40%) participate in sufficient amounts of physical activity (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2013; Tucker, Welk, & Beyler, 2011), particularly if they are obese (Davis, Hodges, & Gillham, 2006). The ability to monitor individual physical activity behaviour is positively associated with the volume of physical activity completed (Son, Kerstetter , Mowen, & Payne, 2009; Umstattd & Hallam, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Monitoring physical activity is important to better individualise health and fitness benefits. This study assessed the concurrent validity of a smartphone global positioning system (GPS) 'app' and a sport-specific GPS device with a similar sampling rate, to measure physical activity components of speed and distance, compared to a higher sampling sport-specific GPS device. Thirty-eight (21 female, 17 male) participants, mean age of 24.68, s = 6.46 years, completed two 2.400 km trials around an all-weather athletics track wearing GPSports Pro™ (PRO), GPSports WiSpi™ (WISPI) and an iPhone™ with a Motion X GPS™ 'app' (MOTIONX). Statistical agreement, assessed using t-tests and Bland-Altman plots, indicated an (mean; 95% LOA) underestimation of 2% for average speed (0.126 km·h(-1); -0.389 to 0.642; p < .001), 1.7% for maximal speed (0.442 km·h(-1); -2.676 to 3.561; p = .018) and 1.9% for distance (0.045 km; -0.140 to 0.232; p < .001) by MOTIONX compared to that measured by PRO. In contrast, compared to PRO, WISPI overestimated average speed (0.232 km·h(-1); -0.376 to 0.088; p < .001) and distance (0.083 km; -0.129 to -0.038; p < .001) by 3.5% whilst underestimating maximal speed by 2.5% (0.474 km·h(-1); -1.152 to 2.099; p < .001). Despite the statistically significant difference, the MOTIONX measures intensity of physical activity, with a similar error as WISPI, to an acceptable level for population-based monitoring in unimpeded open-air environments. This presents a low-cost, minimal burden opportunity to remotely monitor physical activity participation to improve the prescription of exercise as medicine.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · European Journal of Sport Science
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    • "Physical activity levels are lower among racial/ethnic minorities and rural residents. Latinos are less physically active than non-Latino whites (Tucker et al., 2011) and rural residents are less active compared with urban and suburban residents (Martin et al., 2005; Parks et al., 2003). This disparity in physical activity contributes to the greater burden of obesity, heart disease and diabetes among rural residents and rural Latinos in particular, compared with non-Hispanic whites and urban residents (Blackwell et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Latinos and rural residents are less active and have a greater prevalence of overweight/obesity compared with their non-Latino white and urban counterparts. The objective of this study was to assess the active living environment in four rural, predominantly Latino communities. Methods: Assessments were taken using the Rural Active Living Assessment (RALA) in four rural predominantly Latino communities in Central Washington from September-November 2013. Street Segment Assessments of town center, thoroughfare, neighborhood and school zones were assessed for features related to walkability. Physical activity amenities, programs and policies in each town were assessed. Scores were generated for amenities, programs and policies. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results: A total of 103 segments were assessed. Sidewalks in good condition were present in 32% of segments and shoulders in 44% of segments. Half of street segments were rated as walkable. Parks and playgrounds were available however, half of these were rated in poor condition. All four districts offered after school physical activity programming but only two had a late bus option. Conclusions: These four rural towns have some policies, programming and infrastructure in place that support active living. The information from the RALA can be used to inform program and policy development to enhance physical activity in these rural communities.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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