Effectiveness of Bed Bug Monitors for Detecting and Trapping Bed Bugs in Apartments

Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.
Journal of Economic Entomology (Impact Factor: 1.51). 02/2011; 104(1):274-8. DOI: 10.1603/EC10141
Source: PubMed


Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are now considered a serious urban pest in the United States. Because they are small and difficult to find, there has been strong interest in developing and using monitoring tools to detect bed bugs and evaluate the results of bed bug control efforts. Several bed bug monitoring devices were developed recently, but their effectiveness is unknown. We comparatively evaluated three active monitors that contain attractants: CDC3000, NightWatch, and a home-made dry ice trap. The Climbup Insect Interceptor, a passive monitor (without attractants), was used for estimating the bed bug numbers before and after placing active monitors. The results of the Interceptors also were compared with the results of the active monitors. In occupied apartments, the relative effectiveness of the active monitors was: dry ice trap > CDC3000 > NightWatch. In lightly infested apartments, the Interceptor (operated for 7 d) trapped similar number of bed bugs as the dry ice trap (operated for 1 d) and trapped more bed bugs than CDC3000 and NightWatch (operated for 1 d). The Interceptor was also more effective than visual inspections in detecting the presence of small numbers of bed bugs. CDC3000 and the dry ice trap operated for 1 d were equally as effective as the visual inspections for detecting very low level of infestations, whereas 1-d deployment of NightWatch detected significantly lower number of infestations compared with visual inspections. NightWatch was designed to be able to operate for several consecutive nights. When operated for four nights, NightWatch trapped similar number of bed bugs as the Interceptors operated for 10 d after deployment of NightWatch. We conclude these monitors are effective tools in detecting early bed bug infestations and evaluating the results of bed bug control programs.

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    • "Various bed bug 'monitors' have also been developed that operate either without a lure or bait (passive) or with an attractant, such as heat, carbon dioxide or other host-specific cues (active) (Vaidyanathan & Feldlaufer, 2013). Descriptions are available for active monitors using either host-specific cues, such as carbon dioxide, octenol and lactic acid (Wang et al., 2011; Singh et al., 2012; Aak et al., 2014), or bed bug-derived components from scent glands and faecal excrement (Siljander et al., 2008; Olson et al., 2009; Weeks et al., 2013). Although numerous monitors have been developed, no type (passive or active) has gained widespread use, primarily because of inconsistencies under field conditions (Weeks et al., 2011a). "
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    • "Similarly, our results show 1-d deployment of a dry ice or sugar–yeast monitor is equally effective as 11-d placement of interceptors under furniture legs. The current study is different from the Wang et al. (2011) study in that less dry ice was used in this study (400 vs. 1100 g). Higher CO 2 release rate and greater detection efficacy can be achieved by increasing the quantity of the sugar–yeast materials; however, the container size will need to be larger and become very cumbersome. "
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    • "NightWatch trap generating the second - highest concentration , albeit significantly lower than the concentration generated by the baited ClimbUp . These two traps were also the most effica - cious . This relationship is similar to the findings of Wang et al . ( 2011 ) , where traps with the highest CO 2 output caught the most bed bugs . In fact , Wang et al . ( 2011 ) found the most effective trap to be a homemade device consisting of an inverted cat feeder baited with a dry ice - filled thermos . This trap design is similar to the dry ice - baited ClimbUp trap used in the current study . An increase in tick responsiveness and attraction to CO 2 has been shown in other studies as well . Lone star t"
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