Stopping Smoking Shortly Before Surgery and Postoperative Complications A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Queen Mary University of London, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, England, UK. Archives of internal medicine
(Impact Factor: 17.33).
03/2011; 171(11):983-9. DOI: 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.97
To examine existing smoking studies that compare surgical patients who have recently quit smoking with those who continue to smoke to provide an evidence-based recommendation for front-line staff. Concerns have been expressed that stopping smoking within 8 weeks before surgery may be detrimental to postoperative outcomes. This has generated considerable uncertainty even in health care systems that consider smoking cessation advice in the hospital setting an important priority. Smokers who stop smoking shortly before surgery (recent quitters) have been reported to have worse surgical outcomes than early quitters, but this may indicate only that recent quitting is less beneficial than early quitting, not that it is risky.
Systematic review with meta-analysis.
British Nursing Index (BNI), The Cochrane Library database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Embase, Medline, PsycINFO to May 2010, and reference lists of included studies.
Studies were included that allow a comparison of postoperative complications in patients undergoing any type of surgery who stopped smoking within 8 weeks prior to surgery and those who continued to smoke.
Two reviewers independently screened potential studies and assessed their methodologic quality. Data were entered into 3 separate meta-analyses that considered all available studies, studies with a low risk of bias that validated self-reported abstinence (to assess possible benefits), and studies of pulmonary complications only (to assess possible risks). Results were combined by using a random-effects model, and heterogeneity was evaluated by using the I(2) statistic.
Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. One found a beneficial effect of recent quitting compared with continuing smoking, and none identified any detrimental effects. In meta-analyses, quitting smoking within 8 weeks before surgery was not associated with an increase or decrease in overall postoperative complications for all available studies (relative risk [RR], 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-1.07), for a group of 3 studies with high-quality scores (RR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.16-2.01), or for a group of 4 studies that specifically evaluated pulmonary complications (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.95-1.46).
Existing data indicate that the concern that stopping smoking only a few weeks prior to surgery might worsen clinical outcomes is unfounded. Further larger studies would be useful to arrive at a more robust conclusion. Patients should be advised to stop smoking as early as possible, but there is no evidence to suggest that health professionals should not be advising smokers to quit at any time prior to surgery.
Available from: Evelina Dimopoulou
- "In general, former smokers are less likely to suffer from cardiovascular disease, lung and upper respiratory tract cancer . Quitting smoking is also associated with improvements in lung function and respiratory symptoms , as well as with better outcomes following lung cancer diagnosis (in early stages)  or any type of surgery . "
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ABSTRACT: Despite the well-known health risks, smoking is still highly prevalent worldwide. Greece has the highest level of adult smoking rate (40%) across the European Union. We investigated gender and socio-economic differences in daily smoking and smoking cessation among Greek adults. We conducted a cross-sectional survey between October and November 2009 in 434 adults residing in a Greek rural area. Data were collected with the use of the World Health Organization Global Adult Tobacco Survey (WHO GATS) Core Questionnaire. Respondents were classified into smokers (if they had smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and continued to smoke) or non-smokers. Overall, 58.1% (n=252) were smokers (58.5% male, n=127 and 57.8% female, n=125); 51.2% (n=222) were younger than 18 years-old when they started smoking. Men tended to start smoking at a younger age, to smoke more cigarettes/day and to have smoked a greater average of cigarettes during the last 5 days. Overall, 82.5% of smokers attempted to stop smoking a year prior to the study, with women having a greater difficulty in quitting smoking. The main source of information on smoking was the mass media (73.5%) and books (53.7%), whereas doctors and other health professionals were the least listed source of relative information (27.7 and 8.1%, respectively). Smoking rates among Greek adults were high, but a considerable number of individuals who smoked, wished to quit and had attempted to do so. Smoking cessation clinics are not perceived as a valuable support in quitting effort.
Available from: Luiz Fernando Reis Falcão
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ABSTRACT: In daily clinical practice, pulmonary complications related to surgical procedure are common, increasing the morbidity and mortality of patients. Assessment of the risk of pulmonary complications is an important step in the preoperative evaluation. Thus, we review the most relevant aspects of preoperative assessment of the patient with lung disease.
Pulmonary risk stratification depends on clinical symptoms and patient's physical status. Age, preexisting respiratory diseases, nutritional status, and continued medical treatment are usually more important than additional tests. Pulmonary function tests are of great relevance when high abdominal or thoracic procedures are scheduled, particularly when lung resection are considered.
Understanding the perioperative evaluation of the potential risk for developing pulmonary complication allows the medical team to choose the adequate anesthetic technique and surgical and clinical care required by each patient, thereby reducing adverse respiratory outcomes.
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