Article

Fenomena Pulau Haba Bandar dan isu alam sekitar di Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Pulau Haba Bandar (PHB) bukanlah sesuatu fenomena baru yang wujud dan terbentuk di kebanyakan bandar raya besar di dunia hari ini. Keadaan ini dialami juga oleh kebanyakan bandar-bandar besar di Malaysia sejak beberapa dekad di penghujung kurun yang lalu. PHB boleh didefinisikan sebagai pengaruh morfologi bandar terhadap parameter iklim dan cuaca semula jadi yang wujud di persekitaran bandar. Umumnya, peningkatan suhu dapat diperhatikan berlaku di kawasan-kawasan tepubina di dalam bandar berbanding dengan kawasan-kawasan pinggir dan luar bandar. Kebanyakan kajian membahaskan isu alam sekitar pulau haba bandar ini dengan mengaitkan faktor perkembangan bandar dan perindustrian yang begitu pesat sehingga mampu merubah pola dan trend suhu semula jadi di persekitaran bandar. Justeru, berasaskan penyataan ini kajian ini cuba menganalisis aspek pola pulau haba bandar yang berlaku di Kuala Lumpur sejak kebelakangan ini. Dengan menggunakan teknik penderiaan jauh, imej satelit landsat TM dan ETM+ serta GIS digunakan bagi mengesan sebarang perubahan pola suhu yang berlaku di Kuala Lumpur mengikut pola gunatanah yang berbeza. Hasil kajian menunjukkan banyak kawasan yang merekodkan suhu sederhana tinggi manakala pola pulau haba bandar direkodkan di kawasan-kawasan seperti Jinjang-Kepong, Segambut-Sentul dan sedikit di sebelah selatan kawasan kajian. Fenomena pulau haba bandar yang dianggap sebagai isu alam sekitar bandar yang unit ini banyak berkait rapat dengan aspek pemuliharaan dan pemeliharaan alam sekitar bandar. Dapat dikatakan, di samping faktor fizikal, faktor manusia juga amat penting dalam menentukan sejauhmanakah sifat kadar intensiti pulau haba bandar.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The study of urban climate could be focusing and concentrating on various interesting topics such as urban temperature changes, rainstorms and occurrence of thunderstorms, air pollution concentration, urban indoor environment, urban comfort zones and many more. With due respect to temperatures, many studies in various part of the world (for example Landsberg 1981;Oke 1982;Jauregui 1997;Unger et al., 2001;Saaroni et al., 2000;Shaharuddin et al., 2006Shaharuddin et al., , 2007Shaharuddin et al., , 2008Shaharuddin et al., , 2009Rizwan et al., 2009;Zeng et al., 2009) showed that urban temperatures were the most obvious alteration, which was manifested as an urban heat island (UHI). In a wider scale of scope, however, the issue of global warming and climate change has becoming a national agenda, including Malaysia. ...
... A large urban conglomerate such as Kuala Lumpur covered with numerous concrete, tarmac and built-up areas display a quite number of bubble of heat (UHI) inbetween of greenery areas as shown up in the thermal maps (Shaharuddin et al., 2008(Shaharuddin et al., , 2009). To what extent the influence of 'man-made' environment in Kuala Lumpur on urban climate especially on ambient air temperature is subject to be proven. ...
... Basically, earlier studies on UHIs were using either field survey data or data from the Malaysian Meteorological Office. However, beginning in the first decade of the 21 st century, satellite image has been used in detecting temperature differences from different land uses (Shaharuddin et al., 2006(Shaharuddin et al., , 2007(Shaharuddin et al., , 2008(Shaharuddin et al., , 2009 14 As we realized and experienced, it is almost none of the office buildings, shopping complexes, and motorcars in urban area without the use of air conditioning. ...
Article
Urban areas consist of different land uses which are normally covered by various natural and man-made surfaces. They have different absorbing, storing, reflecting and transmitting heat, hence capable of producing significant ambient air temperature. In addition, many human activities take place during daytime in urban areas. Urban climate researches suggested that human activities can be one of the many factors that lead to high concentration of urban air pollution, thus polluted the urban environment. This phenomenon said to be another factor that trigger high and temperature differences in urban areas. It is, therefore, this study attempts to observe temperature differences in Kuala Lumpur. Data were collected at different source points in Kuala Lumpur. Temperature traverses were then drawn across different types of land uses. The results show that the differences between highest air temperature and lowest air temperature recorded at the same traverse are clearly shown along the traverses. The monthly average of UHI was calculated at about 4.95°C. UHIs for the daytime and nocturnal were calculated at 9.25°C and 9.7°C, respectively. The average UHI for the study area was calculated at 9.5°C. We found that the minimum and maximum temperatures were recorded within green areas and built-up areas, respectively.
... Urban Heat Island (UHI) is a typical urban thermal pollution which occurs due to the development of higher ambient air temperatures in densely built cities compared to their rural surroundings (Rajagopalan et al. 2014;Roth and Chow 2012). UHI phenomenon is often triggered by urbanization effects which are closely associated with a larger number of buildings, compact and massive urban structures with narrow street canyons and reduced sky view factor, non-reflective and impermeable surface materials, lack of transpiring vegetation, transport flows, increased energy consumption as well as higher concentrations of urban pollutants (Elsayed 2012;Ramakreshnan et al. 2018b;Shaharuddin et al. 2009). The aforementioned urban complexity results in the absorption and retention of heat which are re-emitted after sunset, creating a steep temperature gradient between urban and rural areas. ...
... By integrating both TERRA/MODIS satellite data and Geographical Information System (GIS), Shaharuddin et al. (2014) found that the average UHII was higher (14.5°C) during the intermediate monsoon season in GKL (Shaharuddin et al. 2014). Similarly, Amanollahi et al. (2016), Salleh et al. (2013), Shaharuddin et al. (2009) and Hashim et al. (2007) explained the role of land-use changes and conversion of natural, rural and agricultural land to urban surfaces on temperature increment in various city centres of GKL using remote sensing applications (Amanollahi et al. 2016;Hashim et al. 2007;Salleh et al. 2013;Shaharuddin et al. 2009). Contemporary studies also used various modelling and simulation approaches to investigate UHI phenomenon at the local scale. ...
... By integrating both TERRA/MODIS satellite data and Geographical Information System (GIS), Shaharuddin et al. (2014) found that the average UHII was higher (14.5°C) during the intermediate monsoon season in GKL (Shaharuddin et al. 2014). Similarly, Amanollahi et al. (2016), Salleh et al. (2013), Shaharuddin et al. (2009) and Hashim et al. (2007) explained the role of land-use changes and conversion of natural, rural and agricultural land to urban surfaces on temperature increment in various city centres of GKL using remote sensing applications (Amanollahi et al. 2016;Hashim et al. 2007;Salleh et al. 2013;Shaharuddin et al. 2009). Contemporary studies also used various modelling and simulation approaches to investigate UHI phenomenon at the local scale. ...
Chapter
Heat causes (or exacerbates) various illness, including heat stroke, circulatory diseases, respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, accidents and suicides. Because of these diverse impacts on health, we evaluated heat-related excess mortality using all-cause mortality as the outcome and statistical model in its definition; the excess risk beyond the minimum mortality temperature (=MMT) is regarded as the heat-related excess mortality. Based on the whole Japanese data for about 4 decades of observation, we found the MMT can be estimated using 84th percentile of daily maximum temperature. Using this finding, we performed a projection of heat-related excess mortality; with no adaptation, the world’s heat-related excess deaths attributable to climate change was more than 90,000 in 2030 and 255,000 in 2050. Autonomous adaptation, i.e., MMT shift along with warming, has been observed in some countries; we also took this phenomenon into account. With the autonomous adaptation, the future impact would be smaller, but the speed of adaptation is still unknown, and further research is needed.
... Both types of the green roofs can be adopted on the new and old buildings, but some considerations such as the need to add in additional loads on the roof, design analysis, research and also additional supporting structures for building support, need to be taken into consideration in order to ensure the building's stability and durability throughout its life-span [6]. One of the case studies on the green roof in Malaysia had been done by Ahmad et al. [9]. The research was conducted to identify the ability of the green roof to provide positive impacts on the ecosystem such as reduction in temperature and the ability to improvise the quality of the environmental landscape such as in Figure 3. . ...
... Concrete roof (left) and green roof (right) at UKM, Bangi. [9] For this research, the ambient temperatures in October 2016 of the plots marked at the chosen sites (for concrete and green roof) were measured using Infrared Thermometer. Based on the daily changes, the concrete roof had constantly recorded high temperature in average ranging from 26.85°C to 41.35°C as compared to the green roof, especially in the afternoon. ...
Article
Full-text available
Green roof is a system that had been identified as a medium that is able to reduce the thermal temperature of a building. It is an efficient way of reducing heat especially for hot climate countries like Malaysia. This study was conducted to assess the ability and the effectiveness of green roof in controlling the temperature of a building and also to make a comparison of its performance with the conventional roof. The study was conducted at the Masjid Kota Iskandar, Nusajaya, Johor. For this case study, Infrared Thermometer and 4 in 1 Meter Kit were used to record the temperature (maximum and minimum) during the day on the surface of the green roof and conventional roof as well as its relative humidity. The experiments were conducted during sunny days from 8.00 am to 6.00 pm at an interval of two hours on two different dates which were 18th March 2017 and 4th April 2017. Few locations for the data to be collected were plotted on the surface of both roofs and the readings of maximum and minimum surface roof temperatures were recorded for comparison. Based on the research that had been carried out, it can be concluded that the usage of green roof was able to reduce the average surface temperature in the range of 3.6°C –11.1°C as compared to the conventional roof. This result had proven that there was a decrease in temperature for the green roof as compared to the conventional roof. It had shown that the usage of the green roof in a building was an efficient way of reducing building temperature and also an effective way to achieve sustainability in architecture and engineering design.
... In the planning phase, environmentally sensitive area like forest and natural water body as bioclimatic component should be determined. Its development should be conducted as stipulated in the Environmental Quality Act and follow Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) regulations (Shaharuddin et al., 2009). By reason to incorporate the importance of climatic aspects in long-term planning considerations, the enclosure of local climate impact in the EIA check list should be proposed (Eliasson, 2000). ...
... Indeed, green roofs can also function as passive cooling elements by its potential of energy saving. Other than urban cooling, rooftop vegetation also benefited as storm water reduction (Shaharuddin et al., 2009) removal of air pollution and promotes urban biodiversity. Table 1 summarises the synthesis of literature review regarding temperature modification in urban areas through landscape approaches. ...
Article
This paper discusses a conceptual review of sustainable landscape design approach as mitigating strategies to modify urban temperature in a hot- humid climate.The amelioration of urban temperature through landscape approach can be achieved by incorporating sustainable landscape design practices via the interplay of natural vegetation in the hot-humid tropics. The findings of this paper are hoped to guide the practitioners in landscape architecture, policy makers and urban designers to incorporate sustainable landscape design approach towards improving outdoor thermal comfort; thus providing a better quality of life. Keywords: Landscape design principles; outdoor thermal comfort; urban heat island; hot-humid climate eISSN 2514-751X © 2018. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open-access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. https://doi.org/10.21834/aje-bs.v3i8.274
... Emerging studies often overlook the importance of obtaining a complete picture of the spatial and temporal development of UHI while developing adaptation and mitigation plans, which is a prerequisite to efficiently target the strategies and resources for the evidence-based mitigations. Besides this, contemporary studies delineate a progressive trend towards the application of advanced modelling, simulation (Morris et al., 2015(Morris et al., , 2016 and satellite technology (Amanollahi et al., 2016;Hashim, Ahmad, & Abdullah, 2007;Salleh, Latif, Mohd, & Chan, 2013;Shaharuddin, Noorazuan, & Yaakob, 2009Yusuf et al., 2014) in local UHI assessments. However, it should be understood that each of these methodological approaches in the empirical studies are presenting different types of UHIs as discussed earlier in the previous section. ...
... Contextually, UHI phenomenon is a type urban thermal pollution which occurs due to the development of higher ambient air temperatures in densely built environment compared to its rural peripheries (Rajagopalan, Lim, & Jamei, 2014;Roth, 2013;Rovers, 2016;Sani, 1991;Santamouris, 2015;Shahmohamadi et al., 2011;Tso, 1996). UHI phenomenon is induced by the urbanization effects which are closely associated with a larger number of buildings, compact and massive urban structures with narrow street canyons and reduced sky view factor, non-reflective and impermeable surface materials, lack of transpiring vegetation, transport flows, increased energy consumption as well as higher concentrations of urban pollutants (Elsayed, 2012b;Nuruzzaman, 2015;Rizwan, Dennis, & Liu, 2008;Santamouris, 2015;Shaharuddin, Noorazuan, & Yaakob, 2009). The aforementioned urban complexity results in the absorption and retention of heat which are re-emitted after the sunset, creating a steep temperature gradient between urban and rural areas (Benrazavi et al., 2016;Gago et al., 2013;Shahmohamadi et al., 2011;Zhao et al., 2014). ...
Article
Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon has become a regional issue for Greater Kuala Lumpur (GKL) as a number of studies reported an elevated air temperature in highly dense urban areas compared to the rural peripheries. An initial literature survey of UHI studies in GKL revealed an insufficiency and paucity of field measurements for more than one decade (since 1991) before gaining its momentum again after 2004. Despite a very limited number of studies in GKL, many studies used a vague set of site classification, operational definitions of Urban Heat Island Intensity (UHII) derived from such vague classification, uncontrolled and old set of data, limited coverage of weather station network and limited number of weather parameters in data collection. Therefore, this paper attempts to provide an overview of UHI studies in GKL by highlighting the major methodological shortcomings that hamper the reliability of previous measurements and by providing vital suggestions for an improved UHI quantification in future. The findings of most of the studies disclose an increasing trend in the UHII which is associated to the reduction in vegetation cover and land use changes. Eventually, this open up new opportunities for the upcoming studies to investigate the sensitivity of UHI to other unexplored factors in the local context. Besides focusing on the role of vegetation on urban temperature reduction, future studies need to focus more on examining the feasibility of other remediation technologies. This paper also suggests that rigorous attention should be given to a systematic site characterization, controlled and synchronous measurements, broader weather station network as well as incorporation of real-time data to elucidate the current UHII status. In addition, local studies could significantly benefit from the utilization of advanced modelling and simulation technologies as a basis for a more informed decision-making in line with the aspiration of GKL to achieve a world class sustainable metropolis by 2020 (GKL Initiative under the National Key Economic Area). Lastly, the incorporation of UHI phenomena in local policies is also essential to mitigate its deleterious impacts via more urban climate-friendly practices by various stakeholders.
... In the planning phase, environmentally sensitive area like forest and natural water body as bioclimatic component should be determined. Its development should be conducted as stipulated in the Environmental Quality Act and follow Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) regulations (Shaharuddin et al., 2009;Sham, 1990). This will helps in urban land use planning and as a control to prevent the occurrence of negative effects from the development even before the city is built. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses a conceptual review of local and micro scale approaches that incorporate the principles of sustainable landscape design as mitigating strategies to improve urban thermal comfort in a warm and humid climate. The modification of urban temperature through landscape approach can be achieved by incorporating sustainable landscape design practices via the interplay of natural vegetation in the hot-humid tropics. The findings of this paper is hoped to guide the practitioners in landscape architecture, policy makers and urban designers to incorporate sustainable landscape design approach towards improving outdoor thermal comfort; thus providing a better quality of life.
Chapter
Urban Heat Island (UHI) is a notable thermal phenomenon of any tropical city in relation to increased urbanization. It records a positive urban thermal balance due to higher air temperatures in the densely built areas compared to the rural or sub-urban peripheries under the same climate conditions. The rapid infrastructure development in high-risk areas of tropical cities will be exposing the urban population to extreme heat. As predicted by International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate change scenario, some of the cities in Southeast Asia may be as much as 4 °C warmer by 2050. Being a Southeast Asian country, this would be a consequential threat to the capital cities of Malaysia which suffered inevitable territorial urban development that manifested into formation of severe UHIs with an average gain in surface temperature of 8.47 °C between 1997 and 2013. The increasing surface temperature is mainly associated with the reduction in vegetation cover, open burning, forest fires, land use changes, land clearing, industrial and traffic emissions. Besides, it also exhibits the potential to emerge as one of the public health menace with reduced outdoor thermal comfort levels, heat exhaustions, heat cramps and respiratory ailments among the tropical city dwellers in various urban settings. To overcome this, a number of mitigation approaches such as increase of vegetation cover, replacement of cooling pavement materials and architectural innovations are studied as viable UHI remedies in the context of Malaysia. In addition, target driven assessments are intended to meet the city population’s health needs to assist in designing initiatives to effectively reduce UHI effects. In line with these, this chapter would provide the state-of-art of UHI, known contributing factors and impacts, community needs and other mitigation efforts targeting at urban temperature reductions via case study approaches in the context of Malaysia.
Chapter
Urban heat island (UHI) is a typical urban thermal pollution which occurs due to the development of higher ambient air temperatures in densely built cities that deteriorate the air quality of urban area due to anthropogenic activities. The aforementioned urban complexity results in the absorption and retention of heat which is re-emitted after sunset, creating a steep temperature gradient between urban and rural areas. The effect of UHI on public health is reduced outdoor thermal comfort levels of city dwellers in various urban settings. In this study, UHI, air quality and thermal comfort are discussed as climate-related disasters on public health in Malaysia. Understanding of UHI Intensity (UHII) using meteorological network’s observations and mobile weather trackers in the urban and suburban areas of Malaysia will explore the hotspot and green lung of each climate zone for implementing a necessary approach to minimize the human exposure to extreme heat and contaminated air. Incorporation of more explanatory variables of UHI from both meteorological and urban factors is a requisite to identify their pivotal association with UHI intensification in the Malaysian context. In spite of the fact that seasonal haze episodes and UHI have become a recurrent seasonal phenomenon in Malaysia, the number of public health studies is still scarce in this region. More intensive studies are still needed to establish veritable evidence for the susceptible populations to devise effective health planning to reduce haze and UHI-associated health impacts in Malaysia. With such acquired knowledge of the UHI and air quality issues and related underlying mechanisms, urban planners, designers and decision-makers can perform more evidence-based decision-making to create, reform or rejuvenate climate-friendly sustainable cities for enhanced liveability in future. Furthermore, such scientific knowledge will become a valuable input and tool for the policy-makers to identify the right policy choices aimed at sustainable healthcare solutions.
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter reviews passive design strategies and the benefits of using such strategies not only in the building design but also related to the urban context and human factors, which would be linked to urban sustainable design, policies and strategies. The key to designing a passive building is by taking advantage of the local climate (micro-climate) and therefore, climate characteristics and classification can help with identifying approaches as early as site planning and analysis. Therefore, climate and comfort are the two fundamental measures in passive design that require attention. Passive design is a major part of environmental design, and approaches utilising several techniques and strategies that can be employed to the buildings in all types of climates around the world such as orientation, ventilation, shading devices, thermal mass, insulation, daylighting and so on. These techniques and strategies can also be supported by various other parameters such as using technologies (passive and/or active) and customisable controls as well as enhanced by patterns of biophilic design for improving health and well-being in the built environment. There are also passive solar technologies including direct and indirect solar gains for space heating, solar water heating systems, solar cookers, use of thermal mass and phase-change materials for slowing indoor air temperature swings, solar chimney for enhancing natural ventilation, and earth sheltering that can be considered as part of the actual design. Today, passive design strategies can be easily evaluated with the use of either simple or more sophisticated Building Performance Simulation (BPS) tools such as Ecotect, IES VE, etc.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.