Biochemical analysis of the human ENA/VASP-family proteins, MENA, VASP and EVL, in homologous recombination
Laboratory of Structural Biology, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Journal of Biochemistry
(Impact Factor: 2.58).
03/2011; 149(6):721-9. DOI: 10.1093/jb/mvr029
MENA, VASP and EVL are members of the ENA/VASP family of proteins and are involved in cytoplasmic actin remodeling. Previously,
we found that EVL directly interacts with RAD51, an essential protein in the homologous recombinational repair of double-strand
breaks (DSBs) and stimulates the RAD51-mediated recombination reactions in vitro. The EVL-knockdown MCF7 cells exhibited a clear reduction in RAD51-foci formation, suggesting that EVL may function in the
DSB repair pathway through RAD51-mediated homologous recombination. However, the DSB repair defects were less significant
in the EVL-knockdown cells, implying that two EVL paralogues, MENA and VASP, may complement the EVL function in human cells.
Therefore, in the present study, we purified human MENA, VASP and EVL as recombinant proteins, and compared their biochemical
activities in vitro. We found that all three proteins commonly exhibited the RAD51 binding, DNA binding and DNA-annealing activities. Stimulation
of the RAD51-mediated homologous pairing was also observed with all three proteins. In addition, surface plasmon resonance
analyses revealed that MENA, VASP and EVL mutually interacted. These results support the ideas that the ENA/VASP-family proteins
are functionally redundant in homologous recombination, and that all three may be involved in the DSB repair pathway in humans.
Available from: Joerg Wenzel
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ABSTRACT: Current prognostic clinical and morphological parameters are insufficient to accurately predict metastasis in individual melanoma patients. Several studies have described gene expression signatures to predict survival or metastasis of primary melanoma patients, however the reproducibility among these studies is disappointingly low.
We followed extended REMARK/Gould Rothberg criteria to identify gene sets predictive for metastasis in patients with primary cutaneous melanoma. For class comparison, gene expression data from 116 patients with clinical stage I/II (no metastasis) and 72 with III/IV primary melanoma (with metastasis) at time of first diagnosis were used. Significance analysis of microarrays identified the top 50 differentially expressed genes. In an independent data set from a second cohort of 28 primary melanoma patients, these genes were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression analysis and leave-one-out cross validation for association with development of metastatic disease. In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, expression of the genes Ena/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein-like (EVL) and CD24 antigen gave the best predictive value (p = 0.001; p = 0.017, respectively). A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model revealed these genes as a potential independent predictor, which may possibly add (both p = 0.01) to the predictive value of the most important morphological indicator, Breslow depth.
Combination of molecular with morphological information may potentially enable an improved prediction of metastasis in primary melanoma patients. A strength of the gene expression set is the small number of genes, which should allow easy reevaluation in independent data sets and adequately designed clinical trials.
Available from: Leng Han
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of hematopoietic malignancies characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis. Recently, we identified MDS-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) that are down-regulated in MDS. This study examines possible explanations for that observed down-regulation of miRNA expression in MDS. Since genomic losses are insufficient to explain the down-regulation of all our MDS-associated miRNAs, we explored other avenues. We demonstrate that these miRNAs are predominantly intragenic, and that, in many cases, they and their host genes are expressed in a similar pattern during myeloid maturation, suggesting their co-regulation. This co-regulation is further supported by the down-regulation of several of the host genes in MDS and the increased methylation of the shared promoters of several miRNAs and their respective host genes. These studies identify a role of hypermethylation of miRNA promoters in the down-regulation of MDS-associated miRNAs, unifying research on miRNAs in MDS and epigenetic regulation in MDS into a common pathway.
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