Chiral separations in normal phase liquid chromatography: Enantioselectivity of recently commercialized polysaccharide-based selectors. Part I: Enantioselectivity under generic screening conditions
Department of Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, Center for Pharmaceutical Research (CePhaR), Vrije Universiteit Brussel-VUB, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels, Belgium.Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis (Impact Factor: 2.98). 02/2011; 55(3):414-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2011.02.015
Four recently commercialized polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases, Sepapak(®) 1, Sepapak(®) 2, Sepapak(®) 3, and Sepapak(®) 4, now called Lux(®) Cellulose-1, Lux(®) Cellulose-2, Lux(®) Amylose-2 and Lux(®) Cellulose-4, respectively, were examined for their enantioselectivity on a set of 61 racemic compounds by applying the screening conditions of a previously developed chiral screening strategy in normal phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) [N. Matthijs et al., J. Chromatogr. A 1041 (2004) 119-133]. The enantioselectivity on these phases was compared to that on the initial set of polysaccharide-based phases, Chiralpak(®) AD-H, Chiralcel(®) OD-H, and Chiralcel(®) OJ-H, used in the earlier defined strategy. The results showed that 53 compounds out of 61 (86.9%) were resolved on the initial set of chiral stationary phases (CSPs) using two mobile phases per compound, either heptane-ethanol-diethylamine (DEA) or heptane-isopropanol-DEA for testing basic compounds and heptane-ethanol-trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) or heptane-isopropanol-TFA for acidic, bifunctional and neutral compounds. The recently commercialized set of columns gave 54 separations in total (88.5%). Our results indicated that ethanol (EtOH) as polar modifier provides a higher success rate and better resolutions than isopropanol (IPA) on both sets of stationary phases. However, the usefulness of the mobile phase with IPA as polar modifier cannot be neglected for complementarity reasons. It was found that the screening is improved by the introduction of the recently commercialized polysaccharides based CSPs since they provided enantioseparation for compounds that were not resolved by the traditional CSPs. The combination between the initial and the recently commercialized CSPs showed enantioresolution for 55 compounds out of 61 (90%), among which 47 were baseline resolved.
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- "In this study, a set of ten cathinone-and amphetamine derivatives were separated into their enantiomers using five techniques, i.e., supercritical fluid chromatography, polar organic solvents chromatography, reversed-phase and normal-phase liquid chromatography , and capillary electrochromatography, according to the screening approaches defined earlier     . To our knowledge , this is the first time that the enantiomers of these compounds are separated using all above mentioned approaches. "
ABSTRACT: The screening part of an earlier defined chiral separation strategy in capillary electrochromatography (CEC) was used for the separation of ten cathinone- and amphetamine derivatives. They were analyzed using 4 polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases (CSPs), containing cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (ODRH), amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (ADH), amylose tris(5-chloro-2-methylphenylcarbamate) (LA2), and cellulose tris(4-chloro-3-methylphenylcarbamate) (LC4) as chiral selectors. After applying the screening to each compound, ADH and LC4 showed the highest success rate. In a second part of the study, a comparison between CEC and other analytical techniques used for chiral separations i.e., supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), polar organic solvent chromatography (POSC), reversed-phase (RPLC) and normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC), was made. For this purpose, earlier defined screening approaches for each technique were applied to separate the 10 test substances. This allowed an overall comparison of the success rates of the screening steps of the 5 techniques for these compounds. The results showed that CEC had a similar enantioselectivity rate as NPLC and RPLC, producing the highest number of separations (9 out of 10 racemates). SFC resolved 7 compounds, while POSC gave only 2 separations. On the other hand, the baseline separation success rates for NPLC and RPLC was better than for CEC. For a second comparison, the same chiral stationary phases as in the CEC screening were also tested with all techniques at their specific screening conditions, which allowed a direct comparison of the performance of CEC versus the same CSPs in the other techniques. This comparison revealed that RPLC was able to separate all tested compounds, and also produced the highest number of baseline separations on the CSP that were used in the CEC screening step. CEC and NPLC showed the same success rate: nine out of ten substances were separated. When CEC and NPLC are combined, separation of the ten compounds can be achieved. SFC and POSC resolved eight and three compounds, respectively. POSC was the least attractive option as it expressed only limited enantioselectivity toward these compounds.
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- "The decisions made for these CPPs were based on literature and screening steps. The data corroborated from Younes et al.  that showed the same effect between ethanol and isopropanol with the results published by Ates et al.  showing comparable cumulative success rates for both mobile phases compared (i.e. acetonitrile versus methanol) were the basis for the screening step. "
ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on implementing a design space approach and on the critical process parameters (CPPs) to consider when applying the Quality by Design (QbD) concepts outlined in ICH Q8(R2), Q9 and Q10 to analytical method development and optimization for three chiral compounds developed as modulators of small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels. In this sense, an HPLC method using a polysaccharide-based stationary phase containing a cellulose tris (4-chloro-3-methylphenylcarbamate) chiral selector in polar organic solvent chromatography mode was considered. The effects of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and n-hexane concentration in an acetonitrile (MeCN) mobile phase were investigated under a wide range of column temperatures. Good correlations were found between the observed data obtained after using a central composite design and the expected chromatographic behaviours predicted by applying the design of experiments-design space (DoE-DS) methodology. The critical quality attribute represented here by the separation criterion (S(crit)) allowed assessing the quality of the enantioseparation. Baseline separation for the compounds of interest in an analysis time of less than 20min was possible due to the original and powerful tools applied which facilitated an enhanced method comprehension. Finally, the advantage of the DoE-DS approach resides in granting the possibility to concurrently assess robustness and identify the optimal conditions which are compound dependent.
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ABSTRACT: A strategy aimed at developing faster chiral screening approaches is proposed in this paper by mixing samples and simultaneously screening the resulting mixture of racemates. The data matrix of the mixture obtained by diode array detector or mass spectrometry is deconvoluted into resolved chromatograms and spectra through a multivariate curve resolution–alternating least squares algorithm. The individual racemates are then identified through the resolved UV spectra, and enantiomeric excess ratios can be measured via the resolved chromatograms. Two representative experiments were carried out to verify the feasibility of the strategy. A mixture containing five pairs of racemic solutes was successfully screened on Chiralcel OD column in one-fifth of the conventional analysis time. Another mixture containing 10 racemates gained nine-tenths of the original screening time on three CSPs with a predictive accuracy above 90 %.
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