The Radial Artery Patency and Clinical Outcomes Trial: Design, Intermediate Term Results and Future Direction

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Austin Hospital, Victoria, Australia.
Heart, Lung and Circulation (Impact Factor: 1.44). 03/2011; 20(3):187-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.hlc.2011.01.001
Source: PubMed


The Radial Artery Patency and Clinical Outcomes Study (RAPCO) was devised and implemented in Melbourne in order to establish the appropriate place of the radial artery in the hierarchy of conduits available to the modern coronary bypass surgeon. Designed as a biological comparison with minimisation of other confounding variables, it compares this free arterial graft with the right internal thoracic artery and saphenous vein, with all conduits used in an identical fashion in two parallel cohorts of different age ranges. Enrolment was completed in 2004 and 10-year follow-up is in progress, with mean duration of about seven years at present. The midterm clinical and angiographic results to date are reviewed here, but definitive conclusions will not be possible until full completion angiographic data is available. The trial data provides a number of potential substudies of conduits, risk factors for failure and the natural history of treated coronary disease.

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    • "Therefore, the final analysis included a total of nine trials. Specifically, five trials compared RA versus SVG [10, 11, 14–16], two trials both from Gaudino et al. [12] compared RIMA versus RA versus SVG, one trial compared RIMA versus RA [15] and one trial compared RGEA versus SVG [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: There is a lack of unequivocal evidence basis for selecting the best second conduit in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We thus aimed to perform head-to-head relative effect estimate on angiographic outcomes for second conduits, including the right internal mammary artery (RIMA), radial artery (RA), right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA) and saphenous vein graft (SVG) by means of network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Databases were searched for RCTs comparing angiographic outcomes (≥4 weeks) of second conduits in CABG. Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were computed with Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. A total of nine RCTs were identified, including 2780 patients and 1620 angiographic results available for analysis to compare RIMA (n = 145) versus RA (n = 871) versus RGEA (n = 92) versus SVG (n = 845). The mean time to angiographic follow-up ranged from 1 to 7.7 years. An SVG was significantly associated with a 4-fold (1.67-16.00) and 3-fold (0.78-22.20) increased risk of late (≥4 years) functional graft occlusion when compared with the RIMA and RA, respectively. A RIMA was associated with a non-significant 27% absolute risk reduction for functional graft occlusion when compared with the RA. The present network meta-analysis consistently demonstrated an angiographic superiority of RIMA and RA over SVG. The RIMA is expected to achieve a better patency rate than the RA, but further studies are needed.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the robust evidence of the potential benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation in patients with established coronary artery disease, the impact of this therapy on patients after coronary artery bypass grafting remains completely unknown. Among 2,100 patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting in one tertiary care institution, 930 (44%) were put under n-3 PUFA therapy chronically at discharge. The impact of n-3 PUFAs was assessed by means of propensity-score adjusted analysis. The primary end point was all-cause mortality. Secondary end points were repeat revascularization and the composite of death, Q-wave myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular events. In a crude analysis, patients discharged on n-3 PUFAs had a lower risk for late mortality (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36 to 0.73; p = 0.0002), which was conformed at multivariable adjusted Cox regression analysis (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.90; p = 0.02). Adjusted risk of repeat revascularization was significantly lower in patients receiving n-3 PUFAs than in those who did not (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.97; p = 0.04). The adjusted risk for the composite of death, Q-wave myocardial infarction, or cerebrovascular events was lower in patients who received n-3 PUFAs compared with patients who did not (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.81; p = 0.001). Subgroup analyses showed that mortality benefit associated with n-3 PUFAs was particularly relevant in patients with poor left ventricular function (HR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.76; p = 0.007), but it was only marginal in patients with good ventricular function (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.01; p = 0.05). This study showed that n-3 PUFAs after coronary artery bypass grafting were associated with a lower risk for repeat revascularization and overall mortality in patients with poor ventricular function.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to present radial and saphenous vein graft (SVG) occlusion results more than 5 years following coronary artery bypass surgery. In the RAPS (Radial Artery Patency Study) study, complete graft occlusion was less frequent in radial artery compared with SVG 1 year post-operatively while functional occlusion (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow grade 0, 1, 2) was similar. A total of 510 patients <80 years of age undergoing primary isolated nonemergent coronary artery bypass grafting with 3-vessel disease were initially enrolled in 9 Canadian centers. Target vessels for the radial artery and study SVG were the right and circumflex coronary arteries, which had >70% proximal stenosis. Within-patient randomization was performed; the radial artery was randomized to either the right or circumflex territory and the study SVG was used for the other territory. The primary endpoint was functional graft occlusion by invasive angiography at least 5 years following surgery. Complete graft occlusion by invasive angiography or computed tomography angiography was a secondary endpoint. A total of 269 patients underwent late angiography (234 invasive angiography, 35 computed tomography angiography) at a mean of 7.7 ± 1.5 years after surgery. The frequency of functional graft occlusion was lower in radial arteries compared with SVGs (28 of 234 [12.0%] vs. 46 of 234 [19.7%]; p = 0.03 by McNemar's test). The frequency of complete graft occlusion was also significantly lower in radial compared with SVGs (24 of 269 [8.9%] vs. 50 of 269 [18.6%]; p = 0.002). Radial arteries are associated with reduced rates of functional and complete graft occlusion compared with SVGs more than 5 years following surgery. (Multicentre Radial Artery Patency Study: 5 Year Results; NCT00187356).
    Preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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