Clinical outcomes after percutaneous revascularisation versus medical management in patients with significant renal artery stenosis: A meta-analysis of randomised control trials

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, OH 44195, USA.
American heart journal (Impact Factor: 4.46). 03/2011; 161(3):622-630.e1. DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2010.12.006
Source: PubMed


We sought to systematically evaluate whether percutaneous revascularization is associated with additional clinical benefit in patients with renal artery stenosis (RAS) as compared with medical management alone.
We included randomized controlled trials that compared percutaneous revascularization in addition to medical therapy versus medical management alone in patients with RAS. Six trials with 1,208 patients were included.
At a mean follow-up of 29 months, there was no change in systolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 1.20 mm Hg, 95% CI -1.18 to 3.58 mm Hg) or diastolic blood pressure (WMD = -1.60 mm Hg, 95% CI -4.22 to 1.02 mm Hg) from baseline in the percutaneous revascularization arm compared with the medical management arm. There was a reduction in the mean number of antihypertensive medications (WMD = -0.26, 95% CI -0.39 to -0.13, P < .001), but not serum creatinine (WMD = -0.14 mg/dL, 95% CI -0.29 to 0.007 mg/dL), in the percutaneous revascularization arm at the end of follow-up. Percutaneous revascularization was not associated with a significant difference in all-cause mortality (relative risk [RR] = 0.96, 95% CI 0.74-1.25), congestive heart failure (RR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.56-1.13), stroke (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.50-1.47), or worsening renal function (RR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.67-1.23) as compared with medical management.
In patients with RAS, percutaneous renal revascularization in addition to medical therapy may result in a lower requirement for antihypertensive medications, but not with improvements in serum creatinine or clinical outcomes, as compared with medical management over an intermediate period of follow-up. Further studies are needed to identify the appropriate patient population most likely to benefit from its use.

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    • "Percutaneous revascularization using angioplasty (PTRA) with or without stenting along with medical therapy has been compared with medical therapy alone in a few major randomized trials and did not confer any significant benefit with respect to the prevention of clinical events when added to comprehensive, multifactorial medical therapy. Some of these trials also included patients with unilateral atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis [10] [11] [12] [13]. The importance of renal artery stent placement in the treatment of flash pulmonary edema is not extensively validated and several factors including availability of required equipment and adequate expertise limit its generalization. "
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    ABSTRACT: Flash pulmonary edema is characteristically sudden in onset with rapid resolution once appropriate therapy has been instituted (Messerli et al., 2011). Acute increase of left ventricular (LV) end diastolic pressure is the usual cause of sudden decompensated cardiac failure in this patient population. Presence of bilateral renal artery stenosis or unilateral stenosis in combination with a single functional kidney in the susceptible cohort is usually blamed for this condition. We describe a patient who presented with flash pulmonary edema in the setting of normal coronary arteries. Our case is distinct as our patient developed flash pulmonary edema secondary to unilateral renal artery stenosis in the presence of bilateral functioning kidneys. Percutaneous stent implantation in the affected renal artery resulted in rapid resolution of pulmonary edema.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
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    • "There is debate however whether PTA could benefit CHF patients with ARAS. In patients with stable CKD and/or hypertension it has been reported several times that PTA does not affect renal function [5,19,24]. On the other hand, a small retrospective study showed that in patients referred for renal revascularization close to one-third had CHF (mainly HFPEF) and that revascularization was associated with better control of heart failure [25]. The results of the sub analysis of the Angioplasty for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) study of a predefined group of patients with CKD and reduced ejection fraction are not yet available. "
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    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) is common in cardiovascular diseases and associated with hypertension, renal dysfunction and/or heart failure. There is a paucity of data about the prevalence and the role of ARAS in the pathophysiology of combined chronic heart failure (CHF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We investigated the prevalence in patients with combined CHF/CKD and its association with renal function, cardiac dysfunction and the presence and extent of myocardial fibrosis. The EPOCARES study (ClinTrialsNCT00356733) investigates the role of erythropoietin in anaemic patients with combined CHF/CKD. Eligible subjects underwent combined cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI), including late gadolinium enhancement, with magnetic resonance angiography of the renal arteries (MRA). MR study was performed in 37 patients (median age 74 years, eGFR 37.4 ± 15.6 ml/min, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 43.3 ± 11.2%), of which 21 (56.8%) had ARAS (defined as stenosis >50%). Of these 21 subjects, 8 (21.6%) had more severe ARAS >70% and 8 (21.6%) had a bilateral ARAS >50% (or previous bilateral PTA). There were no differences in age, NT-proBNP levels and medication profile between patients with ARAS versus those without. Renal function declined with the severity of ARAS (p = 0.03), although this was not significantly different between patients with ARAS versus those without. Diabetes mellitus was more prevalent in patients without ARAS (56.3%) against those with ARAS (23.8%) (p = 0.04). The presence and extent of late gadolinium enhancement, depicting myocardial fibrosis, did not differ (p = 0.80), nor did end diastolic volume (p = 0.60), left ventricular mass index (p = 0.11) or LVEF (p = 0.15). Neither was there a difference in the presence of an ischemic pattern of late enhancement in patients with ARAS versus those without. ARAS is prevalent in combined CHF/CKD and its severity is associated with a decline in renal function. However, its presence does not correlate with a worse LVEF, a higher left ventricular mass or with the presence and extent of myocardial fibrosis. Further research is required for the role of ARAS in the pathophysiology of combined chronic heart and renal failure.
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    ABSTRACT: It is unclear whether revascularization of renal artery stenosis (RAS) by means of percutaneous renal angioplasty and stenting (PTRAS) is advantageous over optimal medical therapy. Hence, we designed a randomized clinical trial based on an optimized patient selection strategy and hard experimental endpoints. Primary objective of this study is to determine whether PTRAS is superior or equivalent to optimal medical treatment for preserving glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the ischemic kidney as assessed by 99mTcDTPA sequential renal scintiscan. Secondary objectives of this study are to establish whether the two treatments are equivalent in lowering blood pressure, preserving overall renal function and regressing target organ damage, preventing cardiovascular events and improving quality of life. The study is designed as a prospective multicentre randomized, un-blinded two-arm study. Eligible patients will have clinical and angio–CT evidence of RAS. Inclusion criteria is RAS affecting the main renal artery or its major branches either >70% or, if <70, with post-stenotic dilatation. Renal function will be assessed with 99mTc-DTPA renal scintigraphy. Patients will be randomized to either arms considering both resistance index value in the ischemic kidney and the presence of unilateral/bilateral stenosis. Primary experimental endpoint will be the GFR of the ischemic kidney, assessed as quantitative variable by 99TcDTPA, and the loss of ischemic kidney defined as a categorical variable.Keywords: renal artery stenosis; revascularization; angioplasty; glomerular filtration rate
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Human Hypertension
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