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Recently, it has been suggested that traits may dynamically change as conditions change. One possible mechanism that may influence impulsiveness is parental monitoring. Parental monitoring reflects a knowledge regarding one's offspring's whereabouts and social connections. The aim of this investigation was to examine potential gender-specific parental influences to impulsiveness (general behavioral control), control over one's own drinking (specific behavioral control), and alcohol-related problems among individuals in a period of emerging adulthood. Direct and mediational links between parenting styles (permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative), parental monitoring, impulsiveness, drinking control, and alcohol-related problems were investigated. A multiple-group, SEM model with (316 women, 265 men) university students was examined. In general, the overall pattern among male and female respondents was distinct. For daughters, perceptions of a permissive father were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems through lower levels of monitoring by fathers and more impulsive symptoms. Perceptions of an authoritative father were also indirectly linked to fewer impulsive symptoms through higher levels of monitoring by fathers among daughters. For men, perceptions of a permissive mother were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems through lower levels of monitoring by mothers and more impulsive symptoms. For sons, perceptions of mother authoritativeness were indirectly linked to fewer alcohol-related problems through more monitoring by mothers and fewer impulsive symptoms. Monitoring by an opposite-gender parent mediated the link between parenting styles (i.e., permissive, authoritative) on impulsiveness.
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PATOCK-PECKHAM ET AL. 247
Gender-Specifi c Mediational Links Between Parenting
Styles, Parental Monitoring, Impulsiveness, Drinking
Control, and Alcohol-Related Problems*
JULIE A. PATOCK-PECKHAM, PH.D., KEVIN M. KING, PH.D., ANTONIO A. MORGAN-LOPEZ, PH.D.,
EMILIO C. ULLOA, PH.D., AND JENNIFER M. FILSON MOSES, M.A.
Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Baylor University, One Bear Place 97334, Waco, Texas 76798-7334
247
ABSTRACT. Objective: Recently, it has been suggested that traits may
dynamically change as conditions change. One possible mechanism that
may infl uence impulsiveness is parental monitoring. Parental monitoring
refl ects a knowledge regarding one’s offspring’s whereabouts and social
connections. The aim of this investigation was to examine potential
gender-specifi c parental infl uences to impulsiveness (general behavioral
control), control over one’s own drinking (specifi c behavioral control),
and alcohol-related problems among individuals in a period of emerging
adulthood. Method: Direct and mediational links between parenting
styles (permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative), parental monitor-
ing, impulsiveness, drinking control, and alcohol-related problems were
investigated. A multiple-group, SEM model with (316 women, 265
men) university students was examined. Results: In general, the overall
pattern among male and female respondents was distinct. For daugh-
ters, perceptions of a permissive father were indirectly linked to more
alcohol-related problems through lower levels of monitoring by fathers
and more impulsive symptoms. Perceptions of an authoritative father
were also indirectly linked to fewer impulsive symptoms through higher
levels of monitoring by fathers among daughters. For men, perceptions
of a permissive mother were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related
problems through lower levels of monitoring by mothers and more
impulsive symptoms. For sons, perceptions of mother authoritativeness
were indirectly linked to fewer alcohol-related problems through more
monitoring by mothers and fewer impulsive symptoms. Conclusions:
Monitoring by an opposite-gender parent mediated the link between
parenting styles (i.e., permissive, authoritative) on impulsiveness. (J.
Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 72, 247–258, 2011)
Received: May 17, 2010. Revision: September 1, 2010.
*Portions of this research were presented at the Annual Scientifi c Meeting
of the Research Society on Alcoholism, San Diego, CA, June 2009.
Correspondence may be sent to Julie A. Patock-Peckham at the above
address or via email at: Julie_Patock@Baylor.edu. Kevin M. King is with
the Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. An-
tonio A. Morgan-Lopez is with the Department of Psychology, University
of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC. Emilio C. Ulloa is with
the Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA.
Jennifer M. Filson Moses is with the Department of Psychology, University
of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
DEVIANCE PRONENESS THEORY SUGGESTS that
alcohol-related problems may best be predicted by
the confl uence of temperamental factors and environmental
factors, such as poor parenting (Sher, 1991). Recently,
researchers have demonstrated that constructs concerning
temperament are dynamic entities (Johnson et al., 2007;
Littlefi eld et al., 2009, 2010; Roberts et al., 2003, 2006).
Thus, parental regulation of behavior such as monitoring
may not only weaken the effects of temperamental risk
on alcohol-related problems, but it may also buffer the
expression of the trait itself. Moreover, parental regulation
of behavior may emerge from a particular style of parental
decision making that affects their family dynamic. In other
words, general parenting approaches (i.e., authoritative,
authoritarian, and permissive) may also infl uence the actual
monitoring behavior of parents. Thus, for the current study,
we tested whether parental monitoring could operate as a
mechanism (i.e., mediator) of effects of parenting style on
behavioral control variables, such as impulsiveness, in a
general sense and drinking control in a specifi c contextual
sense regarding alcohol behaviors during emerging
adulthood. Emerging adulthood is the period of life from the
late teens through the 20s (Arnett, 2000) and is the period
of risk for developing substance use disorders (Substance
Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2002).
Parental monitoring refl ects the extent to which parents
know their offspring’s friends, whereabouts, and social plans
while growing up (Patterson and Stouthamer-Loeber, 1984;
Small and Kerns, 1993) and continues to affect behavior
during emerging adulthood (Beck et al., 2004). Miller and
Plant (2003) showed emerging adults who perceived a lack
of parental monitoring were nearly three times as likely to
believe that all of society’s rules may be broken. A lack of
parental monitoring during childhood and adolescence has
been connected with negative behaviors, such as an increase
in adolescent opportunities for drug selling (Little and Stein-
berg, 2006), Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine,
or MDMA) use (Martins et al., 2008), cigarette smoking
(Chuang et al., 2005; Weis et al., 2006), marijuana and
methamphetamine use (Shillington et al., 2005), gambling
and delinquency (Vitaro et al., 2001), as well as theft and
vandalism (Miller and Plant, 2003). In general, these fi nd-
ings suggest lower parental monitoring directly contributes
to risky behaviors during adolescence and extending into
emerging adulthood.
248 JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL AND DRUGS / MARCH 2011
These effects extend to alcohol-related behaviors as
well. Arata et al. (2003) found high school students, already
classifi ed as nonproblematic social drinkers, reported more
parental monitoring than those classifi ed as problem drink-
ers. Chuang et al. (2005) found that higher levels of parental
monitoring were linked to lower levels of alcohol use in
general. Prospectively, Beck et al. (2004) found that highly
monitored adolescents were less likely to report drinking 1
year later. This negative relationship between high levels of
parental monitoring and lower levels of drinking remained
even after controlling for age, gender, drinking at baseline,
and putting oneself in high risk situations (Beck et al., 2004).
In another longitudinal study, Barnes et al. (2006) showed
that higher parental monitoring was effective in reducing
growth trajectories of alcohol misuse, illicit drug use, and
delinquency. Barnes et al. (2006) also found that higher
parental monitoring acted to buffer the detrimental effects
of peer deviance on alcohol misuse and delinquency.
Although parental monitoring is widely thought to lessen
the likelihood of problematic alcohol use in adolescence
(Capaldi et al., 2009; Latendresse et al., 2008), it is possible
that these effects may extend into emerging adulthood (such
as among college students) when parents may not always
be present to engage in active monitoring. For instance,
Veal and Ross (2006) found that higher levels of parental
monitoring were associated with lower drinking quantity
among college-age women and lower drinking frequency
among college-age men. In a prospective study involving
college students, Walls et al. (2009) reported, “students who
perceived higher parental monitoring during the summer
before college were signifi cantly less likely, by about three-
quarters of the odds for each one-unit increase in parental
monitoring, to transition to experiencing alcohol-related
consequences” (p. 914). Moreover, in another longitudinal
study, which followed students from high school into col-
lege, Arria et al. (2008) found that parental monitoring had
an indirect infl uence on college drinking through reduction
of high school drinking. Hence, those with better parental
monitoring in high school drank less in high school, and this
transmitted to less drinking in college as well (Arria et al.,
2008). Because of the continued importance of monitoring
into college years, a clearer picture of mechanisms by which
parental monitoring reduces alcohol-related problems when
offspring may be beginning to show signs of independence
is important. One way young adults monitor themselves is by
regulating their own behaviors later in life. Hence, one pos-
sible mechanism worth exploring may be the role of parental
monitoring transmitted through levels of impulsiveness,
as well as control over one’s own drinking in the alcohol-
related-problems pathway.
Impulsiveness
The literature has characterized impulsiveness in mul-
tiple ways, even as there is a general consensus that it is
a risk factor for multiple problem behaviors (Fischer and
Smith, 2008). Impulsiveness is most commonly defi ned
as the extent an individual’s behavior is infl uenced by im-
mediate, as opposed to delayed, consequences (Barnes
et al., 2005; Wilson and Herrnstein, 1985); as a lack of
planning and a tendency toward risk taking (Eysenck and
Eysenck, 1978); or as a failure in self-monitoring of ap-
propriate behaviors (Patock-Peckham and Morgan-Lopez,
2006). In this current investigation, impulsiveness is dis-
tinct from sensation seeking (i.e., boredom susceptibility
and adventure seeking) and refl ects a tendency for unnec-
essary risk taking, nonplanning, and doing things without
rst thinking them through (Eysenck and Eysenck, 1978).
Impulsiveness has been identifi ed as a key predictor of
heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems (e.g.,
Hutchinson et al., 1998; Sher and Trull, 1994; Sher et al.,
2005). Finally, Sher and Trull (1994) include higher than
normal levels of impulsiveness as an indicator of general-
ized behavioral under-control, which is typically predictive
of alcohol use disorders.
Traditionally, temperamental traits have been character-
ized as unchanging lifelong dispositions (Costa and McCrae,
2006; McCrae et al., 2000). However, recent research has
suggested that traits are dynamic constructs that may change
over one’s lifetime (Johnson et al., 2007; Littlefi eld et al.,
2009, 2010; Roberts et al., 2003). In short, as environments
or life situations change, so can the expression of tempera-
ment in individuals. Roberts et al. (2006) meta-analytic re-
view found that temperamental traits changed more during
emerging adulthood than during any other period of life. It is
possible that being well informed regarding your offspring’s
social life and experiences outside of the household may be
particularly important during this transitional period from
adolescent to adult responsibilities. Thus, one way context
may change may be through the mechanism of parental
monitoring.
Longitudinal research has begun to suggest that context
may be particularly sensitive to gender (Hicks et al., 2007),
with developmental context playing a more crucial role in
symptom expression than heritability among women. Hence,
relationships between environmental infl uences and traits
may best be examined by testing men and women separately.
This is also consistent with the recommendations of several
investigators (Chassin and Handley, 2006; Fromme, 2006;
Patock-Peckham and Morgan-Lopez, 2006).
Therefore, in this present investigation, we seek to
explore the possibility that impulsiveness mediates the re-
lationship of parental monitoring on both drinking control
and alcohol-related problems. The mechanisms regarding
how parental monitoring buffers negative outcomes remain
unclear. We propose that higher parental monitoring may
be associated with lower levels of impulsive symptoms and
higher levels of drinking control in the alcohol-related-
problems pathway.
PATOCK-PECKHAM ET AL. 249
Drinking control
Leeman et al. (2007) have identifi ed impaired control
over one’s own drinking as one of the earliest signs for
the development of alcohol dependence. Drinking control
indicates the ability to “limit alcohol consumption in a par-
ticular situation” (Heather et al., 1993, p. 701). A failure in
the ability to stop drinking once one has begun to drink has
long been recognized as one of the hallmarks of addiction
(Leeman et al., 2007; Levine, 1978). In one sense, a lack of
drinking control may be considered impulsiveness specifi c
to the context of alcohol consumption.
Patock-Peckham et al. (2001) found self-regulation (i.e.,
good generalized control) was directly linked to more drink-
ing control (i.e., good specifi c control regarding drinking),
and Patock-Peckham and Morgan-Lopez (2006) found im-
pulsiveness (i.e., poor generalized control) to be linked to re-
duced levels of drinking control. Moreover, Patock-Peckham
and Morgan-Lopez (2006) found drinking control mediated
infl uences of impulsiveness on both alcohol use and alcohol-
related problems. Drinking control is an important variable
to study regarding alcohol-related problems because there
is a clear link between higher levels of drinking control and
fewer alcohol-related problems (Leeman et al., 2007; Patock-
Peckham et al., 2001; Patock-Peckham and Morgan-Lopez,
2006).
In this present investigation, we seek to explore the pos-
sibility that both impulsiveness and drinking control will
mediate the relationship of parental monitoring on alcohol-
related problems. We propose higher parental monitoring
may, in fact, be linked to fewer impulsive symptoms and
more drinking control, thus buffering the occurrence of
alcohol-related problems.
Parenting styles
As a secondary aim of this investigation, we explored
the multifaceted nature of parenting. In fact, it is possible
that a generalized approach to parenting may contribute to
how well a parent monitors one’s offspring. Parenting styles
refl ect a generalized approach concerning how decisions are
made within a family dynamic. As measured by Buri (1991)
there are three well-known and commonly measured styles
of parenting—authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive—
concerning communication and decision-making styles with-
in a family dynamic. Authoritarian parents are typically rule
driven and tend to value obedience rather than discussion
with their offspring. Authoritative parents clearly let their
offspring know they are in charge, with clear rules and in-
structions; but this style is characterized as facilitating open
discussions with a fair give and take with the child. Permis-
sive parents are characterized as behaving more like a peer
than as a parent to their offspring. These parents often permit
offspring to make their own decisions, rules, and standards
of conduct. Because how decisions are made in families
(i.e., parenting style) is not the same as knowing about one’s
offspring’s social life and activities outside the home (i.e.,
parental monitoring), we explored which parenting styles
contributed to the most monitoring of offspring. We hypoth-
esized that parents who had rules for their children (i.e., they
use discipline—authoritative and authoritarian) would be
more likely to monitor their offspring’s whereabouts and be
more informed regarding their peer relationships rather than
permissive parents.
Motivations for the present investigation
Most studies examining parental monitoring examine
this variable with mothers and fathers lumped together with
the word “parents” at the item level (Barnes et al., 2006;
Chuang et al., 2005; Veal and Ross, 2006). One exception to
this is the work of Webb et al. (2002), who showed mother’s
monitoring was signifi cantly related to alcohol use for both
men and women whereas father’s monitoring was not. Yet,
previous research regarding other parenting variables (i.e.,
parenting styles) has shown that separately considering
maternal and paternal effects on adolescent behavior can
provide more nuanced insights into the positive or negative
effects of parenting (Patock-Peckham et al., 2001; Patock-
Peckham and Morgan-Lopez, 2006, 2007, 2009a, 2009b).
Thus, in this investigation, we sought to explore the poten-
tially unique contributions of mother and father monitoring
on same-gender and opposite-gender offspring.
Another purpose was to examine which general parent-
ing style (e.g., permissive, authoritative, or authoritarian)
contributes to the highest level of parental monitoring. In
addition, we sought to explore whether parental monitoring
did or did not have any direct infl uence on behavioral control
variables, such as impulsiveness (general control), as well
as indirect infl uences on drinking control (specifi c control
directed toward alcohol consumption) and alcohol-related
problems. Moreover, we sought to explore these relation-
ships under the potential moderating variable of gender of
respondent. Last, we sought to explore whether infl uences by
parenting styles and parental monitoring on alcohol-related
problems were mediated by impulsiveness and drinking
control.
Method
Participants
Participants included 581 (316 women, 265 men) univer-
sity students. Of a total of 581, 23 women and 28 men had
missing data on at least one variable in the analysis. All par-
ticipants were awarded course credit for their participation.
The sample was 46% male, with an average age of 20.07
years (SD = 2.52). The sample was predominately White
250 JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL AND DRUGS / MARCH 2011
(67.98%). The remainder was 11.36% Hispanic, 10.50%
Asian, and 4.65% African American; 5.51% reported “other”
race/ethnicity. According to participant reports, 82.27% did
not perceive their fathers to be alcoholics, and 91.21% did
not perceive their mothers to be alcoholics.
Procedures
Data collection occurred at two locations: (a) Missouri
University of Science and Technology (formerly the Univer-
sity of Missouri–Rolla), Rolla, MO, and (b) San Diego State
University, San Diego, CA. This sample is characteristic of
college students at state-funded universities. All data were
collected using paper-and-pencil questionnaires, with the use
of an anonymous drop box to ensure participant anonymity.
Measures
Parental Authority Questionnaire. The Parental Authority
Questionnaire (Buri, 1991; Buri et al., 1988) is a 60-item
measure, 30 per parent, based on Baumrind’s (1971) proto-
types of permissive, authoritative, and authoritarian styles of
decision making within a family. Reitman et al. (2002) found
the Parental Authority Questionnaire to have an acceptable
factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent valid-
ity for samples with similar ethnic and socioeconomic status
as the one in the present investigation. Sample items for
the 10-item authoritativeness scale included, “My (mother/
father) always encouraged verbal give-and-take whenever I
have felt that the family rules and restrictions were unrea-
sonable,” and “As the children in my family were growing
up, my (mother/father) consistently gave us direction and
guidance in rationale and objective ways.” Sample items for
the 10-item authoritarianism scale included, “Whenever my
(mother/father) told me to do something as I was growing
up, (she/he) expected me to do it immediately without ask-
ing any questions” and “My (mother/father) felt that wise
parents should teach their children early just who is boss in
the family.” Sample items for the 10-item permissiveness
scale include: “My (mother/father) has always felt that what
children need is to be free to make up their own minds to do
what they want to do” and “Most of the time as I was grow-
ing up my (mother/father) did what the children in the family
wanted when making family decisions.” Responses for the
Parental Authority Questionnaire were 1 = strongly disagree,
2 = disagree, 3 = unsure, 4 = agree, and 5 = strongly agree.
The α reliabilities in this sample were as follows: mother
permissive .77, father permissive .79, mother authoritarian
.84, father authoritarian .88, mother authoritative .87, and
father authoritative .89.
Parental monitoring. The Parental Monitoring Scale
(Small and Kerns, 1993) is an eight-item measure origi-
nally adapted from interview research of Patterson and
Stouthamer-Loeber (1984). This measure assesses the extent
that parents know the whereabouts of their offspring, know
who their friends are, and generally discuss their offspring’s
social life and plans. We adapted this measure so that items
were repeated separately for mothers and fathers rather than
asked once for “parents.” Thus, there were a total of 16
items. Sample items include the following: “My (mother/
father) knew who my friends were,” “When I went out at
night, my (mother/father) knew where I was,” “I talked to
my (mother/father) about the plans I had with my friends,
and “My (mother/father) knew how I spent my money.” Re-
sponses ranged from 0 = never, 1 = rarely, 2 = sometimes,
3 = most of the time, and 4 = always. The α reliabilities for
mother and father monitoring were .88 and .93, respectively.
Eysenck 1.7. This scale (Eysenck et al., 1985) includes
a 19-item subscale for impulsiveness (the Venturesomeness
and Empathy subscales were deleted). Impulsiveness refl ects
behavioral under-control items in which people act and
speak without thinking. Sample items include the following:
“Do you often get into a jam because you do things without
thinking?” “Do you often do things on the spur of the mo-
ment?” and “Do you mostly speak without thinking things
out?” The α reliability in this sample for impulsiveness was
.80.
Drinking control measure. This scale refl ects 10 items
from the Impaired Control Scale (Heather et al., 1993).
Higher scores on this measure are refl ective of a greater
degree of perceived control over drinking (i.e., an ability to
stop drinking at will). Sample items include the following:
“I could stop drinking easily after one or two drinks” and “I
would be able to stop drinking before becoming completely
drunk.” Item responses ranged from 1 = strongly disagree, 2
= disagree, 3 = neither agree or disagree, 4 = agree, and 5
= strongly agree. The α reliability for this sample was .80.
Alcohol-related problems. These items came from the
Problems with Alcohol Use measure indicating alcohol
abuse or dependence (Rhea et al., 1993). Each of the 12
items were assessed on a scale from 0 = never to 3 = many
times. Characteristic items include using social occasions as
an excuse to drink, sneaking drinks, engaging in heavy epi-
sodic drinking, etc. The α reliability for the Problems with
Alcohol Use Scale was .84.
Statistical approach
First, a conceptual model was specifi ed before testing.
This conceptual model is shown in Figure 1. Next, a series
of multiple-group structural equation models were fi t using
Mplus v5.2 (Muthén and Muthén, 1998–2009). Full-infor-
mation maximum likelihood was used under the assumption
that the probability of missingness depends on observed data
but does not depend on data that are missing after account-
ing for observed variables (i.e., missing at random; Schafer
and Graham, 2002). We investigated a model with structural
paths and intercepts allowed to vary freely across male and
PATOCK-PECKHAM ET AL. 251
female groups. Model fi t was determined by examining the
comparative fi t index (CFI; Bentler, 1990) and root mean
square error of approximation (RMSEA; Browne and Cu-
deck, 1993; Hu and Bentler, 1998), as well as chi-square
statistics. Mediation analyses (Holmbeck, 1997) were ex-
amined within each gender to investigate indirect infl uences
of parenting styles on impulsiveness, drinking control, and
alcohol-related problems through parental monitoring. The
Empirical Asymmetric Confi dence Interval test for mediation
with products of coeffi cients was used (MacKinnon et al.,
2004). MacKinnon’s (2008) method for confi dence interval
(CI) estimation was conducted for testing the signifi cance of
three-path mediation effects.
Results
Descriptive statistics. Means and standard deviations
for all the variables examined in the conceptual model are
presented in Table 1. Means and standard deviations in bold
refl ect those for women, and means in italics refl ect those for
men in our sample. In addition, correlations among variables
are presented in Table 1. Correlations among women are pre-
sented in bold above the diagonal, and correlations among
men are presented in italics below the diagonal.
Overall model fi t. All hypothesized paths in Figure 1 were
estimated separately among men (Figure 2) and women
(Figure 3). Model intercepts (e.g., means for parental moni-
toring, impulsiveness, drinking control, and alcohol-related
problems) were also allowed to vary across the two gender
groups. The base model fi t the data well, χ2(40 df, n = 581)
= 58.990, p = .0268, RMSEA = .040, 95% CI [.014, .061],
CFI = .972.
Tests for invariance across gender. Tests for gender dif-
ferences across each gender were conducted. A series of
models with each path constrained to equality across gender
was fi t and compared against the base model. Each test was a
single-degree-of-freedom test of a model with a specifi c path
constrained to equality compared against the base model.
Gender differences on path coeffi cients and change in chi-
square values can be found in Table 2.
Key within-gender two-path mediated effects
Impulsiveness (men). Higher levels of mother authorita-
tiveness were indirectly linked to fewer impulsive symptoms
through increased mother monitoring (mediated effect =
-.041; 95% CI [-.080, -.010]). Conversely, higher levels of
mother permissiveness were indirectly linked to more im-
pulsive symptoms through less mother monitoring (mediated
effect = .040; 95% CI [.008, .0838]).
Impulsiveness (women). Higher levels of father authori-
tativeness were indirectly linked to fewer impulsive symp-
toms through increased father monitoring (mediated effect
= -.053; 95% CI [-.087, -.021]). Conversely, higher levels
of father permissiveness were indirectly linked to more im-
pulsive symptoms through less father monitoring (mediated
effect = .035; 95% CI [.011, .066]).
Drinking control (men and women). For men, higher
levels of mother monitoring were indirectly linked to more
drinking control through fewer impulsive symptoms (medi-
TABLE 1. Summary of intercorrelations, means, and standard deviations for all variables included in the conceptual path model
M SD Measure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
29.17 (5.14) 1. Mother monitor 1.00 .34 -.14 -.10 -.04 .01 .44 .10 -.06 .05 -.16
23.56 (5.78)
19.62 (8.97) 2. Father monitor .52 1.00 -.11 -.17 .01 -.11 .15 .48 -.21 .01 -.20
19.25 (7.49)
24.31 (5.95) 3. Mother permissive -.28 -.01 1.00 .47 -.47 -.14 .10 -.05 .13 -.13 .17
24.59 (5.81)
24.63 (6.17) 4. Father permissive -.20 -.21 .54 1.00 -.20 -.47 -.00 .10 .08 .02 -.02
25.07 (6.42)
30.03 (7.20) 5. Mother authoritarian .08 .04 -.48 -.08 1.00 .46 -.41 -.13 .03 .13 -.12
31.29 (6.66)
32.57 (8.29) 6. Father authoritarian .02 -.05 -.19 -.48 .39 1.00 -.17 -.41 -.09 -.01 .12
33.19 (7.22)
36.00 (7.42) 7. Mother authoritative .33 .25 .17 -.12 -.38 -.11 1.00 .38 -.01 -.04 -.08
35.40 (6.47)
34.18 (8.20) 8. Father authoritative .27 .38 -.02 .11 -.11 -.47 .46 1.00 -.14 .02 -.14
34.24 (6.68)
7.19 (4.15) 9. Impulsiveness -.26 -.24 .08 .07 .14 .14 -.24 -.20 1.00 -.21 .27
7.05 (4.20)
4.28 (0.65) 10. Drinking control .15 .12 -.06 -.10 -.02 .07 .10 .08 -.28 1.00 -.51
4.16 (0.67)
0.53 (0.47) 11. Alcohol problems -.17 -.19 .05 .08 .09 .05 -.12 -.13 .33 -.47 1.00
0.56 (0.48)
Notes: Intercorrelations among women (n = 316) are presented in bold above the diagonal and intercorrelations among men (n = 265) are
presented in italics below the diagonal. Means and standard deviations are presented in bold for women and in italics for men.
252 JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL AND DRUGS / MARCH 2011
FIGURE 1. Conceptual fi gure including all exogenous and endogenous variables in the structural equation model. All paths tested, and their anticipated
directional relationships with other variables are shown. All exogenous variables were allowed to correlate. Mother and father monitoring were also allowed
to correlate.
FIGURE 2. Multiple-group structural equation model (men). Standardized coeffi cients are shown. All exogenous variables were allowed to correlate freely in
the model. Mother and father monitoring were also allowed to correlate.
*p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001.
PATOCK-PECKHAM ET AL. 253
TABLE 2. Gender differences on path coeffi cients
Model χ2 Δχ2
Base model 58.990
.
Parenting style to mother monitoring
Mother permissiveness 61.564 2.574
Mother authoritarianism 59.078 <1.000
Mother authoritativeness 59.872 <1.000
Father permissiveness 59.017 <1.000
Father authoritarianism 59.379 <1.000
Father authoritativeness 65.418 6.428**
Parenting style to father monitoring
Mother permissiveness 66.386 7.396***
Mother authoritarianism 63.169 4.179*
Mother authoritativeness 59.696 <1.000
Father permissiveness 61.282 2.292
Father authoritarianism 59.658 <1.000
Father authoritativeness 60.219 1.229
Mother monitoring to impulsiveness 63.111 4.121*
Father monitoring to impulsiveness 59.141 0.151
Mother monitoring to alcohol-related problems 60.481 1.491
Father monitoring to alcohol-related problems 59.142 <1.000
Impulsiveness to drinking control 59.878 <1.000
Impulsiveness to alcohol-related problems 59.666 <1.000
Drinking control to alcohol-related problems 60.481 1.491
Notes: Base model is the model with no direct effects of parenting styles
on alcohol-related outcomes. See the Conceptual model in Figure 1. Sub-
sequent models were tested in which the indicated effect was constrained
to equality across gender. Δχ2 is the difference in chi-square between the
base model and the model in which the indicated path was constrained
across gender. All comparisons in the table are single-degree-of-freedom
chi-square tests.
*p < .05; **p < .02; ***p < .01.
FIGURE 3. Multiple-group structural equation model (women). Standardized coeffi cients are shown. All exogenous variables were allowed to correlate freely
in the model. Mother and father monitoring were also allowed to correlate.
*p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001.
ated effect = .006; 95% CI [.001, .012]). For women, higher
levels of father monitoring were indirectly linked to more
drinking control through fewer impulsive symptoms (medi-
ated effect = .003; 95% CI [.00098, .0059]).
Alcohol-related problems (men). As expected, higher lev-
els of impulsiveness were indirectly linked to more alcohol-
related problems through less drinking control (mediated
effect = .0128; 95% CI [.0067, .020]). In addition, higher
levels of mother monitoring were indirectly linked to fewer
alcohol-related problems through fewer impulsive symptoms
(mediated effect = -.003; 95% CI [-.0066, -.00059]).
Alcohol-related problems (women). As expected, higher
levels of impulsiveness were indirectly linked to more alco-
hol-related problems through less drinking control (medi-
ated effect = .011; 95% CI [.005, .018]). In addition, higher
levels of father monitoring were indirectly linked to fewer
alcohol-related problems through fewer impulsive symptoms
(mediated effect = -.0015; 95% CI [-.003, -.0003]). More-
over, higher levels of father authoritativeness were indirectly
linked to fewer alcohol-related problems through increased
father monitoring (mediated effect = .004; 95% CI [.001,
.008]). Conversely, higher levels of father permissiveness
were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems
through less father monitoring (mediated effect = .0029;
95% CI [.0006, .006]).
254 JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL AND DRUGS / MARCH 2011
Key within-gender three-path mediated effects
Drinking control (men). Higher levels of mother authori-
tativeness were indirectly linked to more drinking control
through more mother monitoring and less impulsiveness
(mediated effect = .0018; 95% CI [.0004, .0039]). Converse-
ly, higher levels of mother permissiveness were indirectly
linked to less drinking control through less mother monitor-
ing and more impulsive symptoms (mediated effect = -.0018;
95% CI [-.004, -.0003]).
Drinking control (women). Higher levels of father au-
thoritativeness were indirectly linked to more drinking
control through more father monitoring and less impulsive
symptoms (mediated effect = .0017; 95% CI [.0005, .0034]).
Conversely, higher levels of father permissiveness were
indirectly linked to less drinking control through less father
monitoring and more impulsive symptoms (mediated effect
= -.0012; 95% CI [-.0025, -.0003]).
Alcohol-related problems (men). Higher levels of mother
monitoring were indirectly linked to fewer alcohol-related
problems through fewer impulsive symptoms and more
drinking control (mediated effect = -.0017; 95% CI [-.0036,
-.00038]). In addition, higher levels of mother authoritative-
ness were indirectly linked to fewer alcohol-related problems
through more mother monitoring and fewer impulsive symp-
toms (mediated effect = -.0009; 95% CI [-.002, -.00016]).
Conversely, higher levels of mother permissiveness were
indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems through
less mother monitoring and more impulsive symptoms (me-
diated effect = .0009; 95% CI [.0001, .0023]).
Alcohol-related problems (women). Higher levels of father
monitoring were indirectly linked to fewer alcohol-related
problems through fewer impulsive symptoms and more
drinking control (mediated effect = -.0011; 95% CI [-.0022,
-.0003]). In addition, higher levels of father authoritativeness
were indirectly linked to fewer alcohol-related problems
through more father monitoring and fewer impulsive symp-
toms (mediated effect = -.0008; 95% CI [-.0018, -.0002]).
Conversely, higher levels of father permissiveness were in-
directly linked to more alcohol-related problems through less
father monitoring and more impulsive symptoms (mediated
effect = .0005; 95% CI [.00009, .00132]).
Discussion
Our ndings are consistent with Sher’s (1991) model of
deviance proneness, which suggests interplay of parental
and temperamental infl uences along externalizing pathways
to alcohol use disorders. These present fi ndings are also
consistent with recent investigators who have begun to sug-
gest personality constructs are dynamic entities in which
context can infl uence a trait (Johnson et al., 2007; Littlefi eld
et al., 2009, 2010; Roberts et al., 2003, 2006). In addition,
these fi ndings are consistent with those who suggest that
parental monitoring is a key variable to consider in an effort
to explain the etiology of alcohol-related problems (Arria
et al., 2008; Beck et al., 2004; Walls et al., 2009) and that
monitoring is a key promotive factor (i.e., generally associ-
ated with better outcomes; Zucker et al., 2008). Moreover,
the present fi ndings add to existing literature by showing that
parenting styles relate to quality of parental monitoring and
that parental monitoring by an opposite-gender parent may
be a potential mechanism in the expression of impulsive-
ness in the pathway from drinking control to alcohol-related
problems.
Parenting styles (i.e., authoritative and permissive) of
opposite-gender parents were indirectly related to behav-
ioral control variables, such as impulsiveness and drinking
control. This further illustrates the complexity of parental
infl uences on trait variables in an externalizing pathway to
alcohol-related problems. Although previous investigations
from our laboratory have found that the same-gender par-
ent can directly infl uence impulsiveness (Patock-Peckham
and Morgan-Lopez, 2006) and positive control variables
such as self-regulation (Patock-Peckham et al., 2001), these
new fi ndings suggest that the opposite-gender parents’ style
of parenting may indirectly infl uence behavioral control
variables via parental monitoring. In turn, this may imply
that the parenting styles of both parents may play a role in
the etiology of alcohol-related problems but that they occur
through different mechanisms.
Conceivably, how parents in a family decide to make
decisions involving their children may infl uence whether
parents will effectively monitor their offspring’s social life
and behavior, particularly behavior that occurs outside of
the house. Our fi ndings suggest that authoritative parenting
is linked to more effective monitoring of an opposite-gender
offspring. These effects are consistent with Social Learning
Theory, in that modeling positive control via monitoring
is associated with more positive control among offspring.
However, it remains unclear why the opposite-gender parent
rather than the same-gender parent doing the monitoring
matters for impulsiveness specifi cally. We suspect this is an-
other layer in the socialization process similar to those found
in moral development theories (Hoffman, 1975; Kohlberg,
1969). Nevertheless, we feel we can state with confi dence
that an authoritative parenting style, whether directly by the
same-gender parent (Patock-Peckham and Morgan-Lopez,
2006) or indirectly by the opposite-gender parent, is linked
to a reduced expression of behavioral control variables, such
as impulsiveness and a lack of drinking control.
Even though monitoring refl ects an awareness of an off-
spring’s social life and plans, a permissive style was found
to be linked to lower levels of monitoring. Thus, allowing an
offspring to make decisions like an equal is negatively as-
sociated with parents actually knowing about what goes on
with offspring outside of the home. Interestingly, the most
rule-driven style, authoritarian, was found to be unrelated
PATOCK-PECKHAM ET AL. 255
to monitoring. Thus, having authority does not mean your
child will share with you about the social nature of his or
her life. Our fi ndings are consistent with those of Jackson
(2002), who found adolescents exposed to permissive and
authoritarian parenting were 1.8–5.9 times as likely to
deny parental authority regarding alcohol use than those
exposed to authoritative parents. In turn, this may suggest
parental monitoring (at least in terms of offspring report)
refl ects the degree to which offspring communicate to their
parents about their behaviors and whereabouts, rather than
the degree of parents’ actual efforts to monitor their child’s
behaviors (Luk et al., 2010; Small and Kerns, 1993).
Parental monitoring has been known to play an important
environmental role in the development and transmission of
alcoholism in families (Barnes and Farrell, 1992; Chassin et
al., 1993; Dishion and Loeber, 1985). This investigation adds
to the literature by adding to the epidemiology of alcohol-
related behaviors via the mechanism of parental monitoring
in explaining one way it may buffer a personality trait known
to contribute to alcohol-related problems in the next gen-
eration. Poor parental monitoring is known to contribute to
increased time spent with deviant peers (Dishion and Loeber,
1985), yet little else is known about the impact of monitoring
on other potential mechanisms that increase the likelihood
an alcohol-related problem will occur. Specifi cally, our
investigation suggests poor parental monitoring on the part
of the opposite-gender parent, rather than the same-gender
parent, is directly linked to increased impulsiveness in the
alcohol-related-problems pathway. Our fi ndings suggest
that, for daughters, the helpful effects of parental monitor-
ing rests with the father’s understanding of her social plans
and whereabouts, and this knowledge is directly associated
with levels of impulsiveness in the alcohol-related-problems
pathway. In contrast, our fi ndings suggest that, for sons, the
helpful effects of parental monitoring rests with the mother’s
understanding of his social plans and whereabouts, and this
knowledge is directly associated with impulsiveness in the
alcohol-related-problems pathway. Moreover, this investi-
gation adds to our present understanding of parenting and
behavioral under-control/control variables by illustrating how
parental infl uences, such as parenting styles and monitoring,
may be transmitted by key personality constructs known to
be important predictors of alcohol-related problems, such as
impulsiveness (general poor control) and drinking control
(specifi c positive control over one’s own drinking). This
study also illustrates how parenting styles can indirectly
infl uence behavioral control variables via the mechanism of
parental monitoring.
Our ndings extend previous work (Webb et al., 2002) by
measuring parental monitoring separately for mothers and
fathers and by examining respondent’s gender simultane-
ously as part of the same model. When monitoring measured
separately for each parent enters the model as a potential
mediator, the opposite-gender parent now contributes to
behavioral under-control by directly infl uencing levels of
impulsiveness and indirectly infl uencing drinking control as
well as alcohol-related problems. These present and previ-
ous fi ndings suggest that both parents infl uence behavioral
control mechanisms known to contribute to alcohol-related
problems. Nevertheless, these specifi c fi ndings in this present
study add specifi c, new knowledge regarding exactly how
parents may perpetuate or buffer against development of
alcohol-related problems. This research, along with that of
others, suggests that the general approach to parenting does
matter and that relationships with both parents can contribute
differentially to one’s development in emerging adulthood
(Patock-Peckham and Morgan-Lopez, 2006; Webb et al.,
2002). Our research expands on Webb et al.s (2002) work
by illustrating that parental monitoring indirectly infl uences
alcohol-related problems through control mechanisms such
as impulsiveness and drinking control.
This present work also adds to existing literature by ex-
amining impulsiveness as a mediator of monitoring effects
on drinking control. We found impulsiveness did indeed act
as a mechanism in the link between paternal monitoring and
drinking control among daughters, whereas impulsiveness
did in fact act as a mechanism between maternal monitoring
and drinking control among sons. Although this is an initial
test of these phenomena, which needs to be replicated, it
does illustrate that generalized control (as measured by an
expression of impulsiveness) may operate as a direct me-
diator on control directly applied to the context of drinking.
This specifi c fi nding is consistent with those of investigators
who also found direct links from impulsiveness to drinking
control (Patock-Peckham and Morgan-Lopez, 2006) and
from self-regulation to drinking control (Patock-Peckham et
al., 2001). Knowing impulsiveness fully mediates the link
between monitoring on drinking control may be important,
because individuals with more control over their own drink-
ing are less likely to use alcohol as a coping mechanism
(Hutchinson et al., 1998; Room and Leigh, 1992). Moreover,
a lack of drinking control has recently been identifi ed as one
of the earliest signs of alcohol dependence (Leeman et al.,
2007).
There are several limitations to the present investigation
concerning the cross-sectional nature of these data and the
college student population. Hence, this investigation should
be considered an initial inquiry into multiple mediation
pathways for parenting styles and monitoring on behavioral
control variables in the alcohol-related-problems pathway.
Researchers in possession of longitudinal data should be
encouraged to examine linkages between these constructs
with repeated-measures data. For instance, parental monitor-
ing and impulsiveness are clearly associated, and there is a
need for the fi eld to developmentally explore and unpack this
association as it unfolds over time. Moreover, this investiga-
tion is limited because it is possible that monitoring may
also act as a moderator as well as a mediator of the pathway
256 JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL AND DRUGS / MARCH 2011
from parenting styles to impulsiveness. Therefore, more
investigations exploring different aspects of this phenomena
are clearly needed.
Further investigations may also wish to examine these
relationships in more specialized samples of respondents,
such as individuals diagnosed with alcohol use disorders, as
well as those containing children of alcoholics and juvenile
offenders. This present research is also limited because it
does not spell out if there are specifi c crucial developmental
times when parental monitoring may be essential regarding
trait formation.
Other limitations concern that we measured parental
monitoring only as one remembered it while growing up. It
remains unclear as to whether what occurred in childhood
is more or less important than any monitoring that may still
be occurring now into young adulthood by parents. Another
limitation of this current work is that it addresses the con-
cept of impulsiveness only as it was classically described
by Eysenck et al. (1985). Personality researchers may wish
to explore the relationship between parental monitoring and
multifaceted measures of impulsivity, which include both
emotional and cognitive aspects of impulsiveness (e.g., Dick
et al., 2010; Whiteside and Lynam, 2001). Moreover, future
investigations may seek to explore these relationships with
individuals undergoing therapy for addiction to alcohol.
Conceivably, it is possible that these relationships may be
even stronger among individuals within the criminal justice
system, who may be undergoing rehabilitation, or who may
be in need of rehabilitation for substance use disorders.
Acknowledgments
We thank Laurie Chassin, Ken Sher, Craig Enders, and Aaron Taylor for
their helpful suggestions regarding this article. We also thank Ali Mirgain,
Holly Payne, and Clayton Story for their commitment to high-quality data.
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... For instance, insomnia is associated with greater impulsivity (Schmidt, Gay, & Van der Linden, 2008). Impaired control over drinking (IC) is considered impulsivity specific to the drinking context (Patock-Peckham, Cheong, Balhorn, & Nagoshi, 2001;Patock-Peckham & Morgan-Lopez, 2006;Patock-Peckham, King, Morgan-Lopez, Ulloa, & Filson Moses, 2011;Patock-Peckham, Canning, & Leeman, 2018;Patock-Peckham et al., 2020) and is a well-validated construct (Heather et al., 1998;Marsh et al., 2002;Sa'nchez et al., 2020). Impaired control over drinking (IC) is the inability to limit alcohol consumption despite a-priori intentions to limit drinking behavior (Heather, Tebbutt, Mattick, & Zamir, 1993, p.701). ...
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Introduction Hyperarousal theory states that stressful negative events can result in a physiological response in the body leading to poor sleep quality. Childhood trauma is associated with many negative health consequences persisting into adulthood such as insomnia. Insomnia itself is a driver of poor physical and psychological health including excessive alcohol use. We examined the direct and indirect relationships between trauma (i.e., physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, physical-neglect) as well as emotionally supportive families on insomnia, impaired control over drinking, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Methods: We studied a sample of 941 college students (467 women, 474 men). For our data analysis, we used a structural equation model with model indirect commands and 20,000 iteration bootstrapping with asymmetric confidence intervals in Mplus to obtain our mediated effects. Results: Higher levels of emotional abuse were directly associated with more insomnia. Further, higher levels of physical neglect were directly associated with more impaired control over drinking. We found several mediational pathways from this investigation as well. Higher levels of emotional abuse were indirectly linked to both more alcohol use and alcohol-related problems through increased insomnia and impaired control over drinking. Conclusions: Our results were consistent with Hyperarousability Theory. We suggest that insomnia may contribute to dysregulated drinking and that combating emotional abuse could be a promising therapeutic target of intervention among college student social drinkers.
... A higher score indicates increased parental monitoring. The instrument has demonstrated good validity and reliability (Patlock--Peckham et al., 2011). In this study the alpha value is .787. ...
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Gambling and gaming are not infrequent among adolescents and preventing low-risk youth from becoming at-risk appears to be a priority of public health strategies. Greater scrutiny of the risk and protective factors in the relationships and community of young people appears crucial in steering prevention initiatives adequately. This study aimed to explore the role of the qualities of relational networks (i.e. family functioning, perceived social and class support), family and peer approval and view of the social environment in predicting problem gambling, problem gaming and overall well-being among adolescents. High-school students aged 14-18 years (N: 595; female: 68,7%) completed a survey including the target variables. A multivariate multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the role of socio-demographic characteristics and psychosocial predictors on gaming, gambling, and well-being. Multivariate multiple regressions identify a common core underpinning problem gambling, gaming and poor well-being but also the distinct roles of psychosocial variables: being male, with low parental monitoring, and an anomic view of the social environment all predict problem gambling and gaming, which were also found to be associated. Low social support predicts problem gambling but not problem gaming; poor family functioning predicts problem gaming but not problem gambling. All the target psychosocial variables, except approval of gambling, predict poor well-being. On the whole the findings suggest the need to look more closely at the way adolescents, their system of activity and their culture participate in constructing the meaning of gambling and gaming activities and their impact on adolescents’ well-being, so that future studies and strategies can more effectively examine the relational dynamics in which problem gambling and gaming develop.
... Parental permissiveness of alcohol has been identified as a reliable predictor of adolescent and young adult alcohol misuse and consequences across a wide range of studies focused on different research questions and developmental periods (Calhoun, Maggs, & Loken, 2018;Koning, Engels, Verdurmen, & Vollebergh, 2010;Koning, van den Eijnden, Verdurmen, Engels, & Vollebergh, 2012;Livingston, Testa, Hoffman, & Windle, 2010;Mallett et al., 2019;Patock-Peckham, King, Morgan-Lopez, Ulloa, & Moses, 2011;Patock-Peckham & Morgan-Lopez, 2006;Rulison et al., 2016;Van der Vorst, Engels, Meeus, Dekovic, & Van Leeuwe, 2005;Varvil-Weld et al., 2012;Varvil-Weld, Crowley, Turrisi, Greenberg, & Mallett, 2013). Research examining the effects of parental permissiveness toward underage college student drinking on student drinking and consequences, show that permissiveness is associated with greater student harms. ...
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Background Despite almost 1 in 5 college students being Latinx, research examining risk factors for college alcohol misuse and consequences to inform prevention efforts for Latinx is limited. The current study attempts to address a health disparity among Latinx college students by examining the effects of parental permissiveness of underage drinking and perceived ethnic discrimination on drinking outcomes. Methods Latinx students from three large and geographically diverse public universities (N=215; 73% female) completed measures during the fall of their first (T1) and second (T2) years. Analyses used moderated regression with bootstrapping to obtain asymmetrical 95% confidence intervals. Parental permissiveness of underage drinking and perceived ethnic discrimination were assessed as predictors at T1. Drinking outcomes were assessed at T2 as typical weekly drinking, peak blood alcohol content (BAC), and alcohol-related consequences. Results T1 permissiveness was significantly positively associated with T2 peak BAC. T1 discrimination significantly moderated the association between T1 permissiveness and T2 peak BAC as well as T2 consequences. The effects of T1 permissiveness on T2 peak BAC and T2 consequences were stronger among Latinx who experienced above-average levels of T1 discrimination. Conclusions Results suggest that among Latinx parental permissiveness of underage drinking and perceived ethnic discrimination are risk factors for peak BAC and alcohol-related consequences. The positive associations between parental permissiveness and peak BAC/consequences were stronger among Latinx students who experienced high levels of ethnic discrimination. Efforts to address these risk factors in future culturally sensitive parent-based interventions for Latinx college students are warranted.
... At the same time, the exposure of children to multiples and more promising approaches to emotional management, such as successful, active approaches and aid-seeking, is related significantly to characterized parental styles [18,19,20]. Furthermore, authoritarian parenting has been associated with an increased control level [21], impulsive behaviours, drug issues [22]. The indulgent parenthood was also linked to drug issues [23]. ...
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This study investigated the parental factors as predictors of Emotional Intelligence (EQ)among in-school adolescents in Odeda Local Government, Ogun State Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. Participants consisted of two hundred students purposively selected from a senior and a junior secondary school (mean age 16.00± 2.01). These responded to Parenting Styles Scale (PSS), Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS). The results showed a high prevalence rate of low emotional intelligence. Authoritative parenting style (β = .26, p<.05) and authoritarian parenting style (β = .42, p<.05) had significant independent predictive scores on Emotional Intelligence (EQ), while permissive parenting style (β =-.10, p>.05) and neglectful parenting style (β =-.01, p>.05) failed to significantly predict EQ. Parental bonding (Father and mother) reported a significant joint influence on EQ (R 2 = 0.21, p< .05). Mother bonding (β = .22, p < .05) and father bonding (β = .28, p< .05) were observed as significant independent predictors of EQ. Significant sex influence (t (198) =-12.66, p<.05) was observed on EQ, with female students reporting significantly higher mean scores on EQ than male students.
... Prospectively IC is one of the earliest symptoms of alcohol use disorder (AUD) to manifest (Leeman, Toll, Taylor, & Volpicelli, 2009). Reviews on IC (Leeman, Patock-Peckham, & Potenza, 2012;Leeman et al., 2014) reveal that some investigators have described IC as impulsivity specific to the drinking context (Patock-Peckham, Cheong, Balhorn, & Nagoshi, 2001;Patock-Peckham and Morgan-Lopez, 2006;Patock-Peckham et al., 2011). While others suggest that while IC reflects an adherence to an intent to limit drinking, with impulsivity there may never be an intention to limit drinking (Bickel & Marsch, 2001). ...
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Introduction Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) develops after experiencing events that evoke fear, helplessness, or horror. The Hyperarousablity Hypothesis suggests that those with PTSD may drink more to dampen physiological reactivity. We examined the direct and indirect relationships between childhood trauma (e.g., physical-neglect, emotional-abuse, physical-abuse, sexual-abuse) versus an emotionally-supportive-family on PTSD, impaired control over drinking (IC), alcohol-use, and alcohol-related-problems. IC reflects consuming more alcohol than one originally intended. Methods We fit a multiple-group SEM to data on 835 participants. Mediational analyses were conducted by using the (K = 20,000) bootstrap technique with confidence intervals. Results Physical-neglect was directly linked to more IC among both genders. Emotional abuse was also found to be directly linked to more PTSD among both genders. Furthermore, PTSD was directly linked to more impaired control over alcohol use (IC) among both genders. Mediational analyses showed that physical-neglect was indirectly linked to more alcohol-related-problems through increased IC. Having an emotionally supportive family was directly linked to fewer PTSD symptoms among women. For both genders, emotional abuse was indirectly linked to more alcohol-related-problems through more PTSD symptoms, impaired control over alcohol use difficulties, and in turn, more alcohol-use. Sexual abuse was indirectly linked to increased alcohol-related- problems through increased PTSD symptoms and more IC, and in turn, more alcohol-use among men. Conclusions Recalled childhood trauma (sexual and emotional abuse) may contribute to PTSD symptoms and dysregulated drinking. In conclusion, our data suggest that reducing PTSD symptoms may assist individuals in regaining control over their drinking.
Chapter
Parenting behaviors and practices are widely acknowledged as playing a critical role in children's development. Parenting styles consist of parents’ broad behavioral patterns that attempt to control and socialize children; and parental attitudes and practices that set an emotional context or climate for parent-child relationships and child development. This chapter will review the literature on parenting styles and their associations with children's development from both a typology approach and dimension-focused approach, as well as the current measures that are used to assess parenting styles. In addition, the chapter reviews research findings on the association between parenting styles and children's developmental domains such as mental health, behavioral development, physical development, identity development, social and emotional development, and academic achievement. Moreover, this chapter discusses the factors that may influence the use of parenting styles, including children's characteristics, parents’ characteristics, and socioeconomic status. Lastly, the chapter discusses how parenting styles vary depending on gender and cultural contexts. Translational implications are also discussed.
Purpose The internet has provided a gamut of benefits to consumers. The digital world, however, also provides space for various illegal or unethical consumer activities. Consumers may not always be fully aware of the unethical or illegal nature of some of the online activities that they engage in. This study aims to examine the questionable side of online consumer behaviour in an emerging market where internet penetration and smart phone accessibility is rapidly expanding. Using a third-person technique, this study attempts to empirically capture the perceptions of Indian adults regarding the prevalence of various questionable online activities such as unauthorized downloading of digital content, spreading fake news/misinformation and fraudulent returns and to understand the extent to which these respondents believe that such actions are acceptable or illegal and unethical. Design/methodology/approach An online questionnaire was used to collect primary data from 212 consumers. Non-probability convenience and snowball sampling was used for the purpose. Findings Unauthorized watching or downloading of online content is reported to be the most prevalent among the various types of questionable behaviours examined. However, it is behaviours such as fraudulent returns and spreading misinformation through online channels which are considered to be the most unethical or illegal. Certain behaviours which may be deemed to be unethical and illegal nevertheless are seen as acceptable. Significant differences between demographics in the case of several of the unethical activities are reported. Research limitations/implications This study examines the grey and dark side of online behaviours among consumers in an emerging market and points to the need for action on several fronts to increase consumer awareness and sensitivity about the unethical or illegal nature of some of their online activities and the implications for multiple stakeholders. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations directed at consumers, marketers and policymakers are discussed. Originality/value Although the benefits of online communication channels have been extensively studied, their ability to facilitate certain unethical and even illegal activities is an under-researched area. The inclination to engage in these types of questionable behaviours may have been exacerbated by the restrictions imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study highlights the importance of research on various grey consumer activities in the digital space and paves the way for further investigations by identifying online actions which are considered as most prevalent and/or unethical and illegal.
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Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parenting styles and tendency for drug use by considering the mediating role of impulsivity. Method: The research method was descriptive-correlational of structural equation type. The statistical population of the study included the students of Hakim Sabzevari University in 2018-2019 (n=7248). To select the sample, stratified random sampling method was used and 376 students (216 girls and 160 boys) were selected. The research instruments included the impulsivity questionnaire, the addiction potential scale, and the parenting styles scale. Structural equation method was used to analyze the data. Results: The fit indices of the research model were in good condition. Parenting styles had a significant direct effect on tendency for drug use in students. Impulsivity also significantly mediated the relationship between parenting styles and tendency for drug use. Conclusion: The findings of the study indicated a good fit of the conceptual model of the research. It is suggested that impulsivity and parenting styles be considered as a major axis in the diagnosis of various clinical disorders such as tendency for drug use. Keywords: Tendency for drug use, Parenting style, Impulsivity
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The most commonly used method to test an indirect effect is to divide the estimate of the indirect effect by its standard error and compare the resulting z statistic with a critical value from the standard normal distribution. Confidence limits for the indirect effect are also typically based on critical values from the standard normal distribution. This article uses a simulation study to demonstrate that confidence limits are imbalanced because the distribution of the indirect effect is normal only in special cases. Two alternatives for improving the performance of confidence limits for the indirect effect are evaluated: (a) a method based on the distribution of the product of two normal random variables, and (b) resampling methods. In Study 1, confidence limits based on the distribution of the product are more accurate than methods based on an assumed normal distribution but confidence limits are still imbalanced. Study 2 demonstrates that more accurate confidence limits are obtained using resampling methods, with the bias-corrected bootstrap the best method overall.
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Examined sex differences in moral standards and the content of such standards in 3 studies conducted (a) in 1958 with 146 male and 124 female, White, middle- to upper-middle-class 7th graders (Study 1); (b) in 1967-1968 with 103 male and 107 female 7th graders, all firstborns; and (c) in 1969 with 332 male and 325 female 5th graders. Data on all parents were obtained in Study 2 and on those having firstborn children in Study 3. Moral internalization indices were developed that pertained to internal moral judgment, guilt intensity, and fear of punishment. Findings support the prevalent view that consideration for others is more salient in females. They also suggest, with considerable consistency (especially in adults) that moral transgressions are more likely to be associated with guilt in females and fear in males. No sex differences in internal moral judgment were obtained. Evidence suggested that the differences in children may be due partly to different discipline and affection patterns. The results for adults as well as children might be explained by differential sex-role socialization as well as by increasing pressures on males over the life cycle to achieve and succeed, which may often conflict with concerns about the welfare of others. (43 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
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This longitudinal study provides an analysis of the relationship between personality traits and work experiences with a special focus on the relationship between changes in personality and work experiences in young adulthood. Longitudinal analyses uncovered 3 findings. First, measures of personality taken at age 18 predicted both objective and subjective work experiences at age 26. Second, work experiences were related to changes in personality traits from age 18 to 26. Third, the predictive and change relations between personality traits and work experiences were corresponsive: Traits that "selected" people into specific work experiences were the same traits that changed in response to those same work experiences. The relevance of the findings to theories of personality development is discussed.
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The current study assessed 3 hypothesized mediating mechanisms underlying the relation between parental alcoholism and adolescent substance use. Using structural equation modeling, we analyzed data obtained from a large community sample of adolescent children of alcoholics and a demographically matched comparison group. Results suggested that parental alcoholism influenced adolescent substance use through stress and negative affect pathways, through decreased parental monitoring, and through increased temperamental emotionality (which was associated with heightened negative affect). Both negative affect and impaired parental monitoring were associated with adolescents' membership in a peer network that supported drug use behavior. The data did not support a link between parental alcoholism and temperamental sociability.
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The present investigation assesses the incidence and risk factors of unwanted sexual activity initiated by peers for a sample of 1,149 adolescent females. Twenty percent of the sample reported some type of unwanted sexual contact in the past year. Of this group, over one-third reported that they had been forced to have sexual intercourse; the remaining two-thirds reported unwanted touching. Boyfriends were the most commonly reported perpetrators followed by dates, friends, and acquaintances. Individuals were more vulnerable to unwanted sexual contact if they had a history of sexual abuse, reported excessive alcohol use in the past month, scored high in peer conformity, or had parents who did not monitor their behavior closely or use an authoritative parenting style.
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Review of book, Kenneth J. Sher (Au.) Children of Alcoholics: A Critical Appraisal of Theory and Research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991, 256 pp., ISBN 0-87630-604-0. Reviewed by Ken C. Winters.
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This study uses a representative general population sample of 699 adolescents and their families to examine the effects of paren ting practices, particularly support and control, on the development of adolescent drinking, delinquency, and other problem behaviors. Black families were oversampled (n = 211) to permit meaningful analyses. The findings confirm that parental support and monitoring are important predictors of adolescent outcomes even after taking into account critical demographic/family factors, including socioeconomic indicators, age, gender, and race of the adolescent, family structure, and family history of alcohol abuse. In addition, peer orientation remains a significant predictor of drinking behavior and deviance and interacts with aspects of parenting. Methodological issues associated with sampling, family respondent, and measurement of support and control are critiqued as they pertain to parental socialization and adolescent outcome research.
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From socialization theory, it was hypothesized that parental support and monitoring as well as peer deviance would influence individual trajectories of alcohol misuse, other substance use, and delinquency. Six waves of data were analyzed using interviews with 506 adolescents in a general population sample. Results from multilevel modeling showed that monitoring significantly predicted adolescents’ initial levels (intercepts) of alcohol misuse and delinquency. Parental monitoring strongly predicted the rates of increase (slope) in all 3 problem behaviors. Peer deviance significantly predicted initial levels of all problem behaviors and the rates of increase in them. This study provides evidence that both effective parenting and avoidance of associations with delinquent peers are important factors in preventing adolescent problem behaviors.
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The relative importance of several family and peer variables in predicting adolescent substance use was examined using data from the UK part of the European Schools Project on Alcohol and other Drugs (ESPAD). This involved 2641 students, all born in 1983, from throughout the UK surveyed in March–June 1999. For substance use, peer influences showed the strongest associations but parental monitoring and parental attitudes to substance use were also important. Once these variables were taken into account, other variables such as being in a single parent family or the relationships with the parents showed few significant effects. Family relationships, however, assumed far greater importance in predicting variables such as the students' self‐esteem and satisfaction with their health.