Antigen-Specific Adaptive Immune Responses in Fingolimod-Treated Multiple Sclerosis Patients

Department of Neurology, Clinical Neuroimmunology Laboratory, University Hospital Basel, Switzerland.
Annals of Neurology (Impact Factor: 9.98). 02/2011; 69(2):408-13. DOI: 10.1002/ana.22352
Source: PubMed


T cells exit secondary lymphoid organs along a sphingosine1-phosphate (S1P) gradient and, accordingly, are reduced in blood upon fingolimod-mediated S1P-receptor (S1PR)-blockade. Serving as a model of adaptive immunity, we characterized cellular and humoral immune responses to influenza vaccine in fingolimod-treated patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and in untreated healthy controls. Although the mode of action of fingolimod might predict reduced immunity, vaccine-triggered T cells accumulated normally in blood despite efficient S1PR-blockade. Concentrations of anti-influenza A/B immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG also increased similarly in both groups. These results indicate that fingolimod-treated individuals can mount vaccine-specific adaptive immune responses comparable to healthy controls.

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    • "The evidence suggests further that fingolimod does not inhibit humoral immunity to systemic viral infection, and does not suppress, or only modestly suppresses, the generation of virus-specific cytotoxic T cells in lymph nodes [102, 103]. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that fingolimod-treated individuals can mount vaccine-specific adaptive immune responses comparable to those of healthy controls [104, 105]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a life-long, potentially debilitating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). MS is considered to be an immune-mediated disease, and the presence of autoreactive peripheral lymphocytes in CNS compartments is believed to be critical in the process of demyelination and tissue damage in MS. Although MS is not currently a curable disease, several disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are now available, or are in development. These DMTs are all thought to primarily suppress autoimmune activity within the CNS. Each therapy has its own mechanism of action (MoA) and, as a consequence, each has a different efficacy and safety profile. Neurologists can now select therapies on a more individual, patient-tailored basis, with the aim of maximizing potential for long-term efficacy without interruptions in treatment. The MoA and clinical profile of MS therapies are important considerations when making that choice or when switching therapies due to suboptimal disease response. This article therefore reviews the known and putative immunological MoAs alongside a summary of the clinical profile of therapies approved for relapsing forms of MS, and those in late-stage development, based on published data from pivotal randomized, controlled trials.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · CNS Drugs
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    • "A recovery to normal levels usually takes place within 1–3 months. Despite the reduction in lymphocyte counts, fingolimod-treated patients with MS were shown not to have more infections apart from a somewhat higher number of respiratory tract infections (Kappos et al., 2012) and were able to mount antigen-specific immune responses in vaccination studies (Kappos et al., 2011; Mehling et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disorder characterized by inflammatory demyelination and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system. Until recently, disease-modifying treatment was based on agents requiring parenteral delivery, thus limiting long-term compliance. Basic treatments such as beta-interferon provide only moderate efficacy, and although therapies for second-line treatment and highly active MS are more effective, they are associated with potentially severe side effects. Fingolimod (Gilenya(®)) is the first oral treatment of MS and has recently been approved as single disease-modifying therapy in highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) for adult patients with high disease activity despite basic treatment (beta-interferon) and for treatment-naïve patients with rapidly evolving severe RRMS. At a scientific meeting that took place in Vienna on November 18th, 2011, experts from ten Central and Eastern European countries discussed the clinical benefits and potential risks of fingolimod for MS, suggested how the new therapy fits within the current treatment algorithm and provided expert opinion for the selection and management of patients.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Frontiers in Neurology
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    • "Recent studies indicated these suppressive effects of FTY720 may not lead to a systematic immunodeficiency. In a subtle study, the cellular and humoral immune responses to influenza vaccine were found unmitigated in MS patients treated with FTY720, and these response capacities are comparable to healthy subjects [61]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abnormal inflammations are central therapeutic targets in numerous infectious and autoimmune diseases. Dendritic cells (DCs) are involved in these inflammations, serving as both antigen presenters and proinflammatory cytokine providers. As an immuno-suppressor applied to the therapies of multiple sclerosis and allograft transplantation, fingolimod (FTY720) was shown to affect DC migration and its crosstalk with T cells. We posit FTY720 can induce an anergy-polarized phenotype switch on DCs in vitro, especially upon endotoxic activation. A lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (BMDC) activation model was employed to test FTY720-induced phenotypic changes on immature and mature DCs. Specifically, methods for morphology, nanostructure, cytokine production, phagocytosis, endocytosis and specific antigen presentation studies were used. FTY720 induced significant alterations of surface markers, as well as decline of shape indices, cell volume, surface roughness in LPS-activated mature BMDCs. These phenotypic, morphological and topographical changes were accompanied by FTY720-mediated down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12 and MCP-1. Together with suppressed nitric oxide (NO) production and CCR7 transcription in FTY720-treated BMDCs with or without LPS activation, an inhibitory mechanism of NO and cytokine reciprocal activation was suggested. This implication was supported by the impaired phagocytotic, endocytotic and specific antigen presentation abilities observed in the FTY720-treated BMDCs. In conclusion, we demonstrated FTY720 can induce anergy-polarization in both immature and LPS-activated mature BMDCs. A possible mechanism is FTY720-mediated reciprocal suppression on the intrinsic activation pathway and cytokine production with endpoint exhibitions on phagocytosis, endocytosis, antigen presentation as well as cellular morphology and topography.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · PLoS ONE
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