Spatially Detailed Survey on Pollution by Multiple Perfluorinated Compounds in the Tokyo Bay Basin of Japan

Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-7 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501, Japan.
Environmental Science & Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 03/2011; 45(7):2887-93. DOI: 10.1021/es103917r
Source: PubMed


Pollution from 35 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the water of the Tokyo Bay basin was examined. The water in the basin contained relatively high levels of perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) compared to the other PFCs, which were present at concentrations of 20.1 ng/L, 6.7 ng/L, and 5.8 ng/L, respectively. In contrast, the concentrations of their precursors and degradation products were an order of magnitude lower. Sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent in the area also contained high levels of PFNA compared with the river water samples (Mann-Whitney U-test, p<0.0002). From a spatial aspect, increases in PFC pollution levels correlated with increased urbanization in the study area suggested that there are nonpoint source contributors to the PFC pollution in this area. Branched isomers of the PFCs were also quantified. Samples that contained high concentrations of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCA) showed lower proportions of its branched isomer. This indicates that the branched isomers are more prominent in the area with lower PFC pollution. This analysis was beneficial for estimating the individual contributions of different PFCA production processes. This survey provided new information on the sources, spatial distribution, and behavioral characteristics of PFC pollutants in this area.

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Available from: Yasuyuki Zushi
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    • "Globally, PFOA concentrations in Tianjin and Weifang were comparable or higher than those detected in river systems of Thailand (Boontanon et al., 2013), South Korea (Hong et al., 2013), India (Yeung et al., 2009), Singapore (Nguyen et al., 2011), Germany (Llorca et al., 2012) and United States (Benskin et al., 2010), but much lower than some sites in Japan(Zushi et al., 2011; Takemine et al., 2014) and United States (Nakayama et al., 2010). As for median value, the levels of PFOA in the present study were comparable to those reported in Japan, where however PFNA were detected generally higher or even dominant in some cases (Zushi et al., 2011). PFOS concentrations in Tianjin were comparable to those in ChaoPhraya River, Thailand (Boontanon et al., 2013), rivers and west coastal water, South Korea (Hong et al., 2013; Naile et al., 2013), L'Albufera Natural Park, Spain (Pico et al., 2011), and Mississippi River, United States (Benskin et al., 2010) while PFOS concentrations in Weifang were lower and comparable to Bang Pakong River, Thailand (Boontanon et al., 2013), Ganges River, India (Yeung et al., 2009) and Main River, Germany (Llorca et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been widely detected in the hydrosphere. The knowledge on the distribution and composition patterns of PFAS analogues with different chain length significantly contribute to their source analysis. In the present study, a regional scale investigation of PFASs in surface river waters and adjacent ground waters was carried out in two cities of China with potential contamination, Tianjin and Weifang. A total of 31 water samples were collected, and 20 PFASs therein were measured by a high-performance liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS). The possible sources of PFASs in the aquatic environment were assessed primarily by concentration patterns as well as hierarchical cluster analysis. In all 4 rivers investigated in the two cities, perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the dominant compounds contributing over 70% of the PFASs detected. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant PFCA with a concentration range of 8.58-20.3ng/L in Tianjin and 6.37-25.9ng/L in Weifang, respectively. On the average, the highest concentration was observed in samples from Dagu Drainage Canal (Dagu) in Tianjin and those short-chain PFASs (C4-C6) was detected with a comparable level of the longer-chain PFASs (>C6). Specifically, perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was dominant in the short-chain analogues. This indicates that a remarkably increasing input of short-chain PFASs might be related to wastewater treatment plant effluent or industrial discharges, which could be possibly due to the switch of manufacturing to short-chain products. In Weifang, precipitation and subsequent surface runoff as non-point sources could be significant inputs of PFASs into surface water while groundwater was possibly subjected to severe point sources with ∑PFASs concentration up to ~100ng/L. The inconsistent distribution patterns in groundwater suggest complicated pathways of contamination.
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    • "This profile is in contrast with those observed in the other study locations as well as those reported in many countries, where PFNA is a minor compound compared with PFOA (Table 2). PFNA has been reported as a major PFC in urban surface water from Japan (Murakami et al. 2008), especially after the regulation of PFOS by the Stockholm Convention (Zushi et al. 2011). This may also be associated with the production and usage of ammonium perfluorononanoate (Prevedouros et al. 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: There are very few reports on the contamination by perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the environment of developing countries, especially regarding their emission from waste recycling and disposal sites. This is the first study on the occurrence of a wide range of PFCs (17 compounds) in ambient water in Vietnam, including samples collected from a municipal dumping site (MD), an e-waste recycling site (ER), a battery recycling site (BR) and a rural control site. The highest PFC concentration was found in a leachate sample from MD (360 ng/L). The PFC concentrations in ER and BR (mean, 57 and 16 ng/L, respectively) were also significantly higher than those detected in the rural control site (mean, 9.4 ng/L), suggesting that municipal solid waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment are potential contamination sources of PFCs in Vietnam. In general, the most abundant PFCs were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUDA; <1.4-100, <1.2-100, and <0.5-20 ng/L, respectively). Interestingly, there were specific PFC profiles: perfluoroheptanoic acid and perfluorohexanoic acid (88 and 77 ng/L, respectively) were almost as abundant as PFOA in MD leachate (100 ng/L), whereas PFNA was prevalent in ER and BR (mean, 17 and 6.2 ng/L, respectively) and PFUDA was the most abundant in municipal wastewater (mean, 5.6 ng/L), indicating differences in PFC contents in different waste materials.
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