Evaluation of fruit extracts of six Turkish Juniperus species for their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities

Article (PDF Available)inJournal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 91(5):867-76 · March 2011with107 Reads
DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4258 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae) species are mostly spread out in the Northern Hemisphere of the world, and some of them are used as folkloric medicines. The fruits of some species are eaten. Since oxidative stress is one of the reasons for neurodegeneration and is associated with the Alzheimer's disease (AD), the extracts prepared from the fruits of six Juniperus species were screened for their antioxidant activity. Therefore, the extracts were also evaluated against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which are chief enzymes in the pathogenesis of AD. In addition, antimicrobial activity was also evaluated. In the β-carotene-linoleic acid assay, acetone extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. sabina and J. excelsa, and methanol extracts of J. phoenicea and J. sabina, effectively inhibited oxidation of linoleic acid. The hexane extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. foetidissima and J. phoenicea showed remarkable inhibitory effect against AChE and BChE. Because of their high antioxidant activity, J. excelsa, J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. sabina and J. phoenicia might be used in the food industry as preservative agents or extension of the shelf-life of raw and processed foods. Since the hexane extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. foetidissima demonstrated significant anticholinesterase activity they should be considered as a potential source for anticholinesterase agents.
    • "Consequently, this compound may be speculated to donate to BChE inhibitory action of the shoot-EtOH extract as it was formerly shown by us to possess BChE-inhibiting property[19]. In accordance with our data, J. communis fruit extracts from Turkey were reported to have a low cholinesterase inhibitory effect[20]. We have recently reported about cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of several extracts of the cones and leaves (needles) of C. sempervirens var. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant effect of six coniferous trees (Abies bornmulleriana, Picea pungens, Juniperus communis, Cedrus libani, Taxus baccata, and Cupressus sempervirens var. horizantalis). Acetone (Ace), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and ethanol (EtOH) extracts prepared from the needles and shoots of the six coniferous trees were screened for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity at 100 μg/mL. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD) radical scavenging, metal-chelation capacity, ferric-(FRAP) and phosphomolibdenum-reducing antioxidant power (PRAP) assays. All of the assays were performed in ELISA microplate reader. Total phenol and flavonoid amounts in the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Among thirty-six extracts in total, the shoot-Ace extract of Cupressus sempervirens var. horizantalis exerted the highest inhibition against AChE [(54.84±2.51)%], while the needle-Ace extract of Cedrus libani was the most effective in inhibiting BChE [(67.54±0.30)%]. The highest DPPH radical scavenging effect, FRAP and PRAP was observed in the shoot-Ace and EtOAc extracts from Taxus baccata, whereas all the extracts showed a variable degree of scavenging effect against DPMD radical. The shoot-EtOAc extract of Cedrus libani had the highest metal-chelation capacity [(58.04±0.70)%]. The shoot extracts of Taxus baccata were determined to have the richest total phenol content, which may contribute to its marked antioxidant activity. The conifer species screened in this study may contain cholinesterase-inhibiting and antioxidant properties, which might be useful against Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
    • "The acetone extract from bark was the most active, the only one that inhibited all the Gram(+) bacteria, with inhibition zone diameters of 9-11 mm at 200 µg per disc. Although the results are not comparable with those obtained for the reference antibiotics (24-32 mm at 10 µg per disc), they show that the active extracts tested here are much more active than other acetone and methanolic extracts from other Juniperus species, where inhibition zone diameters are also presented in the order of 8-10 mm but obtained with 400 µg per disc [17]. When searching and suggesting new products for application in the food, pharmaceutical and/or cosmetic industries as antioxidant, antibacterial and/or anti-acetylcholinesterasic agents, the toxicity of the product must be taken into account. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Juniperus brevifolia (Seub.) Antoine (Cupressaceae) is an endemic conifer of the Azores, a habitat isolated from the continental masses which may significantly influence the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds with unique features. In this context, the toxicity, antibacterial, antioxidant (DPPH) and anti-acetylcholinesterasic (anti-AChE) activities of the methanol and acetone extracts of J. brevifolia wood and bark were evaluated for the first time. In the brine-shrimp assay all the extracts showed low toxicity, with the concentration causing 50% mortality (LC 50) higher than 2.03 mg/mL. The acetone extract of the bark proved to be the most active against Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis and Micrococcus luteus, while the wood acetone extract showed activity only against B. cereus. No activity was observed against Gram (bacteria ia Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae. The acetone extract of bark was the most active showing the higher antioxidant (EC 50 =7.0 µg/mL) and anti-AChE activities (IC 50 =193 µg/mL), near to the reference compounds, quercetin (EC 50 =3.2 µg/mL) and ursolic acid (IC 50 =190 µg/mL), respectively. The present study demonstrates the great potential of the acetone bark extract of J. brevifolia as a source of new non-toxic natural bioactive compounds as antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterasic drugs.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
    • "It is important, therefore, to determine their quantity and variety in different medicinal plants. Juniperus exclesa (Family-Cupressaceae) is used to treat respiratory tract diseases ranging from common cold to pneumonia, urinary tract inflammations, renal and gall bladder stones, and rheumatism (El Beyruthy, et al., 2008; Öztürk, et al., 2011; Sanchez de Medina, et al., 1994). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are present in the human body as a result of food metabolism, exposure to pollution and radiation. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to define the phenolic profile, flavonoid profile and the biological potentials of the ethanol extract of the berries of Juniperus excelsa growing in Lebanon. A total of 11 phenolic compounds, including gallic acid, vanilic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, sinapic acid, ellagic acid, myrcetin, and hesperitin were identified and quantified in Juniperus excelsa using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC). The ethanolic extract of the berries of J. excelsa was examined for the antioxidant activity using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay. The extract showed a strong scavenging activity with an IC50 48.90μg/ml compared to the synthetic antioxidant butylatedhydroxyltoluene (BHT) (IC50 91.40μg/ml). This strong antioxidant activity can be attributed to the total phenolic content (17.95mg/g of extract) and the total flavonoidal content (3.817mg/g of extract) of the extract that were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau (FC) and aluminum chloride methods, respectively.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
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