Article

Perspective Taking Combats Automatic Expressions of Racial Bias

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Abstract

Five experiments investigated the hypothesis that perspective taking--actively contemplating others' psychological experiences--attenuates automatic expressions of racial bias. Across the first 3 experiments, participants who adopted the perspective of a Black target in an initial context subsequently exhibited more positive automatic interracial evaluations, with changes in automatic evaluations mediating the effect of perspective taking on more deliberate interracial evaluations. Furthermore, unlike other bias-reduction strategies, the interracial positivity resulting from perspective taking was accompanied by increased salience of racial inequalities (Experiment 3). Perspective taking also produced stronger approach-oriented action tendencies toward Blacks (but not Whites; Experiment 4). A final experiment revealed that face-to-face interactions with perspective takers were rated more positively by Black interaction partners than were interactions with nonperspective takers--a relationship that was mediated by perspective takers' increased approach-oriented nonverbal behaviors (as rated by objective, third-party observers). These findings indicate that perspective taking can combat automatic expressions of racial biases without simultaneously decreasing sensitivity to ongoing racial disparities.

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... Self-as-context (4) refers to seeing our behavior in perspective by observing ourselves separate from thinking, remembering, planning, and other covert verbal behaviors. This skill facilitates a strong sense of self and empathy that Levin et al. (2016) posit encourages interracial contact, thus to better block automatic expressions of discrimination (Todd et al., 2011). Following Hoffman et al. (2016, values are rules that alter the reinforcing properties of other stimuli; they are verbal motivating operations that modify the appetitive or punishing functions of other events. ...
... As assessed by IAT responses, perspective-taking strategies tend to attenuate racial prejudice in college students (Todd et al., 2011). For example, the students demonstrated their ability to adopt the perspective of an African American individual unfairly treated at a department store, an activity that helped attenuate the automaticity of racially biased behaviors: Todd et al. (2011) indicated that taking the perspective of others facilitates identification with them, while other studies show that it reduces stereotyping and in-group favoritism (Galinsky and Moskowitz, 2000), and attenuates automatic expressions of racial bias (Todd et al., 2011). ...
... As assessed by IAT responses, perspective-taking strategies tend to attenuate racial prejudice in college students (Todd et al., 2011). For example, the students demonstrated their ability to adopt the perspective of an African American individual unfairly treated at a department store, an activity that helped attenuate the automaticity of racially biased behaviors: Todd et al. (2011) indicated that taking the perspective of others facilitates identification with them, while other studies show that it reduces stereotyping and in-group favoritism (Galinsky and Moskowitz, 2000), and attenuates automatic expressions of racial bias (Todd et al., 2011). Lillis and Hayes (2007) demonstrated how value clarification exercises changed how students responded on a prejudice-related questionnaire, particularly concerning positive behavioral intentions. ...
Chapter
We shall argue in this chapter that prejudice is an endemic attitude built over time and embedded into the cultural ethos through a multitude of mechanisms. These embedded attitudes influence values, engender stereotypes and lead to behaviors, overt and subtle, that find their way into all aspects of society, including the workplace. We shall argue that racism (in all its facets) is alive and well, despite contrary contentions. We review definitions of racism with particular attention to how racism in the workplace is manifested and identified. The objectives of this chapter are to “raise awareness, understanding and consciousness” and to educate about people who are different, how words and actions harm them, and how feelings and actions can be metamorphosed into compassionate and cooperative behaviors. In that context, we showcase several paradigms, approaches and programs designed to reduce the malevolent manifestation of racism at work.
... Some studies report the negative effects of engaging in perspective taking, such as increasing egoistic thinking in a competitive context (Epley et al., 2006), being disconnected from intergroup (Vorauer et al., 2009), and activating belief structures of stereotypes (Vorauer & Sasaki, 2009). In the meantime, however, ample evidence in the literature has demonstrated that participants who are engaged in the perspective-taking process are more likely to view positively the target, other members in the same group with the target, and the entire group than those who focused on objective judgment or who were discouraged from using perspective-taking (Batson et al., 1997;Galinsky & Ku, 2004;Galinsky & Moskowitz, 2000;Todd, Bodenhausen, Richeson, & Galinsky, 2011;Todd & Galinsky, 2014). For instance, Batson et al. (1997) assigned participants to three conditions while they were listening to an interview of a young woman who was in serious need. ...
... They found that the two groups engaging in perspective taking (one focusing on how the young women felt and the other focusing on how they would feel if they were in the woman's situation) reported higher positive attitudes toward the woman than the group being asked to remain objective. Todd et al. (2011) asked non-Black participants to watch a video clip about a Black man when they either remained objective or took the perspective of the Black man. They found that participants engaging in perspective-taking showed more positive implicit racial evaluations than those in the objective focus group. ...
... Our focus on friends in this study is derived from the fact that the cognitive processes of perspectivetaking and providing and receiving feedback vary based on the familiarity of the individuals involved in the process (Fussell & Krauss, 1989;Krauss & Fussell, 1991;Todd et al., 2011). Campbell et al. (2010) showed that in a situation where a group member received fake success or failure feedback about a task requiring teamwork, the group consisting of strangers were more likely to display self-service bias, or they were more likely to take credit for the team success but to blame others for failure, than the group consisting of friends. ...
Article
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As two important aspects in creativity, creative performance and evaluation are influenced by many individual and contextual factors. One of such factors is feedback. Past research has also found that perspective taking increases creative performance and interpersonal creative evaluation. Although different forms of feedback, such as feedback valence, style, contents, have shown significant effects on creativity, feedback that incorporates perspective taking and its effect on creative performance and evaluations have not been examined in the literature. To fill these gaps, we examined how perspective-taking feedback affects creative performance and interpersonal and intrapersonal creative evaluations among participants who were friends in this study. We found that, compared with participants in the objective focus feedback group, those in the perspective-taking (PT) feedback group had a significantly smaller decrease of fluency between before and after experiment. Although no significant difference was found in interpersonal creative evaluation between two feedback conditions, participants in PT group had a significantly larger increase in intrapersonal creative evaluation between before and after experiment. Results and the implications were discussed under the context of creativity research.
... Other studies conducted with adults also used seating distance as the behavioral measure, that is measuring the distance between where participants decide to sit and where an outgroup member sits before an interaction with this person (ostensibly) takes place (McWaters & Hawkins, 2019;Turner & West, 2012;Ma et al., 2019, Study 3, conducted a study with a seating distance measure using a sample of adolescents). This measure has often been used as a reliable indicator of nonverbal behavior (Mehrabian, 1968;Todd et al., 2011). For instance, Turner and West (2012) in two experimental studies asked university (non-Muslim in Study 2) students to engage in imagined contact with an outgroup member (obese person or Muslim person in Studies 1 and 2, respectively) or to imagine meeting an unspecified stranger (control condition). ...
... Previous research has used seating distance as a measure of behavior (Mehrabian, 1968;Todd et al., 2011). It is worth noting that, although often used as an "objective" measure, seating distance represents a static measure assessed before the interaction takes place. ...
Article
In line with current developments in indirect intergroup contact literature, we conducted a field study using the imagined contact paradigm among high‐status (Italian children) and low‐status (children with foreign origins) group members (N = 122; 53 females, mean age = 7.52 years). The experiment aimed to improve attitudes and behavior toward a different low‐status group, children with disability. To assess behavior, we focused on an objective measure that captures the physical distance between participants and a child with disability over the course of a five‐minute interaction (i.e., while playing together). Results from a 3‐week intervention revealed that in the case of high‐status children imagined contact, relative to a no‐intervention control condition, improved outgroup attitudes and behavior, and strengthened helping and contact intentions. These effects however did not emerge among low‐status children. The results are discussed in the context of intergroup contact literature, with emphasis on the implications of imagined contact for educational settings.
... Goldstein et al. (2014) also suggest that believing that another person has successfully taken one's perspective results in an increased liking for a greater sense of self-others overlap with, and more help provided to that person. Several studies (Todd et al., 2011;Wang et al., 2014) also found that perspective-taking was associated with increased willingness or willingness to approach and interact with others, including increased nonverbal behavior aiming at moving towards, or usually called as approach behavior. ...
... Perspective-taking that leads to approach behavior will increase satisfaction in the interaction (Todd et al., 2011). The absence of perspective-taking can make individuals unable to understand other people and also unable to create social connections with them. ...
Article
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Organisasi yang sukses membutuhkan anggota yang bersedia melakukan sesuatu lebih dari pekerjaan yang biasa ia lakukan, dan perilaku ini disebut organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Faktor individu mempunyai peran yang penting untuk memunculkan perilaku OCB, salah satunya adalah kemampuan untuk melihat dan memahami melalui sudut pandang orang lain atau yang disebut perspective taking. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perspective taking terhadap OCB pada anggota organisasi. Partisipan dalam penelitian ini adalah 197 mahasiswa, 56 laki – laki dan 141 perempuan dengan rentang usia 18 - 23 tahun. Data dikumpulkan secara online dengan menggunakan dua skala, skala perspective taking dan skala OCB. Analisis data menggunakan regresi sederhana dengan program SPSS menunjukkan bahwa perspective taking memberikan kontribusi pada OCB.
... Some techniques to induce perspective-taking include writing a short essay from the point of view of an outgroup member 188 or immersion in the experience of the outgroup using virtual reality 189,190 . Perspective-taking has been shown to reduce CSM components such as negative attitudes 191,192 and emotions 193 . For example, when instructed to adopt the perspective of an outgroup member experiencing discriminatory treatment, participants showed less automatic activation of prejudice against the outgroup 193 . ...
... Perspective-taking has been shown to reduce CSM components such as negative attitudes 191,192 and emotions 193 . For example, when instructed to adopt the perspective of an outgroup member experiencing discriminatory treatment, participants showed less automatic activation of prejudice against the outgroup 193 . ...
Article
Violent intergroup conflicts continue to be one of the most pressing issues of our time. One key factor that instigates and perpetuates conflict is people’s support for violence against the outgroup. Thus, understanding the psychology behind such support is essential for developing strategies to reduce conflict. In this Review, we offer a new umbrella term, the conflict-supporting mindset (CSM), to tie together findings across the extensive literature on the psychology of conflict. A CSM captures a set of interrelated negative attitudes, feelings and beliefs regarding the outgroup, which devalues and demonizes its members. As such, a CSM is pivotal in making violence seem permissible and even necessary. We consider the sources of a CSM: basic cognitive and motivational roots, personal inclinations, group-level influences, situational influences and post-hoc justifications of violence. We then discuss conflict reduction interventions that draw on the psychology underlying a CSM. Finally, we reflect on the limitations of efforts towards conflict reduction, both from a practical and an ethical perspective, and suggest directions for future research. A key factor that instigates and perpetuates intergroup conflict is people’s support for violence against the outgroup. In this Review, Saguy and Reifen-Tagar consider the sources of support for violent conflict: basic cognitive-motivational roots, personal inclinations, group-level influences, situational influences and post-hoc justifications of violence.
... Encouraging people to take the perspective of a victim of discrimination is another effective strategy to increase perceptions of discrimination (Dovidio et al., 2004;Simon, Magaldi et al., 2019;Simon, Moss et al., 2019;Todd et al., 2011Todd et al., , 2012. Perspective-taking involves actively considering the mental state of another person or group of people (Todd & Galinsky, 2014). ...
... Perspective-taking involves actively considering the mental state of another person or group of people (Todd & Galinsky, 2014). To date, the majority of the research examining the effects of perspective-taking on perceptions of discrimination has examined the effects of perspective-taking on White people's perceptions of racial discrimination against ethnic minority groups (e.g., Dovidio et al., 2004;Todd et al., 2012Todd et al., , 2011although cf., Simon, Magaldi et al., 2019). For example, when White people took the perspective of a Black man depicted in a photograph and wrote an essay about a day in his life, they were more likely to perceive discrimination against Black people in U.S. society than when they took the perspective of a White man (Todd et al., 2011, Experiment 1). ...
Article
Women are more likely than men to perceive institutional sexism. In the present study, we examined the gender gap in perceptions of a legal case in which a female plaintiff claims she was a victim of institutional gender discrimination by an employer. Participants were randomly assigned to receive information about institutional forms of sexism (or not) prior to learning the facts of the case. In addition, participants were randomly assigned to take the female plaintiff's perspective (or remain objective) while reviewing the case. In isolation, sexism awareness and perspective-taking both independently eliminated the gender gap in perceptions of discrimination. However, contrary to expectations, the gender gap reemerged among participants who were made aware of sexism prior to perspective-taking such that women perceived more discrimination than men. Implications for interventions to increase perceptions of institutional sexism are discussed.
... In this exercise, the participant exits their comfort zone to be the minority in a group of good-natured people who are different as a way to improve their perspective-taking ability and practice engaging in crossracial social connections (Hodson et al., 2018;Todd et al., 2011). The exercise is to attend a service at a house of worship where everyone "looks different" from the participant (Rehfuss & Parks-Savage, 2011;Williams, 2020). ...
... In addition, later strategies focus on building empathy, resilience and taking measured risks (7,8,9). Taken together the exercises are grounded in effective strategies previously demonstrated to reduce prejudicial attitudes and build empathy, resilience and community (Crane et al., 2019;Forscher et al., 2017;Nai et al., 2018;Todd et al., 2011;Thornberg et al., 2012;Wellman et al., 2009). Empirical studies and meta-analyses are listed in boldface. ...
Article
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In racialized societies, race divides people, prioritizes some groups over others, and directly impacts opportunities and outcomes in life. These missed opportunities and altered outcomes can be rectified only through the deliberate dismantling of explicit, implicit, and systemic patterns of injustice. Racial problems cannot be corrected merely by the good wishes of individuals-purposeful actions and interventions are required. To create equitable systems, civil courage is vital. Civil courage differs from other forms of courage, as it is directed at social change. People who demonstrate civil courage are aware of the negative consequences and social costs but choose to persist based on a moral imperative. After defining allyship and providing contemporary and historical examples of civil courage, this paper explains the difficulties and impediments inherent in implementing racial justice. To enable growth and change, we introduce ten practical exercises based on cognitive-behavioral approaches to help individuals increase their awareness and ability to demonstrate racial justice allyship in alignment with valued behaviors. We explain how these exercises can be utilized to change thinking patterns, why the exercises can be difficult, and how psychologists and others might make use of them to expand the capacity for civil courage in the service of racial justice. Public Significance Statement Racial justice is an important goal for the well-being of racialized people globally. However, most Americans, psychologists included, find it difficult to align their values and intentions with actions. This paper offers a frank discussion of the issues of shame and discomfort that often surround issues of racial injustice and describes cognitive-behavioral approaches for cultivating civil courage.
... Hence, using empathy could tackle biases with a behavioral change. For example, writing a perspectivetaking narrative essay about a young Black male strengthened automatic and positive behavioral approach toward Blacks (Todd et al., 2011). Similarly, emphasizing empathetic mindset among teachers reduced half of the suspension rate and improved teacher-student relationship for at-risk students (Okonofua et al., 2016). ...
... This resonates strongly with emotion strategies in one of the previous sessions. Attempts to humanize others, taking a perspective approach, trying to individuate and empathize could be a powerful bias strategy with evidence in behavioral change (Todd et al., 2011;Okonofua et al., 2016;Schwartz et al., 2020). ...
Article
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This paper conducted a preliminary study of reviewing and exploring bias strategies using a framework of a different discipline: change management. The hypothesis here is: If the major problem of implicit bias strategies is that they do not translate into actual changes in behaviors, then it could be helpful to learn from studies that have contributed to successful change interventions such as reward management, social neuroscience, health behavioral change, and cognitive behavioral therapy. The result of this integrated approach is: (1) current bias strategies can be improved and new ones can be developed with insight from adjunct study fields in change management; (2) it could be more sustainable to invest in a holistic and proactive bias strategy approach that targets the social environment, eliminating the very condition under which biases arise; and (3) while implicit biases are automatic, future studies should invest more on strategies that empower people as “change agents” who can act proactively to regulate the very environment that gives rise to their biased thoughts and behaviors.
... The same, however, is not true for the aforementioned cognitive dimensions of empathy. Evidence suggests that perspective-taking and empathic concern reduce implicit biases, increase cooperation and charitable giving, and enhance sensitivity to injustices done to others (Galinsky and Moskowitz, 2000;Todd, Bodenhausen, Richeson, and Galinsky, 2011). ...
Article
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Humanitarian access—people’s ability to reach aid and aid's ability to reach people—is widely understood to be a central challenge in humanitarian action. One of the most important ways in which humanitarian access is practically secured in conflict settings is through frontline humanitarian negotiations. In this type of negotiation, humanitarians engage in face-to-face interactions with conflict parties to secure safe access to, and protection of, civilian populations in situations of armed conflict. An underdeveloped aspect of such negotiations that is ripe for further exploration is the role of empathy. The purpose of this article is thus to draw on the insights of the empathy literature to explore how empathy shapes humanitarian protection work in the specific domain of frontline humanitarian negotiations. Part one conceptualizes empathy, drawing on the interdisciplinary field of scientific research. Part two introduces the practice of frontline humanitarian negotiation and explains why empathy is critical, particularly in the increasingly fragmented environments that negotiators must operate. Adopting a relational approach, Part three advances a framework for analyzing empathy in frontline humanitarian negotiations. We theorize empathy's salience across four different axes of negotiation, drawing insights gleaned from scholarship and a systematic review of the grey literature on humanitarian negotiation, including field manuals, training materials, and operational guidance. We do not ultimately argue for ‘more empathy’ in this type of work, but rather a more thoughtful approach to empathy—one that entails the cultivation of core empathy-related skill areas, including: emotion regulation, perspective-taking, social awareness, and strategic conveyance of empathy. We contend that this approach could help to alleviate numerous problems in the humanitarian sector, including aid worker burnout.
... On a societal level, language learning might even lead to a society with less xenophobia and aggression against minorities. It has been found that individuals with superior perspective taking skills more easily suppress automatic expressions of racial bias (Todd, Bodenhausen, Richeson, & Galinsky, 2011) and perspective taking is related to civic identity (Johnson, 2015). Developing social skills through L2 learning is therefore a potential tool to cultivate a civic identity in children and to build a functioning diverse society. ...
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Early learning of a second language at home has been found to be beneficial for children’s cognitive development, including their ability to ascribe mental states to others, also called Theory of Mind. We investigated whether later second language learning in an educational setting can accelerate children’s Theory of Mind development and whether the amount of exposure to second language education makes a difference. We tested three groups of monolingual four-five year old children with varying language exposure at the beginning of their first year at primary school and 24 weeks later. Children attending bilingual schools and children with weekly short second language lessons exhibited very similar accelerated Theory of Mind development compared to children without any second language provision. Theory of Mind advances were not related to other cognitive advances. Thus, limited foreign language teaching can boost young children’s social cognitive development, providing an enhanced basis for their social competence development.
... A major aspect of creating multiracial congregations (and multiracial democracy) is developing empathic bridges across racial divides. Indeed, extant scholarship demonstrates that perspective taking is an effective strategy in reducing both explicit and implicit forms of racial bias (Todd et al. 2011;Shih et al. 2009). The findings from figure 2 demonstrate that programs like Undivided can, at least incrementally, increase cross-racial perspective taking. ...
Article
Congregations, with their size, breadth, and legacy of shaping political activism, have the potential to be important sites of action for addressing racial injustice in America. Yet historical legacies of racism and persistently high levels of racial animus have made white evangelical communities in particular resistant to addressing racism. Most efforts to address racism in these communities begin with prejudice reduction programs that often fail. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, we examine the effectiveness of a different kind of six-week racial justice program in one of the nation’s largest evangelical megachurches that focuses on animating action among people open to tackling racial injustice in their church. We find that program participation is associated with increased feelings of efficacy, amplified perceptions of community, a greater commitment to cross-racial perspective taking, and greater likelihood of engaging in meaningful action. We argue that the program works by focusing on cross-racial relationship building to equip a people pre-disposed to action to actually take action. Developing such leaders is potentially the first step in a program other congregations can take to tackle racial injustice.
... Perspective taking is a construct that is discussed in psychology and business literature but is mainly related to relationships within or between groups of people and focuses on efforts to reduce racial and other biases in order to reduce conflicts and promote social justice (Cohen, 2010;Shih, Wang, Bucher, & Stotzer, 2009;Todd, Bodenhausen, Richeson, & Galinsky, 2011). The authors did not find much evidence that relationship education programs evaluated partner empathy or perspective taking. ...
Article
The authors describe an exploratory investigation of a relationship education program based on the Five Love Languages (5 LL) (Chapman, 2007), implemented by Extension educators in seven rural counties. Relationship assessments measured participant changes related to the quality of the primary relationship, belief in the future of the relationship, and partner empathy. Confidence in using the 5 LLs was also assessed. Two groups were compared, a “no booster” group that participated in didactic and final sessions and a “booster” group that received a book, tips, and reminders to practice the 5 LLs. Focus groups revealed how participants benefited. The results showed significant gains in knowledge of and confidence in using the 5 LLs. All participants significantly improved on partner empathy and the “booster” group showed significantly more improvement than the “no booster” group. The value to the family life education mission of Cooperative Extension is discussed, and recommendations for future research are given.
... The traditional dual-process theory has a default-interventionist architecture in which the stimulus-driven process is automatic and therefore the default determinant of behavior whereas goal-directed processes are nonautomatic so that they can only intervene when 8 operating conditions are ample (e.g., Strack & Deutsch, 2004). Many attitude researchers seem to subscribe to a default-interventionist version of dual-process theory: An attitude, which can be considered as the representation of a stimulus feature (i.e., valence: positive/negative), is directly connected to the representation of a response (e.g., approach/avoidance; Neumann, Förster, & Strack, 2003;Todd et al., 2011). This stimulusdriven process can be overruled by a goal-directed process but only when operating conditions are ample. ...
Article
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Meta-analyses show low correlations between implicit attitude measures and behavior measures, suggesting that these attitude measures are weak predictors of behavior. Researchers of implicit cognition have resorted to several rescue strategies. Their most important reply, based on traditional dual-process theories of behavior causation, is that attitudes towards objects (positive/negative) automatically activate specific action tendencies (approach/avoidance), but that this stimulus-driven process can be overruled by a non-automatic goal-directed process in which the expected utilities of action options are weighed up. According to such a theory, it makes sense to continue measuring attitudes with implicit measures, but research should also take into account the moderating role of goals and other factors. We propose an alternative dual-process theory in which goal-directed processes can also be automatic and count as the most important cause of behavior. According to this theory, the goal-directed process responsible for action selection is further preceded by the detection of a stimulus-goal discrepancy. Based on this alternative theory, we propose to no longer measure attitudes towards objects but rather to measure (a) the magnitude of stimulus-goal discrepancies as well as (b) the expected utility of the behavior at stake, understood as the product of the values of the outcomes of the behavior, and the behavior-outcome expectancies. Here too, implicit measures are needed because people may not always have conscious access to these constructs or be motivated to disclose them.
... For this, specific social markers such as race or gender are used to categorize subjects into an in-group and then test how an out-group 1PP in VR affects their attitudes toward the out-group. Mental out-group perspective-taking has been consistently linked to reductions in racial bias (Todd et al., 2011), a decrease in out-group stereotypes (Vescio et al., 2003), and improved social functioning in general (Davis, 1983). Naturally, a significant amount of scholarly effort has been made to examine how 1PP in VR affects attitudinal constructs (e.g. ...
Article
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Although it has been shown that Virtual Reality (VR) can positively impact political, civic and environmental views, the question of whether and how VR influences social attitudes more effectively than less immersive conditions has been a subject of debate. To address this question, this article provides a systematic review with meta-analysis of social attitude research in VR by examining 50 separate findings from 39 studies. We find that VR influences social attitudes significantly more than non-immersive interventions, while embodiment has no moderation effect. Further, outgroup VR perspective-taking fosters positive social attitudes more effectively than ingroup VR perspective-taking. Findings are categorized according to social attitude object and discussed in the light of emerging challenges and opportunities for VR attitude research.
... For example, in part, the exhibition of remorse bias appears to stem from difficulties with perspective taking as it relates to issues of out-group empathy (Robinson et al., 2015). Previous research has shown that strategies and skills that prompt effective perspective taking can help to combat automatic, implicit expressions of bias in interactions with individuals with stereotyped personal characteristics (Todd et al., 2011). This suggests that probation officers may benefit from trainings involving perspective taking exercises as a way to mitigate potential remorse bias in interactions with and assessments of their clients. ...
Article
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This research, utilizing semi-structured interviews with a sample of U.S. probation officers (N=151) and grounded theory, provides the first-known empirical study to examine ways in which implicit cognitive processes may influence how probation officers evaluate expressions of remorse by defendants during the sentencing of violent offenses. Particularly, I develop a model by which probation officers exhibit remorse bias toward defendants with characteristics that are stereotypically associated with violence and how such bias can negatively affect officers' pre-sentencing reports and sentencing recommendations for such defendants. Data showed that officers exhibit remorse bias by linking certain personal and background characteristics of defendants that "signal" the potential for violence to implicit assumptions that their remorse displays are insincere through two social cognitive processes: fundamental attribution error and issues with out-group empathy. When probation officers exhibited remorse bias via these social cognitive processes, they described crafting negative "remorse-based narratives" in their pre-sentencing reports that express doubt about the authenticity of defendants' remorse displays and use such displays to make character assessments that portray defendants as being implicitly violent. Takeaways and implications of the developed model, as well as the need to provide trainings to probation officers on remorse bias, are discussed.
... Psychologists who study perspective taking have documented how it can reduce prejudice, including racial bias (Finlay and Stephan, 2000;Todd et al., 2011;Vescio et al., 2003), age bias (Galinsky and Moskowitz, 2000) biases toward individuals with a disease (Batson et al., 1997), and biases toward the homeless (Batson et al., 1997). Researchers have postulated that the success of perspective-taking in reducing bias is due to an expansion of one's sense of self whereby an individual comes to regard an outgroup as more self-like (Davis et al., 1996). ...
Article
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Although the literature on critical thinking and transformative learning has remained relatively distinct, they have both emphasized the importance of working through and resolving states of doubt. There has been less focus, however, on how we can bring ourselves from a confirmed belief to a position of doubt. This is a foundational skill. Without it, the possibility for intellectual and personal growth is limited. In part one, I focus on critical thinking to investigate what ability and/or disposition can help thinkers arouse a state of doubt. I first consider traditional dispositions of critical thinking, specifically reflection and open-mindedness, and argue that they are largely ineffective as they do not confront the problem of cognitive bias. I then propose perspective-taking as an essential tool to bring about a position of doubt. In part two, I examine leading theorists in transformative experience, transformative education, and transformative learning, who have also largely neglected perspective-taking. I illustrate that perspective-taking can initiate some instances of transformative learning and thereby provides a connecting point to critical thinking. Nevertheless, when engaging with perspective-taking exercises, I argue that instructors ought to prioritize the development of students’ critical thinking skills. In part three, I focus my discussion on incorporating nonfiction perspective-taking readings into university course syllabi as a way to develop students’ critical thinking while creating the conditions for transformative learning.
... Empathy «provides lenses through which children and adolescents experience the intergroup environment» (Miklikowska, 2018, p. 705), to facilitate children's understanding of nondiscriminatory norms (Rutland, Cameron, Milne, & McGeorge, 2005;Rutland & Killen, 2015;Turner & Cameron, 2016). Similarly, perspective taking has been demonstrated to be effective with children for the reduction of automatic expressions of racial bias (Todd et al., 2011), and to be related to greater racial tolerance (e.g., Aboud, 1988;Nesdale et al., 2005;Quintana et al., 1999). As stated by Miklikowska (2018), perspective taking influences the processes involved in the representations of outgroup members: taking the perspective of a member of another group can even change well-crystallized intergroup attitudes (Finlay & Stephan, 2000;Vescio et al., 2003). ...
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This study evaluated the impact of a school-based program designed to reduce implicit prejudice towards migrants in fifth-grade school children. The program used empathy and perspective taking and direct and indirect contact as strategies to reduce ethnic prejudice. Multiple activities were used, including drawings by migrant children as instruments to promote inclusive behaviors. One hundred and five students were divided into two groups (control, experimental), and the children in each completed the Child-IAT (Implicit Association Test) before and after the program, to measure their implicit prejudice. Only the experimental group participated in the program. The results showed a significant reduction in the implicit prejudice in the experimental group after the educational program, but not in the control group. The results are discussed considering the practical implications of such a school program.
... Alternatively, immersive virtual-reality (VR) perspective-taking techniques require less cognitive effort on the part of participants, but are extremely expensive to produce and implement, while the speed of technological advancements necessitates frequent updates, further increasing costs. Despite generally supportive evidence of their efficacy (Finlay and Stephan 2000;Todd et al. 2011;Todd and Galinsky 2014;Vescio, Sechrist, and Paolucci 2003), traditional and VR perspective-taking techniques have been shown to produce backlash effects when they evoke zero-sum competitions (Epley, Caruso, and Bazerman 2006;Groom, Bailenson, and Nass 2009;Oh et al. 2016;Pierce et al. 2013). Traditional perspective-taking techniques have also produced null results on attitudes Additionally, Eyal et al (2018) find that perspective-taking does not improve accuracy at predicting others' perspectives whereas perspective-getting (hearing an out-group member's perspective) increases accuracy and, in a recent study, may be responsible for the successful effects in perspective-taking research (Kalla and Broockman 2021). ...
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This paper develops Engagement, Perspective-Taking, and Recalibration (EPR), a theory of prejudice reduction and support for racial policies. I argue that interventions using engagement to encourage perspective-taking reduce prejudice and recalibrate the subject's emotional orientation toward an out-group. Using EPR, I develop an intervention to reduce prejudice toward African Americans and increase support for racial equity policies. The intervention encourages individuals to adopt the perspective of a Black man who experiences prejudice and make choices how to respond. Using an experiment in which 1,261 adults completed either the treatment or a placebo task, I find that the intervention significantly reduces prejudice, with the largest effects among those with the highest baseline animus. Reducing prejudice increases support for policies aimed at helping Black people. These results provide insight into the nature of prejudice and its impact on racial policies, and offers a low-cost intervention to increase tolerance.
... Because of the desirable methodological characteristics of vignette studies, and the fact that previous studies have successfully used vignettes, further research should try to identify when and how the victim-perpetrator asymmetry arises from these studies. Although this has not been done in other studies of the victim-perpetrator asymmetry that have used vignettes, which is why it was not used in the current Study 1, perhaps a perspective-taking exercise (e.g., Todd et al., 2011) would increase the extent to which participants identify with the characters in the vignette. ...
Article
Aggressive behaviors occur when one person, a perpetrator, intentionally harms another person, a victim (e.g., Parrott and Giancola, 2007). When reporting their judgments, victims often report aggressive behaviors as being more harmful than perpetrators do—a so-called victim-perpetrator asymmetry. This asymmetry is well-established (Baumeister et al., 1990; Elshout et al., 2017; Ent and Parton, 2019; McCarthy and Rivers, 2021); however, there is scant experimental tests of the conditions under which the effect is especially strong. In that vein, the current Registered Report examined whether the victim-perpetrator asymmetry is stronger in conditions when people feel they will be evaluated for blameworthiness. In our first study, participants read a vignette describing an aggressive interaction and were assigned to adopt the perspective of either the victim or the perpetrator. In our second study, participants either recalled an instance when they intentionally harmed another person or an instance when they were harmed by another person. Further, in both studies, half the participants were told we were interested in determining who was more to blame in the situation and half received no such instructions. All participants then rated the harmfulness of the aggressive behavior. The victim-perpetrator asymmetry was unchanged by our blameworthiness manipulations in both studies. These results did not support our hypothesis that telling people they will be evaluated for blame will increase victims' and perpetrators' judgments of aggressive behaviors.
... Communicating explicitly that diversity is valued is another strategy that can lessen stereotype threat and promote inclusivity (10). Perspective-taking can be particularly beneficial as it engages empathy and has been used to reduce racial bias (11). ...
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ABSTRACT Instructors can foster equitable learning environments when they communicate that they value growth and diversity and by providing opportunities for students to reflect and to engage in cross-group interactions with diverse others. Additionally, perspective-taking activities engage empathy and have been used to reduce racial bias. An activity was introduced at the start of the semester to promote a more scientifically informed view of traits and intelligence, while also encouraging creativity, evidence-based thinking, and teamwork in an introductory biology course that was taught in an online synchronous format due to the COVID pandemic. Student groups worked in breakout rooms to create a slide in a shared file describing a research plan to test for human intelligence from the perspective of an alien life form. Students had the freedom to choose their alien to have whatever abilities and intelligence they wanted. The activity was highly student-centered, with students showing through their work that an understanding of intelligence is closely linked to the methods used to measure it. In this way, the activity promoted a more nuanced understanding of traits. This COVID-era invention resulted in a successful strategy that can be used in a variety of course delivery formats to support the teaching of content, as well as to promote a growth learning mindset and inclusive education.
... Other-orientation, the psychological tendency to put oneself in others' shoes and to feel what they feel, is one crucial skill for those in high-ranking positions to navigate interpersonal demands. For example, greater psychological other-orientation is associated with reduced bias in thought processes (Galinsky & Moskowitz, 2000;Todd et al., 2011), improved social bonds (Stephan & Finlay, 1999), interpersonal coordination (Galinsky et al., 2005), better decisionmaking through increased information-sharing (Galinsky, Todd, et al., 2015), better negotiation outcomes (Galinsky & Mussweiler, 2001), and increases motivation, satisfaction, and well-being at work (J. Choi, 2006;Scott et al., 2010). ...
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Social Hierarchy is one fundamental aspect of social living, structuring interactions in families, teams and entire societies. In this review, we put forward a cultural psychological approach to social hierarchy, positing that rank differences are embedded within larger cultural meaning systems, which shape how higher rank is attained or conferred and how social hierarchy affords behavior and psychology. We then examine manifestations of hierarchy in two cultural meaning systems: Western and East Asian cultures. Accumulating evidence on collective, interpersonal, and individual processes suggests cultural similarities in self-orientation but cultural differences in other-orientation of high-ranking individuals. Such literatures reveal how thought and behavior within social hierarchy and cultural beliefs, values and norms mutually constitute each other. We close with a discussion of how the present review is a stepping stone for future research and of remaining questions to further advance social hierarchy research across cultures.
... Instrumentalization of cognitive perspective-taking during CPM should effectively facilitate the formation of affiliative bonds among interlocutors that are otherwise thwarted by stereotypes, and the reliance of its interactive behaviors on self-other merging should allow resultant affiliation to occur more independently of individual differences (e.g., in trait empathy) than afforded by engagement in passive music listening. Though this notion is supported by previous experimental research from social psychology (Batson et al., 1997;Galinsky & Moskowitz, 2000;Todd et al., 2011;Vescio et al., 2003), it should be further verified by music psychologists using paradigms that specifically investigate perspective-taking in interactive musical contexts. Experimental study of CPM may shed light on how interactive forms of online musical engagement may have the capacity to target group-specific social benefits, even during times where remote interaction is most prevalent. ...
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Collaborative playlist-making (CPM), a form of music co-curation where two or more people select and order recorded music together, is a form of group musical engagement that has recently risen to prominence among musicians and nonmusicians in the general population. This paper presents CPM as a form of technologically mediated group musical engagement and informs researchers as to how CPM and its constituent behaviors may be studied in relation to other forms of musical engagement, particularly group music-making. In addition, specific psychological processes expected to be elicited by CPM—self-other merging, cognitive perspective-taking, and shared intentionality—are explicated in an effort to evince how CPM may give rise to socio-cognitive transfer effects in line with Goldman's reconstructive route to empathy. The main purpose of this paper is to promote music psychologists’ study of CPM to probe how musical interaction occurring within everyday contexts can harness music's potential to facilitate communication and bring about social benefits.
... 4 Experience in the decision-making process could allow members to put themselves into the shoes of the decision maker. Such perspective taking may influence their behavior and biases (see, e.g., Galinsky & Moskowitz, 2000;Todd et al., 2011;Lange et al., 2021). than to bad news about their own performance in an IQ test or a beauty task. ...
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Decision makers in positions of power often make unobserved choices under risk and uncertainty. In many cases, they face a trade-off between maximizing their own payoff and those of other individuals. What inferences are made in such instances about their choices when only outcomes are observable? We conduct two experiments that investigate whether outcomes are attributed to luck or choices. Decision makers choose between two investment options, where the more costly option has a higher chance of delivering a good outcome (that is, a higher payoff) for the group. We show that attribution biases exist in the evaluation of good outcomes. On average, good outcomes of decision makers are attributed more to luck as compared to bad outcomes. This asymmetry implies that decision makers get too little credit for their successes. The biases are exhibited by those individuals who make or would make the less prosocial choice for the group as decision makers, suggesting that a consensus effect may be shaping both the belief formation and updating processes. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10683-021-09731-w.
... Why might facilitator race shape perceptions of their effectiveness? Past work has found that learning-oriented strategies, such as displaying empathy and actively contemplating others' psychological experiences, can reduce racial bias and increase recognition of discrimination (Neel & Shapiro, 2012;Todd & Galinsky, 2014;Todd et al., 2011;Tropp & Barlow, 2018). We explored the possibility that these types of learning-oriented strategies might explain the effect of facilitator race on perceptions of facilitator communication effectiveness (Study 1) and might be associated with preference for and beliefs about facilitator effectiveness (Studies 2 and 3). ...
Article
For group discussions about fraught racial topics between Black and White Americans to be beneficial, conversation participants must view the person who facilitates as effective at communicating both the perspectives of Black and White Americans. We identify a biracial advantage in this domain. In three studies (total N = 710), we tested how a facilitator’s race affects their perceived effectiveness in communicating with both Black and White Americans. Both Black and White participants expected Black and White monoracial facilitators to more effectively engage with racial in-group than racial out-group members. However, they expected biracial facilitators to be equally effective in communicating with both Black and White groups. Both Black and White participants also expected biracial facilitators to use productive learning strategies (perspective taking, showing empathy) more than White facilitators, and either more than or equally to Black facilitators, suggesting one reason why people expect biracial facilitators to perform well in these moments.
... To address this deficiency, the present study draws on the empathy-altruism hypothesis to test the mediating role of empathy between PT and obesity stereotypes. Another limitation in the literature is that many studies have shown the role of PT in reducing negative stereotypes (Galinsky and Moskowitz, 2000;Ku et al., 2010;Todd et al., 2011) but few have considered positive stereotypes (Wang et al., 2014). Obesity stereotypes include not only negative qualities but also positive characteristics, such as warmth and friendliness (Tiggemann and Rothblum, 1988). ...
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Previous studies have indicated that obese people face many forms of severe prejudice and discrimination in various settings, such as education, employment, and interpersonal relationships. However, research aimed at reducing obesity stereotyping is relatively rare, and prior studies have focused primarily on negative stereotypes. Based on the empathy-altruism hypothesis and self-other overlap hypothesis, this study investigates the impact of perspective taking (PT) on both positive and negative obesity stereotypes and examines the mediating effects of empathy and self-other overlap. A sample of 687 students (191 males and 496 females) at Chinese universities participated by completing self-report questionnaires on trait tendency and evaluation toward obese people. Structural equation modeling and the bootstrap method revealed that self-other overlap (but not empathy) mediated the relationship between PT and negative obesity stereotypes. While self-other overlap and empathy both mediated the relationship between PT and positive obesity stereotypes. These findings address the importance of PT for improving positive and negative obesity stereotypes: specifically, PT promotes psychological merging, and produces empathic concern (EC).
... Similarly, perspective taking is quite distinct from other-enhancement, although both are cognitive processes with potential emotional and motivational consequences, rather than emotional experiences like empathy and gratitude. Unlike other-enhancement, however, perspective taking is imagining what the other might think and feel (Galinsky & Moskowitz, 2000), and while it can sometimes help improve intergroup outcomes (Todd et al., 2011), it entails projection of the self into the other's perspective -thereby retaining focus on the self (Scholl et al., 2017). In contrast, focusing on another person's strengths or virtues means attending only to the other person rather than imagining how the other person might feel. ...
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Some research suggests that self-enhancement is widespread and may exacerbate ingroup favoritism. What if, rather than engaging in self-enhancement, individuals focused on enhancing others? Could enhancing others produce less prejudice than self-enhancement? Three studies tested the effect of self-enhancement versus ‘other-enhancement’ on prejudice. In Study 1 (N=95), a repeated measures design showed that participants demonstrated less negative affect and less implicit bias after reflecting on another person’s positive traits relative to their own. In Study 2 (N=169), we extended this effect to outgroup enhancement. Participants who reflected on an outgroup strength showed less negative affect and less racism than those who reflected on an ingroup strength and those in a comparison condition. Study 3 (N=380) validated these experimental effects by showing that other-enhancement is negatively associated with racism and sexism, whereas self-enhancement is not. Study 3 also examined a theorized antecedent of other-enhancement – humility. We discuss the importance of enhancing others in reducing prejudice.
Chapter
Gifted education has long focused on meeting individual needs. However, with few honorable exceptions, the field has largely ignored the fact that human lives are intricately connected, and that an individual’s development can hardly be viewed as disconnected from their social connections. Small individual actions have large impacts on others, including society and the planet. So, do “individuals” really have an option not to care beyond themselves, especially in an increasingly globalized world rife with growing challenges to human existence? Certainly not. Thus, we propose to shift the focus of gifted education away from preparing children with gifts and talents for individualistic achievements toward inculcating a concern for others so that they can contribute to the common good. The dictum mentioned at the onset of this chapter summarizes our vision of transformational gifted education—education that prepares children with gifts and talents to transform the world—to make it a better place for all. We argue that gifted behaviors be seen as an interplay of three C’s: competence in action, commitment to the task, and concern for others. In this chapter, we share our vision of transformational gifted education where we use the three C’s conception to identify, nurture, and motivate individuals for prosocial contribution. We believe this conception can be extended to general education and is relevant to all individuals including those with gifts and talents.
Article
Objective: This study investigated whether education about gene-by-environment interaction (G × E) concepts could improve G × E knowledge and positively affect empathy and weight stigma. Design: We conducted a randomized trial using a 2 × 2 between-subjects design. Setting: Online. Participants: Five hundred eighty-two American participants from the Prolific platform. Intervention: Participants were randomly assigned to watch an educational or a control video. Participants then watched a set of vignette scenarios that depicted what it is like to have a predisposition toward obesogenic eating behaviors from either a first-person or third-person perspective. Main outcome measure(s): Participants completed questionnaires measuring G × E knowledge, causal attributions, weight stigma, and empathy postintervention. Analysis: Two-by-two between-subjects ANOVAs and exploratory mediation analyses were conducted. Results: Participants who watched the educational video demonstrated greater G × E knowledge, reported higher empathy toward the characters in the vignette scenarios and held fewer stigmatizing attitudes (notably blame) toward individuals with higher weight. Exploratory mediation analyses indicated that the educational video led to these positive downstream effects by increasing the extent to which participants attributed genetic causes to eating behaviors. Conclusions and implications: Education about G × E causes of eating behaviors can have beneficial downstream effects on attitudes toward people with higher weight.
Article
Research on persuasion has shown that for attitudes to change people need to take into consideration not only the thoughts message recipients generate in response to proposals but also how people think about their own thoughts (metacognition). In the present research, we introduce a new perspective for improving outgroup attitudes focused on the distinction between cognition and metacognition but this time applied to the perceptions of others’ minds. Specifically, we examined to what extent thinking about the mental processes of outgroup members influences attitudes towards those outgroups. We compared the impact of thinking about how others think (perceived primary cognition) with how others think about their own thoughts (perceived secondary cognition or metacognition). In the primary cognition treatment, participants answered questions about the thinking processes of outgroup members. In the secondary cognition treatment, participants answered questions that required them to consider how outgroup members think about their own thoughts (i.e., metacognition). Compared to controls, these treatments were capable of improving attitudes of Spanish citizens towards Syrian refugees, South American immigrants, and Roma people. A third study used a minimal group paradigm in which a fictitious outgroup was described as having primary (vs. secondary) cognition. A final study also tested the implications of assuming that groups have one type of cognition or another. The effects of the two treatments varied depending on the type of outgroup.
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People commit to monogamous relationships with the intent of maintaining sexual exclusivity but often fail to do so. Existing research has focused on individual and relationship characteristics that render relationships more vulnerable to infidelity, paying less attention to strategies that decrease the likelihood of straying. Three experiments investigated the impact of one strategy that might encourage people to enact relationship-protective responses toward alternative partners, perspective-taking. In all studies, participants either adopted the perspective of their partner or not and then evaluated, encountered, or thought about attractive strangers, in Studies 1–3, respectively. Participants’ pro-relationship orientation and reactions during these experiences (interest in alternative and current partners, commitment to current relationships, and fantasmatic themes) were recorded. Results showed that perspective-taking decreased sexual and romantic interest in alternatives, while increasing commitment and desire for current partners. These findings suggest that partner perspective-taking discourages engagement in behaviors that may hurt partners and damage the relationship with them.
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Socially just leadership learning is critical in developing leaders who can lead in equitable and just fashions. However, students can, both knowingly and unknowingly, participate in injustices by perpetuating dominant narratives and systems that marginalize and oppress others (Foste, 2019). Some students may exhibit resistance when engaging in socially just leadership learning (Cooper & Gause, 2007). To navigate resistance, leadership educators need to consider developmental readiness (Avolio, 2016). The authors adapt Vygotsky's (1978) zones of proximal development as a framework for assessing readiness in socially just leadership education, promoting brave spaces and empathy development as a means to expanding student readiness.
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As a result of COVID-19, individuals have experienced situations that may help them relate to others, including more limited ability to interact with their environment. Thus, this survey experiment ( N = 2,229) tests whether perspective-focused interventions can help increase support for prison reform. Findings suggest that perspective-getting (providing the perspective of an incarcerated individual via a narrative description of dealing with confinement) increased self-reported support for prison reform initiatives, compared with information only. In addition, a perspective-taking prompt—nudging participants to put themselves in the shoes of the incarcerated individual when reading their narrative—may help boost intention to take action in support of prison reform. Future avenues for research and implications are discussed.
Article
In the past few years, incidents of anti‐Black and anti‐Asian discrimination have proliferated. Some of these incidents have involved perpetrators from other racially minoritized groups. Historically, this has led to increased tensions between racially minoritized groups and inhibited progress towards racial equity for all groups. To foster coalitions between Black and Asian communities instead of repeating historical tensions, the present article suggests that parents might lay the foundation for racial solidarity by engaging in collective racial socialization. Collective racial socialization is a new direction for racial‐ethnic socialization that focuses on similarities across groups that are the result of White supremacy. Although there are hurdles to collective racial socialization, it may nonetheless be one way minoritized parents can help create awareness of structural racial inequality.
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Recent research suggests holding a structural, rather than interpersonal, understanding of racism is associated with greater impetus to address racial disparities. We believe greater acknowledgment of structural racism also functions to mitigate against empathic failures in response to structural injustices. Given South Africa’s situatedness as a country characterized by historical racialized oppression and continuing unjust legacies, it is appropriate to examine these ideas there. Across three studies, we tested the hypotheses that members of advantaged groups’ perspective taking and empathic concern may be compromised in response to people challenging the unequal status quo, and that a priori perceptions about the impact of structural (vs interpersonal) racism may mitigate or exacerbate such empathic failures. In Study 1, a national sample of White South Africans (n = 195) endorsed perceptions of interpersonal racism more readily than perceptions of structural racism, and expressed high levels of competitive victimhood for perceived anti-White structural racism. Studies 2 (n = 138) and 3 (n = 85) showed that White participants at a historically White university responded with impaired perspective taking and intergroup empathy bias in response to people challenging structural disparities. Finally, reduced recognition of continuing structural racism predicted greater intergroup empathy bias, which, in turn, was associated with reduced willingness to engage in intergroup discussions about past harm (Study 3). We propose that greater acknowledgment of structural racism is necessary not only to surmount intergroup empathic failures, but also to transcend the socioeconomically unequal legacies of apartheid and beyond.
Article
Background Empathy failures lead to equity failures. Women and men physicians experience work differently. Men physicians, however, may be unaware how these differences impact their colleagues. This constitutes an empathy gap; empathy gaps are associated with harm to outgroups. In our previous published work, we found that men had divergent views from women about the experiences of women relating to gender equity; senior men differed most from junior women. Since men physicians hold disproportionately more leadership roles than women, this empathy gap warrants exploration and remediation. Analysis Gender, age, motivation and power each seems to influence our empathic tendencies. Empathy, however, is not a static trait. Empathy can be developed and displayed by individuals through their thoughts, words and actions. Leaders can also influence culture by enshrining an empathic disposition in our social and organisation structures. Conclusions We outline methods to increase our empathic capacities as individuals and organisations through perspective-taking, perspective-giving and verbal commitments to institutional empathy. In doing so, we challenge all medical leaders to herald an empathic transformation of our medical culture in pursuit of a more equitable and pluralistic workplace for all groups of people.
Article
There has been an increasing focus on the impact of racism both within pediatrics and throughout society as a whole. This focus has emerged as a result of the current sociopolitical climate in the United States coupled with the recent deaths of Black Americans by law enforcement and the maltreatment of Latina/o immigrants. In 2019, the American Academy of Pediatrics released the landmark policy statement “The Impact of Racism on Child and Adolescent Health,” which describes the profound effects of racism on health, its function in perpetuating health disparities, and the potential role of child health professionals in addressing racism as a public health issue. (1) Foundational knowledge regarding race, racism, and their relation to health are not consistently included in standard medical education curricula. This leaves providers, including pediatricians, with varying levels of understanding regarding these concepts. This article seeks to provide an overview of the intersection of race, racism, and child/adolescent health in an effort to reduce knowledge gaps among pediatric providers with the ultimate goal of attenuating racial health disparities among children and adolescents. Please reference the Table for additional resources to reinforce concepts described throughout this article.
Article
In two experimental studies, we investigate how being sick with a common cold in a selection context influences the appraisals that evaluators form and how, in turn, people appraisal dimensions influence evaluators’ hiring recommendations and leadership evaluations. Grounded in people appraisal theory (Cuddy et al., 2008; Fiske et al., 2007), we assess the universal evaluative dimensions of warmth and competence to explain detriments in hiring recommendations and leadership evaluations for applicants with a common cold. Further, we investigate whether a theoretically‐grounded individual difference variable, namely the degree to which evaluators take others’ perspective, influences the appraisals and subsequent judgments of sick applicants. Results across the two experimental studies, using students and professionals with selection experience, suggest that showing signs of being sick (i.e., presenteeism) had a negative impact on competence appraisals but not warmth appraisals. In addition, attending a job interview while sick had a significantly stronger negative effect on competence appraisals when the rater had a low as opposed to a high level of perspective‐taking. These effects in turn predicted hiring recommendations and leadership evaluations. We discuss the implications of our findings for theory and practice.
Article
Esta investigación examina el efecto de la Toma de Perspectiva sobre el prejuicio implícito hacia personas afrodescendientes en jóvenes universitarios que disfrutan del humor despectivo. Es un estudio cuasi experimental llevado a cabo con 30 sujetos con edades entre 18 y 25 años, asignados equitativamente a dos grupos (control y experimental). Los datos obtenidos mediante la prueba Z de Wilcoxon no encontraron diferencias entre los grupos. Este artículo analiza varias hipótesis que pueden explicar los resultados.
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Historically, old southern codes were used to regulate the interactions between black males and white females. We draw parallels between these codes and current sexual harassment laws to examine the perceptions of sexual behavior that crosses racial lines. Specifically, we examine how white and black female targets perceived and reacted to the behavior of males of the same and different race than their own. Our results indicate that white women perceive the behavior committed by a man of another race as more sexually harassing than when a white male commits the behavior. Conversely, black women perceive the behavior committed by black men as more sexually harassing than when a man of a different race engages in the same behavior. Further, a similar pattern emerges for reporting sexual harassment. Implications for research and the management of sexual harassment are discussed.
Article
Drawing on social exchange theory, this study examines when and why high performers may fail to obtain supervisory career mentoring (SCM). Although high performance by protégés often makes SCM more efficient and successful, we argue that supervising mentors may be reluctant to offer SCM due to the victimization of high performers that has been shown by recent findings in the supervision literature. We further propose that high performers should be high in perspective‐taking, a core relational competence and a key individual factor that moderates the relationship between protégé performance and SCM. Findings from a multi‐source multi‐time survey (Study 1) and an online experiment (Study 2) consistently show that when high performers are low in perspective‐taking, they are less likely to receive SCM. Moreover, the findings from Study 2 also show that low perspective‐taking by high performers significantly reduces supervisors’ expected benefits from mentoring them, which in turn leads to the supervisors having low willingness to mentor. Our research therefore highlights the importance of taking into account the interaction between task and relational competence in understanding how protégé characteristics may influence SCM in organizational settings. The paper concludes with theoretical and practical implications. At workplace, employees tend to focus on improving their performance and task competence and believe that high performance can help them receive more resources to develop their career. However, if they cannot imagine oneself in another’s shoes, high performance can lead to less positive results. High performers should take others’ perspective to understand what others feel and think to reduce potential threats seen by the supervisor and their colleagues. Therefore, task and relational competence are equally important. Organizations can help their employees develop this perspective‐taking, including creating more opportunities (e.g., informal social events or formal training) for employees and their supervisors to understand each other’s work roles, perspectives and values, which can help employees to understand their supervisors’ views and stand in their supervisors’ shoes.
Thesis
This dissertation develops and tests Engagement, Perspective-Taking, and Re-calibration (EPR), a theory of how to reduce prejudice and its consequences on political attitudes. I theorize that an intervention that uses engagement to encourage perspective-taking reduces prejudice and re-calibrates the subject’s attribution of blame for America’s racial problems. This last step, “re-calibration,” shifts the target of blame from out-group members to the forces of racism and discrimination which alters political attitudes rooted in prejudice. I employ my theory of EPR to develop interventions to reduce anti-Black prejudice among U.S. citizens using online perspective-taking tasks. The interventions encourage participants to adopt the perspective of an African American individual who experiences racial prejudice and make choices regarding how to respond to the bias they encounter. Interventions designed according to EPR theory were evaluated in three randomized experiments in which participants completed either the perspective-taking treatment or a placebo task. I find that participation in the perspective-taking task significantly reduces multiple forms of racial prejudice including racial resentment, negative affect, and belief in anti-Black stereotypes. The largest effects were among those with the highest levels of baseline prejudice. These studies also show that reducing prejudice increases support for policies that would help African Americans, including government assistance to Blacks, additional changes to ensure racial equality, affirmative action, and reparations for slavery. Similarly, reducing prejudice increases support for the belief that Blacks are not treated fairly in American society, increases support for policing reforms, and increases support for the Black Lives Matter protests against police violence. My results demonstrate that a substantial amount of opposition to racial policies is rooted in racial animus. But neither animus nor opposition to racial policies are immutable, reducing prejudice through my technique increases support for policies to redress racial inequities. This dissertation offers two empirically evaluated interventions that may be used as low-cost bias reduction trainings to combat the rising hate-related incidents in the United States. More broadly, my results provide insight into the nature of racial prejudice and its impact on political attitudes.
Article
This study explored the effects of perspective taking on the evaluation of others, using text mining to analyze narrative essays. The participants were assigned to either the perspective taking or control group and were asked to write a narrative essay about a photograph of an overweight man (i.e., target). Next, they were asked to provide their impressions of another overweight man. Based on the analysis using text mining, the words from the narrative essays were classified into two clusters. The first cluster focused on the target’s job, while the second focused on his figure. The ANOVA demonstrated that the participants in the perspective taking group refrained from using words pertaining to the figure cluster. In addition, the results of a path analysis suggested that the words used in the figure cluster may be a predictor of people’s evaluations of others.
Article
This paper aims to explore whether personal stories told by older people online can be used to alleviate ageist attitudes among young people in South Korea. An experimental research design and survey were used to expose 318 respondents aged 18–35 to photographs and documentary-like personal accounts of older people borrowed from a social media page. The analysis shows that exposure to personal narratives told by older people has some effect in mitigating younger people’s ageist attitudes, with respondents who read stories told by older people showing lower ageism than those who read stories told by storytellers with no information about their age. The stories were more effective in reducing respondents’ emotional bias as compared to their impact on cognitive bias, predicted by the likability of a story. The findings corroborate media theories that suggest more hospitable online spaces and stories echoing older people’s voices. Education that exposes younger people to these contents may help to reduce intergenerational tensions.
Article
The present study examined the relationship between parasocial relationships (PSRs; one-sided relationships with media figures), PSR characteristics, and empathy. We also examined whether people are biased toward those with PSRs, and whether people higher in empathy are less biased. Participants completed a survey that assessed whether they a) had a PSR, b) their satisfaction with, commitment to, and investment in the PSR, c) their degree of parasocial interaction (PSI), d) biases toward people with PSRs, and e) empathy. Results showed that empathy was positively related to self-identifying as having a PSR, commitment to and satisfaction with PSRs, and overall PSI. Results also showed that bias against individuals with PSRs exists, but that individuals higher in empathy are less biased. This research provides new insight into how empathy relates to PSRs and provides evidence of bias toward people with PSRs, as well as a potential way to reduce that bias (empathy).
Chapter
This chapter argues that the successful reimagining of former enemies as co-citizens and ultimately, the achievement of civil peace as peaceful cooperation depends on two things: discursive civility and safe discursive spaces. Discursive civility is a universal feature of self-sustainable civil peace which aims to ensure dignity-as-respectfulness in civil engagement. It is a minimal communicative requirement for civil engagement defined by three principles: emotional forbearance, perspective-taking and a requirement for reasonableness. A safe discursive space is a space, place or location in which language and behaviour in civil engagement are governed by these three principles of discursive civility. Discursive civility acts as a guarantor for safety in civil engagement with former enemies and thereby provides a real possibility for the safe and effective reimagining of former enemies as co-citizens.
Article
Interracial couples experience stressors that can negatively impact their relationship quality, such as racial discrimination. In dyads in which one partner identifies as White and the other identifies as Black or Hispanic, the stress due to racial discrimination is associated with differential alternatives: The White partner can end the relationship to stop their experience with the stress of racial discrimination, but Black or Hispanic partners cannot. As such, the White partner is a “weak link” in such relationships, and understanding processes that can mitigate discrimination-induced stress for White partners could be beneficial for interracial relationship longevity. In this study, we examined perspective-taking as a process to reduce momentary, discrimination-based stress. White partners in interracial relationships ( N = 292) were randomly assigned to engage in perspective-taking (or remain objective) when imagining their partner experiencing discrimination (or a common aversive situation). We predicted, and found, that momentary stress was lower for White partners who took their partners’ perspectives while thinking about them experiencing racial discrimination than for those who objectively recounted the details of their partners’ experiencing racial discrimination. In turn, lower momentary stress predicted greater commitment and relationship satisfaction. This indicates that perspective-taking can reduce the momentary stress a White partner experiences during an event of racial discrimination, which may strengthen interracial relationships.
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With the worldwide focus shifting toward important questions of what diversity means to society, organizations are attempting to keep up with employees’ needs to feel recognized and belong. Given that traditionally team and diversity trainings are provided separately, with different theoretical backgrounds and goals, they are often misaligned and ineffective. We review 339 empirical articles depicting a team, diversity, or emotional management training to extract themes and determine which methods are most effective. Although research has demonstrated the importance of belonging for providing positive workplace outcomes, we found that the traditional design of these trainings and lack of emotional management prevent a balance between team and diversity goals, preventing belonging. We propose an integrative training with emotional management to help teams foster optimal belonging, where members can unite together through their differences. Accordingly, our themes inform this training model that can inspire future research into more effective training.
Book
In the United States, politics has become tribal and personalized. The influence of partisan divisions has extended beyond the political realm into everyday life, affecting relationships and workplaces as well as the ballot box. To help explain this trend, we examine the stereotypes Americans have of ordinary Democrats and Republicans. Using data from surveys, experiments, and Americans' own words, we explore the content of partisan stereotypes and find that they come in three main flavors—parties as their own tribes, coalitions of other tribes, or vehicles for political issues. These different stereotypes influence partisan conflict: people who hold trait-based stereotypes tend to display the highest levels of polarization, while holding issue-based stereotypes decreases polarization. This finding suggests that reducing partisan conflict does not require downplaying partisan divisions but shifting the focus to political priorities rather than identity—a turn to what we call responsible partisanship.
Article
A rich body of research throughout the social sciences demonstrates that bias—people’s tendency to display group-based preferences—is a major obstacle in the way of promoting diversity, equity, and inclusion in the workplace. The current article moves beyond the single-level focus of prior theories of workplace bias to propose a novel theoretical model that conceptualizes workplace bias as a multilevel cycle. First, we discuss the theoretical foundations of our bias cycle theory and describe why understanding the nature of workplace bias—and effectively reducing it—requires considering the reciprocal influences of both individual and organizational levels of the cycle. Specifically, we describe how workplace bias operates as a cycle and then propose that successfully reducing workplace bias requires multilevel interventions that interrupt bias across both the individual and organizational levels of the cycle. Second, because workplace bias is reproduced through both of these levels, we review and bring together literatures that are often considered separately: psychology research on reducing bias at the individual level and sociology and management research on reducing bias at the organizational level. Third, we use our bias cycle theory to formulate general principles for determining how to begin and how to pair interventions across levels. Finally, we conclude by discussing our theoretical contributions and outlining directions for future research.
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This chapter summarizes the available evidence on twelve controversies surrounding symbolic racism, which was proposed over 30 years ago to explain new forms of racial conservatism appearing after the civil rights era. The conceptualization of symbolic racism was originally somewhat fuzzy and has evolved over time; but the measurement of it has been surprisingly constant over time; and it seems to form a substantively meaningful and statistically consistent belief system, with two highly correlated variants that differ slightly in the language they use but not in their effects. Its effects on racial politics are quite stable and consistent. It is a distinctive construct necessary for the understanding of Whites' responses to racial politics, not merely redundant with other constructs and hence disposable in the service of parsimony. It focuses on antagonism toward Blacks, which has little to do with either symbolic racism or opposition to policies targeted for Blacks.
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A large proportion of research in social psychology uses self-report measures to assess socially relevant constructs, such as attitudes, stereo-types, self-concepts, and self-esteem. Over the past century, self-report measures have provided important insights that built the foundation for many prominent theories in the field. At the same time, there have been per-sistent concerns that self-report measures are suboptimal research tools for at least two reasons. First, responses on self-report measures are susceptible to self-presentation, which may distort measurement outcomes in socially sensitive domains (Crowne & Marlowe, 1960; Paulhus, 1984). Second, there is consensus that many psychological processes operate outside of conscious awareness, which undermines the suitability of self-report mea-su.res to assess mental contents that are introspectively inaccessible (Nisbett & Wilson, 1977). To overcome these problems, psychologists have devel-oped various indirect measurement procedures that (1) reduce participants' ability to control their responses, and (2) do not require introspection for the assessment of mental contents. This chapter reviews a particularly influential class of indirect mea-78 ' • ," Response Interference Tasks 79 surement procedures, namely, experimental paradigms based on response interference (RI). 1 For this purpose, we first provide a general context for our review of RI tasks by defining a number of relevant concepts and briefly describing the history of RI tasks in social psychology. After explaining the basic logic of RI, we then review different kinds of measures based on RI, including general information about their procedures, implementation, and scoring. We conclude our chapter with a discussion of general issues regarding the interpretation of RI effects and a pragmatically oriented com-parison of the reviewed tasks.
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Response latency measures have yielded an explosion of interest in implicit attitudes. Less forthcoming have been theoretical explanations for why they often differ from explicit (self-reported) attitudes. Theorized differences in the sources of implicit and explicit attitudes are discussed, and evidence consistent with each theory is presented. The hypothesized causal influences on attitudes include early (even preverbal) experiences, affective experiences, cultural biases, and cognitive consistency principles. Each may influence implicit attitudes more than explicit attitudes, underscoring their conceptual distinction.
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The present article offers a conceptual model for how the cognitive processes associated with perspective-taking facilitate social coordination and foster social bonds. We suggest that the benefits of perspective-taking accrue through an increased self-other overlap in cognitive representations and discuss the implications of this perspective-taking induced self-other overlap for stereotyping and prejudice. Whereas perspective-taking decreases stereotyping of others (through application of the self to the other), it increases stereotypicality of one’s own behavior (through inclusion of the other in the self). To promote social bonds, perspective-takers utilize information, including stereotypes, to coordinate their behavior with others. The discussion focuses on the implications, both positive and negative, of this self-other overlap for social relationships and discusses how conceptualizing perspective-taking, as geared toward supporting specific social bonds, provides a framework for understanding why the effects of perspective-taking are typically target-specific and do not activate a general helping mind-set. Through its attempts to secure social bonds, perspective-taking can be an engine of social harmony, but can also reveal a dark side, one full of ironic consequences.
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For more than 20 years, scholars have used the term “attitude strength” to refer to the durability and impactfulness of attitudes, and a large literature attests to the important leverage that this concept offers for understanding and predicting behaviour. Despite its prominence, however, a number of fundamental questions remain regarding the structure and function of attitude strength. In this chapter we draw on a wide range of evidence to clarify the nature of attitude strength. Rather than conceiving of attitude strength as a meaningful psychological construct, we argue that it is better conceptualised as an umbrella term that refers in only the most general way to multiple, separable classes of attitude outcomes, instigated by different antecedents and produced by distinct psychological processes. Although strong attitudes share a set of general qualities—resistance to change, persistence over time, impact on thought and behaviour—there are many distinct routes by which attitudes come to possess these qualities, and many diverse ways in which these qualities manifest themselves. Our analysis shifts the focus away from the structural properties of attitude strength and towards a fuller appreciation of the distinct sources from which attitudes derive their strength. We argue in particular for the value of attending more closely to the social bases of attitude strength, and we illustrate the value of this approach by reviewing several lines of research.
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The research examines an unobtrusive measure of racial attitudes based on the evaluations that are automatically activated from memory on the presentation of Black versus White faces. Study 1, which concerned the technique's validity, obtained different attitude estimates for Black and White participants and also revealed that the variability among White participants was predictive of other race-related judgments and behavior. Study 2 concerned the lack of correspondence between the unobtrusive estimates and Modern Racism Scale (MRS) scores. The reactivity of the MRS was demonstrated in Study 3. Study 4 observed an interaction between the unobtrusive estimates and an individual difference in motivation to control prejudiced reactions when predicting MRS scores. The theoretical implications of the findings for consideration of automatic and controlled components of racial prejudice are discussed, as is the status of the MRS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Explicitly, humans can distinguish their own attitudes from evaluations possessed by others. Implicitly, the viability of a distinction between attitudes and evaluative knowledge is less clear. We investigated relations between explicit attitudes, cultural knowledge and the Implicit Association Test (IAT). In seven studies (158 samples, N=107,709), the IAT was reliably and variably related to explicit attitudes, and explicit attitudes accounted for the relationship between the IAT and cultural knowledge. We suggest that people do not have introspective access to the associations formed via experience in a culture. Ownership of mental associations is established by presence in mind and influence on thinking, feeling and doing. Regardless of origin, associations are influential depending on their availability, accessibility, salience, and applicability. Distinguishing associations as “not mine” is a self-regulatory act and contributes to the distinction between explicit evaluation, where such acts are routine, and implicit evaluation, where they are not.
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For a variety of reasons, social perceivers may often attempt to actively inhibit stereotypic thoughts before their effects impinge on judgment and behavior. However, research on the psychology of mental control raises doubts about the efficacy of this strategy. Indeed, this work suggests that when people attempt to suppress unwanted thoughts, these thoughts are likely to subsequently reappear with even greater insistence than if they had never been suppressed (i.e., a "rebound" effect). The present research comprised an investigation of the extent to which this kind of rebound effect extends to unwanted stereotypic thoughts about others. The results provide strong support for the existence of this effect. Relative to control Ss (i.e., stereotype users), stereotype suppressors responded more pejoratively to a stereotyped target on a range of dependent measures. We discuss our findings in the wider context of models of mind, thought suppression, and social stereotyping. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Empirical evidence is presented from 7 samples regarding the factor structure; reliability; and convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of separate measures of internal and external motivation to respond without prejudice. The scales reliably measure largely independent constructs and have good convergent and discriminant validity. Examination of the qualitatively distinct affective reactions to violations of own- and other-based standards as a function of the source of motivation to respond without prejudice provides evidence for the predictive validity of the scales. The final study demonstrated that reported stereotype endorsement varies as a function of motivation and whether reports are made in private or publicly. Results are discussed in terms of their support for the internal–external distinction and the significance of this distinction for identifying factors that may either promote or thwart prejudice reduction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Prior research indicates that information-based intergroup relations programs are only moderately successful (MGregor, 1993; Stephan & Stephan, 1984). In order to explore a means of increasing the effectiveness of techniques used to change attitudes toward out groups, the current study examined the effects of giving Anglo American students information about everyday incidents of discrimination against African Americans either with or without empathy-inducing instructions. The results indicate that reading about discrimination against African Americans or inducing empathy reduces in-group-out-group bias in attitudes toward African Americans vs. Anglo Americans. The implications of these findings for models of the effects of empathy on intergroup relations are discussed.
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This research was designed to examine whether perspective taking promotes improved intergroup attitudes regardless of the extent that stereotypic perceptions of outgroups are endorsed, as well as examining the mechanisms (attributional or empathy related) by which perspective taking motivates improved intergroup attitudes. Participants were presented with an interview segment where an African American interviewee discussed the difficulties experienced as a result of his membership in a negatively stereotyped group. Materials were presented in a 2 (perspective taking: other focused or objective focused) × 2 (target stereotypicality: confirming or disconfirming) between participants design. Findings revealed that the manipulation of target stereotypicality influenced subsequent stereotype endorsement; those exposed to a stereotype confirming target later endorsed more stereotypic perceptions of African Americans than did those exposed to a stereotype disconfirming target. However, perspective taking promoted improved intergroup attitudes irrespective of stereotypicality; those encouraged to adopt the perspective of the target later reported more favourable intergroup attitudes than did those who remained detached and objective listeners. Whereas empathy partially mediated the relation between perspective taking and intergroup attitudes, situational attributions were a stronger and more reliable mediator. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Three studies tested basic assumptions derived from a theoretical model based on the dissociation of automatic and controlled processes involved in prejudice. Study 1 supported the model's assumption that high- and low-prejudice persons are equally knowledgeable of the cultural stereotype. The model suggests that the stereotype is automatically activated in the presence of a member (or some symbolic equivalent) of the stereotype group and that low-prejudice responses require controlled inhibition of the automatically activated stereotype. Study 2, which examined the efforts of automatic stereotype activation on the evaluation of ambiguous stereotype-relevant behaviors performed by a race-unspecified person, suggested that when subjects' ability to consciously monitor stereotype activation is precluded, both high- and low-prejudice subjects produce stereotype-congruent evaluations of ambiguous behaviors. Study 3 examined high- and low-prejudice subjects' responses in a consciously directed thought-listing task. Consistent with the model, only low-prejudice subjects inhibited the automatically activated stereotype-congruent thoughts and replaced them with thoughts reflecting equality and negations of the stereotype. The relation between stereotypes and prejudice and implications for prejudice reduction are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Stereotype research emphasizes systematic processes over seemingly arbitrary contents, but content also may prove systematic. On the basis of stereotypes' intergroup functions, the stereotype content model hypothesizes that (a) 2 primary dimensions are competence and warmth, (b) frequent mixed clusters combine high warmth with low competence (paternalistic) or high competence with low warmth (envious), and (c) distinct emotions (pity, envy, admiration, contempt) differentiate the 4 competence-warmth combinations. Stereotypically, (d) status predicts high competence, and competition predicts low warmth. Nine varied samples rated gender, ethnicity, race, class, age, and disability out-groups. Contrary to antipathy models, 2 dimensions mattered, and many stereotypes were mixed, either pitying (low competence, high warmth subordinates) or envying (high competence, low warmth competitors). Stereotypically, status predicted competence, and competition predicted low warmth.
Article
Three studies tested basic assumptions derived from a theoretical model based on the dissociation of automatic and controlled processes involved in prejudice. Study 1 supported the model's assumption that high- and low-prejudice persons are equally knowledgeable of the cultural stereotype. The model suggests that the stereotype is automatically activated in the presence of a member (or some symbolic equivalent) of the stereotyped group and that low-prejudice responses require controlled inhibition of the automatically activated stereotype. Study 2, which examined the effects of automatic stereotype activation on the evaluation of ambiguous stereotype-relevant behaviors performed by a race-unspecified person, suggested that when subjects' ability to consciously monitor stereotype activation is precluded, both high- and low-prejudice subjects produce stereotype-congruent evaluations of ambiguous behaviors. Study 3 examined high- and low-prejudice subjects' responses in a consciously directed thought-listing task. Consistent with the model, only low-prejudice subjects inhibited the automatically activated stereotype-congruent thoughts and replaced them with thoughts reflecting equality and negations of the stereotype. The relation between stereotypes and prejudice and implications for prejudice reduction are discussed.
Article
In reporting Implicit Association Test (IAT) results, researchers have most often used scoring conventions described in the first publication of the IAT (A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, & J. L. K. Schwartz, 1998). Demonstration IATs available on the Internet have produced large data sets that were used in the current article to evaluate alternative scoring procedures. Candidate new algorithms were examined in terms of their (a) correlations with parallel self-report measures, (b) resistance to an artifact associated with speed of responding, (c) internal consistency, (d) sensitivity to known influences on IAT measures, and (e) resistance to known procedural influences. The best-performing measure incorporates data from the IAT's practice trials, uses a metric that is calibrated by each respondent's latency variability, and includes a latency penalty for errors. This new algorithm strongly outperforms the earlier (conventional) procedure.
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Three studies demonstrated that meta-stereotypes held by members of dominant groups about how their group is viewed by a lower status group have important implications for intergroup relations. Study 1 confirmed that White Canadians hold a shared negative meta-stereotype about how they are viewed by Aboriginal Canadians; Studies 2 and 3 extended these results to people's beliefs about an individual out-group member's impressions of them. Feeling stereotyped was associated with negative emotions about intergroup interaction as well as decreases in current self-esteem and self-concept clarity. The perceptions of low- and high-prejudiced persons (LPs and HPs) diverged in a manner consistent with their distinct personal values and group identifications. LPs held a more negative meta-stereotype than did HPs. However, in a one-on-one interaction, HPs sensed that they were stereotyped, whereas LPs felt that they conveyed a counterstereotypical impression.
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ABSTRACT This study tested the hypothesis that empathizing with out-group members is beneficial outside of, but not within, intergroup-contact situations. We predicted that in the context of intergroup interaction, the potential for evaluation would lead individuals' perspective-taking efforts to take on an egocentric and counterproductive flavor. As predicted, when empathy was instantiated during an intergroup exchange, it failed to exert its usual positive effect on intergroup attitudes and led higher-prejudice individuals to derogate an out-group member who was an interaction partner; empathy also blocked the prejudice-reducing influence of intergroup contact. Mediation analyses indicated that activation of negative metastereotypes regarding the out-group's view of the in-group accounted for these effects. The findings, which demonstrate ironic effects of empathy in intergroup interaction, indicate that interventions based on studies of individuals' reactions to out-group members in the abstract might have dramatically different consequences when put into practice in real exchanges between members of different groups.
Article
This research explored the role of affect (i.e., emotions) and cognitions (i.e., stereotypes and symbolic beliefs) in Whites’ willingness to engage in contact with Blacks and, in a comparison behavior, endorsement of social policies for Blacks. Specifically, participants were instructed to focus on their feelings or on their thoughts while watching a video portraying discrimination toward Blacks or a comparison video. As predicted, participants who watched the discrimination video while focusing on their emotions showed greater willingness to engage in contact with Blacks than did participants in the other three conditions. Mediational analysis suggested that this effect was mediated by changes in emotions toward Blacks. In contrast, social policy endorsement and cognitions about Blacks were not affected by the focus manipulation. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of moving beyond assessing and attempting to change intergroup attitudes at a global level to examining the affective and cognitive bases of these attitudes.
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Although often confused, imagining how another feels and imagining how you would feel are two distinct forms of perspective taking with different emotional consequences. The former evokes empathy; the latter, both empathy and distress. To test this claim, undergraduates listened to a (bogus) pilot radio interview with a young woman in serious need. One third were instructed to remain objective while listening; one third, to imagine how the young woman felt; and one third, to imagine how they would feel in her situation. The two imagine perspectives produced the predicted distinct pattern of emotions, suggesting different motivational consequences: Imagining how the other feels produced empathy, which has been found to evoke altruistic motivation; imagining how you would feel produced empathy, but it also produced personal distress, which has been found to evoke egoistic motivation.
Article
Previous research has found that perspective taking improves attitudes towards outgroups. We find that taking the perspective of an outgroup member not only improves attitudes towards outgroups, but also reduces prejudice and discriminatory behavior against other specific individual members of that outgroup. Experiment 1 demonstrates that perspective-taking improves liking towards another member of the outgroup, while experiment 2 finds that the improved liking does not generalize to all outgroups, only the group to which the target of empathy belongs. Finally, experiment 3 shows that perspective taking also increases helping behavior towards another member of the outgroup. Moreover, we find evidence that perspective taking improves intergroup attitudes through the induction of empathy.
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Although questions about how people respond to others' nonverbal cues have always been central to the study of nonverbal communication, the study of individual diVerences in accuracy of nonverbal cue processing, or interpersonal sensitivity, is a more recent endeavor. This chapter focuses on assessment of individual diVerences, emphasizing the major paradigms and instruments for assessing accuracy of nonverbal cue processing, and discussing characteristics of the stimuli and judgment methodologies (e.g. what state or trait is being judged, who is being judged, what cue channels are available, whether the cues are posed or spontaneous, whether judgment is done in live interaction or from standard stimuli, what judgment format is used, what criteria and methods are used for scoring). Relative advantages of diVerent approaches are discussed in terms of psychometric qualities, validity, and utility.
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In an effort to remove a presumed confound of extrapersonal associations, Olson and Fazio (2004) introduced procedural modifications to attitude versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT). We hypothesized that the procedural changes increased the likelihood that participants would explicitly evaluate the target concepts (e.g., rating Black and White faces as liked or disliked). Results of a mega-study covering 58 topics and six additional studies (Total N = 15,667) suggest that: (a) after personalizing, participants are more likely to explicitly evaluate target concepts instead of categorizing them according to the performance rules, (b) this effect appears to account for the personalized IAT’s enhanced correlations with self-report, (c) personalizing does not alter the relationship between the IAT and cultural knowledge, and (d) personalized and original procedures each capture unique attitude variation. These results provide an alternative interpretation of the impact of personalizing the IAT. Additional innovation may determine whether personalizing implicit cognition is viable.
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Contrasts are statistical procedures for asking focused questions of data. Researchers, teachers of research methods and graduate students will be familiar with the principles and procedures of contrast analysis included here. But they, for the first time, will also be presented with a series of newly developed concepts, measures, and indices that permit a wider and more useful application of contrast analysis. This volume takes on this new approach by introducing a family of correlational effect size estimates. By returning to these correlations throughout the book, the authors demonstrate special adaptations in a variety of contexts from two group comparison to one way analysis of variance contexts, to factorial designs, to repeated measures designs and to the case of multiple contrasts.
Article
The studies presented in this paper examined empathy, especially perspective taking, as a potential inhibitor of interpersonal aggression. The theoretical rationale for these investigations derived from Zillmann's [(1988): Aggressive Behavior 14: 51–64] cognitive excitation model. Study 1 revealed that dispositional empathy correlates negatively with self-reported aggression and with conflict responses that reflect little concern for the needs of the other party. Empathy also was positively related to constructive responses to interpersonal conflict (i. e., those that do involve concern for the needs of the other party). In Study 2, perspective taking was manipulated with instructions to subjects prior to participation in a reaction-time task designed to measure aggression. When threat was relatively low, subjects who were instructed to take the perspective of the target responded less aggressively than did those who had been instructed to focus on the task. Study 3 examined the effect of dispositional perspective taking on verbal aggression. Threat was manipulated in terms of the combination of provocation and gender of the interactants. As predicted, perspective taking related to aggression inhibition under conditions of moderate threat–for males under low provocation and females under high provocation. These effects were predicted and explained in the context of the cognitive-excitation model. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
This research examines whether perceptions of discrimination moderate relationships between interracial contact and feelings of interracial closeness among black and white Americans, using survey responses gathered by the National Conference for Community and Justice (2000). Results indicate that the general association between contact and interracial closeness is significantly weaker among black respondents than among white respondents. Moreover, while contact relates consistently to greater interracial closeness among white respondents, perceived discrimination moderates this relationship among black respon- dents, such that significant contact effects are not observed for those who perceive consid- erable discrimination against their racial group. At the same time, other results suggest that contact in the form of interracial friendships may help to augment black Americans' reports of interracial closeness, and diminish the role of perceived discrimination. Implications of these findings for future studies of contact between members of racial minority and majori- ty groups are discussed.
Article
Across numerous domains, research has con- sistently linked decreased capacity for executive control to negative outcomes. Under some conditions, however, this deficit may translate into gains: When individuals' regulatory strategies are maladaptive, depletion of the resource fueling such strategies may facilitate positive outcomes, both intra- and interpersonally. We tested this prediction in the context of contentious intergroup interaction, a domain characterized by regulatory prac- tices of questionable utility. White participants discussed approaches to campus diversity with a White or Black partner immediately after performing a depleting or con- trol computer task. In intergroup encounters, depleted participants enjoyed the interaction more, exhibited less inhibited behavior, and seemed less prejudiced to Black observers than did control participants—converging evi- dence of beneficial effects. Although executive capacity typically sustains optimal functioning, these results indi- cate that, in some cases, it also can obstruct positive out- comes, not to mention the potential for open dialogue regarding divisive social issues.
Article
Thecurrentresearchexploredwhethertwore- lated yet distinct social competencies—perspective taking (the cognitive capacity to consider the world from another individual'sviewpoint)andempathy(theabilitytoconnect emotionally with another individual)—have differential effectsinstrategic,mixed-motiveinteractions.Acrossthree studies, using both individual difference measures and ex- perimental manipulations, we found that perspective tak- ingincreased individuals'abilitytodiscover hiddenagree- ments and to both create and claim resources at the bar- gaining table. However, empathy did not prove nearly as advantageous and at times was detrimental to discovering a possible deal and achieving individual profit. These re- sults held regardless of whether the interaction was a ne- gotiation in which a prima facie solution was not possible or a multiple-issue negotiation that required discovering mutually beneficial trade-offs. Although empathy is an essential tool in many aspects of social life, perspective taking appears to be a particularly critical ability in strategic interactions.
Article
Whites' racial attitudes have become complex, with feelings of friendliness and rejection toward Black people often existing side by side. We believe these conflicting sentiments are rooted in two largely independent, core value orientations of American culture, humanitarianism–egalitarianism and the Protestant work ethic. We devised four scales, Pro-Black, Anti-Black, Protestant Ethic (PE), and Humanitarianism–Egalitarianism (HE). In Study 1, the scales were given to White students at eight colleges. As predicted, significant positive correlations were usually found between Pro-Black and HE scores and between Anti-Black and PE scores, whereas other correlations tended to be much lower. In Study 2, we used a priming technique with White students to test for causality. As predicted, priming a given value raised scores on the theoretically corresponding attitude but did not affect scores on the other attitude; priming a single attitude influenced scores on the corresponding value, but not on the other value. Implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Can empathy-induced altruism motivate a person to cooperate in a prisoner's dilemma? To answer this question, 60 undergraduate women were placed in a 1-trial prisoners dilemma, and empathy for the other person was manipulated. Regardless of whether the dilemma was framed as a social exchange or as a business transaction, cooperation was significantly higher among those women led to feel empathy for the other than among those not led to feel empathy. Among those not led to feel empathy, the business frame reduced cooperation, lending support to the idea of an exemption on moral motivation in business transactions. Lack of a business exemption on empathy-induced altruism supported the suggestion that altruism is not simply a type of moral motivation, but is a distinct form of prosocial motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This chapter examines one factor that contributes to the current frustrations of black Americans: the operation of a subtle form of racism among individuals that is less overt but just as insidious as old-fashioned racism. Despite encouraging trends in the intergroup attitudes of white Americans, there are still reasons for concern. One reason is that, across a variety of surveys and polls, 10%–15% of the white population still expresses the old-fashioned, overt form of bigotry. These respondents consistently describe blacks as innately less intelligent than whites, say that they will not vote for a well-qualified presidential candidate simply because of that person's race, and oppose programs designed to ensure full integration and equal opportunity. Another reason for concern is that a substantial portion of the white population expresses merely racial tolerance but not true openness to or enthusiasm for full racial equality. A third reason for concern, which is this chapter's current focus, is that there is also evidence that many of the people who are part of the 85%–90% of the white population who say and probably believe that they are not prejudiced may nonetheless be practicing modern, subtle form of bias. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Over the last decade, a new class of indirect measurement procedures has become increasingly popular in many areas of psychology. However, these implicit measures have also sparked controversies about the nature of the constructs they assess. One controversy has been stimulated by the question of whether some implicit measures (or implicit measures in general) assess extra-personal rather than personal associations. We argue that, despite empirical and methodological advances stimulated by this debate, researchers have not sufficiently addressed the conceptual question of how to define extra-personal in contrast to personal associations. Based on a review of possible definitions, we argue that some definitions render the controversy obsolete, whereas others imply fundamentally different empirical and methodological questions. As an alternative to defining personal and extra-personal associations in an objective sense, we suggest an empirical approach that investigates the meta-cognitive inferences that make a given association subjectively personal or extra-personal for the individual.
Article
Implicit attitudes are automatic evaluations that occur upon encountering an object. Pairing a particular object with one's self should lead to a positive implicit evaluation of that object as, on the whole, people evaluate themselves positively. Study 1 (N = 83) demonstrated that asking participants to associate themselves with a particular drink (A) and others with an alternative drink (B) was enough to enhance implicit preference for drink A over drink B indexed by scores on the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Two further studies were conducted to rule out the possibility that the effects of the manipulation were restricted to the procedure and measures adopted in Study 1. Study 2 (N = 81) tested the mechanism underlying the effects of the manipulation. The results suggested that the change in implicit attitudes towards the drinks varied as a function of the level of one's self-esteem. Specifically, associating one's self with drink A led to more favourable implicit attitudes towards drink A particularly when one's self was evaluated more positively. In the third study (N = 44), the basic effect of the manipulation was replicated in an alternative measure of implicit attitudes (the Affect Misattribution Procedure). In all three studies, the effects were unique to implicit measures and did not generalize to explicit measures. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.