Inhibitory effect of glucodistylin from the bark of Quercus acutissima on human recombinant aldose reductase and sorbitol accumulation
Center for Efficacy Assessment and Development of Functional Foods and Drugs, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Korea. Archives of Pharmacal Research
(Impact Factor: 2.05).
02/2011; 34(2):211-5. DOI: 10.1007/s12272-011-0205-1
A flavanol glycoside, glucodistylin (1) and three polyphenol derivatives, gallate (2), (+)-catechin (3) and (+)-gallocatechin (4) were isolated from an aqueous acetone extract of the bark of Quercus acutissima. Of these compounds, glucodistylin exhibited uncompetitive inhibitory activity against recombinant human aldose reductase with an IC(50) value of 7.2 μM. Furthermore, glucodistylin inhibited sorbitol accumulation by 48.84% at 50 μM. This flavonoid showed therapeutic potential in the prevention and treatment of diabetes-related complications.
Available from: Soon Sung Lim
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ABSTRACT: We evaluated the inhibitory effects of extracts and components of Geranium thunbergii on aldose reductase (AR) and galactitol formation in rat lenses with high levels of galactose as a part of our ongoing search of natural sources for therapeutic and preventive agents for diabetic complications. The inhibitory effects of water, methanol and ethanol extracts of G. thunbergii on rat lens AR (RLAR) were determined. Comparing inhibitory effects of various solvent extracts, ethanol extract showed RLAR inhibitory activity ( values, 5.24 and , respectively). The ethanol extract was fractionated to chloroform, ethyl acetate and water. Of these, the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of G. thunbergii exhibited RLAR inhibitory activity ( value, ). In order to identify the bioactive components of ethyl acetate soluble fraction of ethanol extract from G. thunbergii, eight compounds, namely gallic acid (1), protocatechuic acid (2), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), brevifolin carboxylic acid (4), geraniin (5), ellagic acid (6), kaempferol-3-O-arabinofuranosyl-7-O-rhamnopyranoside (7), kaempferitrin (8) were isolated. The isolates were subjected to in vitro bioassays to evaluate their inhibitory activity on RLAR and galactitol formation in rat lenses. The ellagic tannins (5, 6) and flavonoid (7) exhibited strong inhibitory effects on RLAR. Also, these three compounds (5, 6 and 7) suppressed galactitol accumulation in rat lens under high galactose conditions, demonstrating the potential to prevent galactitol accumulation exo vivo. These results suggest that the extracts and components of G. thunbergii are a promising agent in the prevention or treatment of diabetic complications.
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Aldose reductase is primarily involved in development of long-term diabetic complications due to increased polyol pathway activity. The synthetic aldose reductase inhibitors are not very successful clinically. Therefore, the natural sources may be exploited for safer and effective aldose reductase inhibitors.
In the present study, the aldose reductase inhibitory potential of hydroalcoholic and alkaloidal extracts of Piper nigrum, Murraya koenigii, Argemone mexicana, and Nelumbo nucifera was evaluated. The hydroalcoholic and alkaloidal extracts of the selected plants were prepared. The different concentrations of hydroalcoholic and alkaloidal extracts of these plants were evaluated for their goat lens aldose reductase inhibitory activity using dl-glyceraldehyde as substrate. The aldose reductase inhibitory potential of extracts was assessed in terms of their IC50 value.
Amongst the hydroalcoholic extracts, the highest aldose reductase inhibitory activity was shown by P. nigrum (IC50 value 35.64±2.7 μg/mL) followed by M. koenigii (IC50 value 45.67±2.57 μg/mL), A. mexicana (IC50 value 56.66±1.30 μg/mL), and N. nucifera (IC50 value 59.78±1.32 μg/mL). Among the alkaloidal extracts, highest inhibitory activity was shown by A. mexicana (IC50 value 25.67±1.25 μg/mL), followed by N. nucifera (IC50 value 28.82±1.85 μg/mL), P. nigrum (IC50 value 30.21±1.63 μg/mL), and M. koenigii (IC50 value 35.66±1.64 μg/mL).
It may be concluded that the alkaloidal extracts of these plants possess potent aldose reductase inhibitory activity and may be therapeutically exploited in diabetes-related complications associated with increased activity of aldose reductase.
Available from: Kaleab Asres
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ABSTRACT: Diabetic complications are attributed to hyperglycaemic condition which is in turn associated with the polyol pathway and advanced glycation end products. Aldose reductase (AR) is the principal enzyme of polyol pathway which plays a vital role in the development of diabetic complications. AR inhibitory activity can be screened by both in vitro and in vivo methods. In vitro assays for AR enzyme are further classified on the basis of the source of enzyme such as rat lens, rat kidney, cataracted human eye lens, bovine eyes and human recombinant AR enzymes, whereas the in vivo model is based on the determination of lens galactitol levels. A number of synthetic AR inhibitors (ARIs) including tolrestat and sorbinil have been developed, but all of these suffer from drawbacks such as poor permeation and safety issues. Therefore, pharmaceutical companies and many researchers have been carrying out research to find new, potent and safe ARIs from natural sources. Thus, many naturally occurring compounds have been reported to have AR inhibitory activity. The present review attempts to highlight phytochemicals and plant extracts with potential AR inhibitory activity. It also summarizes the classes of compounds which have proven AR inhibitory activity. Phytochemicals such as quercetin, kaempferol and ellagic acid are found to be the most promising ARIs. The exhaustive literature presented in this article clearly indicates the role of plant extracts and phytochemicals as potential ARIs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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