Article

Extra-Lysosomal Localization of Arylsulfatase B in Human Colonic Epithelium

Department of Pathology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry (Impact Factor: 1.96). 03/2011; 59(3):328-35. DOI: 10.1369/0022155410395511
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The enzyme arylsulfatase B (N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase; ARSB; ASB) removes 4-sulfate groups from the sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S) and dermatan sulfate (DS). Inborn deficiency of ARSB leads to the lysosomal storage disease mucopolysaccharidosis VI, characterized by accumulation of sGAG in vital organs, disruption of normal physiological processes, severe morbidity, and premature death. Recent published work demonstrated extra-lysosomal localization with nuclear and cell membrane ARSB observed in bronchial and colonic epithelial cells, cerebrovascular cells, and hepatic cells. In this report, the authors present ARSB immunostaining in a colonic microarray and show differences in distribution, intensity, and pattern of ARSB staining among normal colon, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas. Distinctive, intense luminal membrane staining was present in the normal epithelial cells but reduced in the malignancies and less in the grade 3 than in the grade 1 adenocarcinomas. In the normal cores, a distinctive pattern of intense cytoplasmic positivity at the luminal surface was followed by reduced staining deeper in the crypts. ARSB enzymatic activity was significantly greater in normal than in malignant tissue. These study findings affirm extra-lysosomal localization of ARSB and suggest that altered ARSB immunostaining and reduced activity may be useful indicators of malignant transformation in human colonic tissue.

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    • "Tissue lysates were prepared using RIPA buffer (50 mmol/l Tris–HCl containing 0.15 mol/l NaCl, 1% Nonidet P40, 0.5% deoxycholic acid and 0.1% SDS, pH 7.4). Antibody specific to native C4S (4D1, Abnova, Littleton, CO) was added to lysates in tubes at a concentration of 1 g/mg of tissue protein, and tubes were rotated overnight in a shaker at 4 @BULLET C. Next, 100 l of pre-washed protein lagarose (SCBT, Santa Cruz, CA) was added to each tube, tubes were incubated overnight at 4 @BULLET C, and the protein l-agarose treated beads were washed three times with PBS containing Protease Inhibitor Cocktail, as previously[2,4]. The precipitate was eluted with dyefree elution buffer and subjected to sulfated GAG assay. "
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    ABSTRACT: Sulfatase enzymes remove sulfate groups from sulfated steroid hormones, including estrone-sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, and from sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), including chondroitin sulfates and heparan sulfate. The enzymes N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase (Arylsulfatase B; ARSB) and N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS), which remove sulfate groups from the sulfated GAGs chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S) and chondroitin 6-sulfate, respectively, have not been studied in prostate development previously. In this report, the endogenous variation and the impact of exogenous estradiol benzoate on the immunohistochemistry and activity of ARSB and GALNS in post-natal (days 1-30) ventral rat prostate are presented, as well as measurements of steroid sulfatase activity (STS), C4S, total sulfated GAGs, and versican, an extracellular matrix proteoglycan with chondroitin sulfate attachments on days 5 and 30. Findings demonstrate distinct and reciprocal localization of ARSB and GALNS, with ARSB predominant in the stroma and GALNS predominant in the epithelium. Control ARSB activity increased significantly between days 5 and 30, but following estrogen exposure (estradiol benzoate 25 μg in 25 μl sesame oil subcutaneously on days 1, 3, and 5), activity was reduced and the observed increase on day 30 was inhibited. However, estrogen treatment did not inhibit the increase in GALNS activity between days 5 and 30, and reduced STS activity by 50% on both days 5 and 30 compared to vehicle control. Sulfated GAGs, C4S, and the extracellular matrix proteoglycan versican declined between days 5 and 30 in the control, but these declines were inhibited following estrogen. Study findings indicate distinct variation in expression and activity of sulfatases, sulfated GAGs, C4S, and versican in the process of normal prostate development, and disruption of these events by exogenous estrogen.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
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    • "Deficiency of the enzyme arylsulfatase B (ARSB; N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase) leads to the lysosomal storage disease mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VI (Maroteaux-Lamy-Syndrome), which is associated with accumulation of the sulfated glycosoaminoglycans chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S) and dermatan sulfate (DS). In addition to lysosomal localization, ARSB is also present in the cell membrane of epithelial and endothelial cells [1]–[6]. The sulfatase enzymes are a family of enzymes that each have highly specified chemical function, and ARSB removes the 4-sulfate group from N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfate at the non-reducing end of C4S and DS, and thereby can regulate the degradation of these sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) [7]–[9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This report presents evidence of 1) a role for arylsulfatase B (ARSB; N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase) in mediating intracellular oxygen signaling; 2) replication between the effects of ARSB silencing and hypoxia on sulfated glycosaminoglycan content, cellular redox status, and expression of hypoxia-associated genes; and 3) a mechanism whereby changes in chondroitin-4-sulfation that follow either hypoxia or ARSB silencing can induce transcriptional changes through galectin-3. ARSB removes 4-sulfate groups from the non-reducing end of chondroitin-4-sulfate and dermatan sulfate and is required for their degradation. For activity, ARSB requires modification of a critical cysteine residue by the formylglycine generating enzyme and by molecular oxygen. When primary human bronchial and human colonic epithelial cells were exposed to 10% O(2) × 1 h, ARSB activity declined by ~41% and ~30% from baseline, as nuclear hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α increased by ~53% and ~37%. When ARSB was silenced, nuclear HIF-1α increased by ~81% and ~61% from baseline, and mRNA expression increased to 3.73 (± 0.34) times baseline. Inversely, ARSB overexpression reduced nuclear HIF-1α by ~37% and ~54% from baseline in the epithelial cells. Hypoxia, like ARSB silencing, significantly increased the total cellular sulfated glycosaminoglycans and chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S) content. Both hypoxia and ARSB silencing had similar effects on the cellular redox status and on mRNA expression of hypoxia-associated genes. Transcriptional effects of both ARSB silencing and hypoxia may be mediated by reduction in galectin-3 binding to more highly sulfated C4S, since the galectin-3 that co-immunoprecipitated with C4S declined and the nuclear galectin-3 increased following ARSB knockdown and hypoxia.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: The common food additive kappa-carrageenan (κ-CGN) is a sulfated polysaccharide that resembles chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S) and dermatan sulfate (DS). All have a sulfate group on C4 of a glycoside (galactose for CGN and N-acetylgalactosamine for C4S), and the sulfate-bearing glycoside is linked in a β-1,4-configuration to an unsulfated, six-carbon sugar (galactose for CGN, glucuronate for C4S and iduronate for DS). The enzyme arylsulfatase B (ARSB; N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfate) is the highly selective enzyme that removes the four-sulfate group from the nonreducing terminus of C4S and DS, thereby regulating subsequent degradation. In this report, κ-CGN is shown to be a substrate for recombinant human ARSB (rhARSB). Sulfate was generated from both C4S and κ-CGN following incubation with rhARSB. Exposure of human colonic epithelial cells to κ-CGN, but not to C4S, produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased interleukin (IL)-8 secretion. The ROS production from κ-CGN was reduced by exposure to rhARSB, but increased by competition from C4S or DS, but not from chondroitin-6-sulfate. Prior treatment of either lambda- or iota-CGN with rhARSB had no impact on ROS, IL-8 or inorganic sulfate production, demonstrating a specific effect of the molecular configuration of κ-CGN. By mimicry of C4S and DS and by interaction with ARSB, κ-CGN can directly interfere with the normal cellular functions of C4S, DS and ARSB. Since C4S and DS are present in high concentration in tissues, the impact of κ-CGN exposure may be due to some extent to interference with the normal biological functions of ARSB, C4S and DS.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · The Journal of nutritional biochemistry
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