Self-renewal induced efficiently, safely, and effective therapeutically with one regulatable gene in a human somatic progenitor cell

Medical Research Institute, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, 440-746 Seoul, Korea.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 03/2011; 108(12):4876-81. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1019743108
Source: PubMed


In the field of induced potency and fate reprogramming, it remains unclear what the best starting cell might be and to what extent a cell need be transported back to a more primitive state for translational purposes. Reprogramming a committed cell back to pluripotence to then instruct it toward a particular specialized cell type is demanding and may increase risks of neoplasia and undesired cell types. Precursor/progenitor cells from the organ of therapeutic concern typically lack only one critical attribute--the capacity for sustained self-renewal. We speculated that this could be induced in a regulatable manner such that cells proliferate only in vitro and differentiate in vivo without the need for promoting pluripotence or specifying lineage identity. As proof-of-concept, we generated and tested the efficiency, safety, engraftability, and therapeutic utility of "induced conditional self-renewing progenitor (ICSP) cells" derived from the human central nervous system (CNS); we conditionally induced self-renewal efficiently within neural progenitors solely by introducing v-myc tightly regulated by a tetracycline (Tet)-on gene expression system. Tet in the culture medium activated myc transcription and translation, allowing efficient expansion of homogeneous, clonal, karyotypically normal human CNS precursors ex vivo; in vivo, where Tet was absent, myc was not expressed, and self-renewal was entirely inactivated (as was tumorigenic potential). Cell proliferation ceased, and differentiation into electrophysiologically active neurons and other CNS cell types in vivo ensued upon transplantation into rats, both during development and after adult injury--with functional improvement and without neoplasia, overgrowth, deformation, emergence of non-neural cell types, phenotypic or genomic instability, or need for immunosuppression. This strategy of inducing self-renewal might be applied to progenitors from other organs and may prove to be a safe, effective, efficient, and practical method for optimizing insights gained from the ability to reprogram cells.

Download full-text


Available from: Evan Y Snyder
  • Source
    • "An early attempt for compromise between these two technologies was demonstrated by direct reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts to NSCs, thus bypassing some of the stepwise aspects inherent to use of hiPSC intermediates, but preserving more potential for cellular expansion than direct neuronal conversion.57 Another approach that straddles technologies is called ‘induced conditional self-renewing progenitor (ICSP) cells', in which multipotent but non-self-renewing progenitor cells are obtained from the organ of therapeutic interest (e.g., the nervous system, without the need for genetic reprogramming) but simply need to have their proliferative potential conditionally augmented in vitro.58 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from somatic cells of patients have opened possibilities for in vitro modeling of the physiology of neural (and other) cells in psychiatric disease states. Issues in early stages of technology development include (1) establishing a library of cells from adequately phenotyped patients, (2) streamlining laborious, costly hiPSC derivation and characterization, (3) assessing whether mutations or other alterations introduced by reprogramming confound interpretation, (4) developing efficient differentiation strategies to relevant cell types, (5) identifying discernible cellular phenotypes meaningful for cyclic, stress induced or relapsing-remitting diseases, (6) converting phenotypes to screening assays suitable for genome-wide mechanistic studies or large collection compound testing and (7) controlling for variability in relation to disease specificity amidst low sample numbers. Coordination of material for reprogramming from patients well-characterized clinically, genetically and with neuroimaging are beginning, and initial studies have begun to identify cellular phenotypes. Finally, several psychiatric drugs have been found to alter reprogramming efficiency in vitro, suggesting further complexity in applying hiPSCs to psychiatric diseases or that some drugs influence neural differentiation moreso than generally recognized. Despite these challenges, studies utilizing hiPSCs may eventually serve to fill essential niches in the translational pipeline for the discovery of new therapeutics.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013
    • "Because elevated c-Myc expression also promotes self-renewal of stem cells31 and is necessary under some conditions for embryonic stem cell self-renewal32, we examined the expression of additional transcription factors that support stem cell reprogramming33 and found significant elevation of mRNA for Sox2, Klf4, and Oct4 and of the stem cell marker nestin in primary CD47-null endothelial cells (Fig. 2A). Oct4 protein expression was detected by immunofluorescence in a majority of the CD47 null cells but not in WT cells (Fig. 2B, D). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Signaling through the thrombospondin-1 receptor CD47 broadly limits cell and tissue survival of stress, but the molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. We now show that loss of CD47 permits sustained proliferation of primary murine endothelial cells, increases asymmetric division, and enables these cells to spontaneously reprogram to form multipotent embryoid body-like clusters. c-Myc, Klf4, Oct4, and Sox2 expression is elevated in CD47-null endothelial cells, in several tissues of CD47- and thrombospondin-1-null mice, and in a human T cell line lacking CD47. CD47 knockdown acutely increases mRNA levels of c-Myc and other stem cell transcription factors in cells and in vivo, whereas CD47 ligation by thrombospondin-1 suppresses c-Myc expression. The inhibitory effects of increasing CD47 levels can be overcome by maintaining c-Myc expression and are absent in cells with dysregulated c-Myc. Thus, CD47 antagonists enable cell self-renewal and reprogramming by overcoming negative regulation of c-Myc and other stem cell transcription factors.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Scientific Reports
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies of the regenerating hematopoietic system have led to the definition of many of the fundamental principles of stem cell biology. Therapies based on a range of tissue stem cells have been widely touted as a new treatment modality, presaging an emerging new specialty called regenerative medicine that promises to harness stem cells from embryonic and somatic sources to provide replacement cell therapies for genetic, malignant, and degenerative conditions. Insights borne from stem cell biology also portend development of protein and small molecule therapeutics that act on endogenous stem cells to promote repair and regeneration. Much of the newfound enthusiasm for regenerative medicine stems from the hope that advances in the laboratory will be followed soon thereafter by breakthrough treatments in the clinic. But how does one sort through the hype to judge the true promise? Are stem cell biologists and the media building expectations that cannot be met? Which diseases can be treated, and when can we expect success? In this review, we outline the realms of investigation that are capturing the most attention, and consider the current state of scientific understanding and controversy regarding the properties of embryonic and somatic (adult) stem cells. Our objective is to provide a framework for appreciating the promise while at the same time understanding the challenges behind translating fundamental stem cell biology into novel clinical therapies.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2003 · Hematology
Show more