Eribulin monotherapy versus treatment of physician's choice in patients with metastatic breast cancer (EMBRACE): A phase 3 open-label randomised study

Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology, Barcelona, Spain.
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 03/2011; 377(9769):914-23. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60070-6
Source: PubMed


Treatments with survival benefit are greatly needed for women with heavily pretreated metastatic breast cancer. Eribulin mesilate is a non-taxane microtubule dynamics inhibitor with a novel mode of action. We aimed to compare overall survival of heavily pretreated patients receiving eribulin versus currently available treatments.
In this phase 3 open-label study, women with locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer were randomly allocated (2:1) to eribulin mesilate (1·4 mg/m(2) administered intravenously during 2-5 min on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle) or treatment of physician's choice (TPC). Patients had received between two and five previous chemotherapy regimens (two or more for advanced disease), including an anthracycline and a taxane, unless contraindicated. Randomisation was stratified by geographical region, previous capecitabine treatment, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was overall survival in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered at, number NCT00388726.
762 women were randomly allocated to treatment groups (508 eribulin, 254 TPC). Overall survival was significantly improved in women assigned to eribulin (median 13·1 months, 95% CI 11·8-14·3) compared with TPC (10·6 months, 9·3-12·5; hazard ratio 0·81, 95% CI 0·66-0·99; p=0·041). The most common adverse events in both groups were asthenia or fatigue (270 [54%] of 503 patients on eribulin and 98 [40%] of 247 patients on TPC at all grades) and neutropenia (260 [52%] patients receiving eribulin and 73 [30%] of those on TPC at all grades). Peripheral neuropathy was the most common adverse event leading to discontinuation from eribulin, occurring in 24 (5%) of 503 patients.
Eribulin showed a significant and clinically meaningful improvement in overall survival compared with TPC in women with heavily pretreated metastatic breast cancer. This finding challenges the notion that improved overall survival is an unrealistic expectation during evaluation of new anticancer therapies in the refractory setting.

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    • "This toxicity was also seen in previous trials evaluating 1 . 4 mg m À 2 of eribulin monotherapy in the same setting ( Cortes et al , 2011 ; Aogi et al , 2012 "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: We evaluated the safety, maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, recommended dose for phase II (P2RD), and preliminary anticancer activity of a combination eribulin and S-1 therapeutic in metastatic breast cancer patients pretreated with anthracycline and taxane. Method: Patients aged 20-74 years were recruited. In level 1, patients received S-1 (65 mg m(-2)) from day 1 to 14, and eribulin (1.1 mg m(-2)) on day 1 and 8 in a 21-day cycle. In level 2, eribulin was increased to 1.4 mg m(-2). In level 3, S-1 was increased to 80 mg m(-2). Results: Twelve patients were enrolled into three cohorts. Planned dose escalation was completed, with one case exhibiting dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 hypokalaemia) at level 3, without reaching the MTD. The P2RD was determined to be level 2 (eribulin 1.4 mg m(-2) and S-1 65 mg m(-2)). The most common grade 3 or 4 toxicity was neutropenia (83.3%), followed by febrile neutropenia (25.0%). Five of eleven patients (41.7%) with measurable disease had a partial response. Pharmacokinetics were characterised by dose-dependent elimination and nonlinear exposure. Conclusion: Dose level 3 was not tolerated owing to febrile neutropenia development. Thus, intermediate dose level 2 was recommended for further evaluation. Preliminary antitumour activity warrants further investigation in this setting.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · British Journal of Cancer
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    • "(Tan et al, 2009). Eribulin mesylate is approved by Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer who were previously treated with anthracycline and taxane therapy and at least two prior regimens based on phase III EMBRACE trial (Cortes et al, 2011). The current label dose for eribulin mesylate is 1.4 mg m À 2 on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Eribulin mesylate is a synthetic macrocyclic ketone analogue of Halichondrin B that has demonstrated high antitumor activity in preclinical and clinical settings. This phase I study aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and pharmacokinetics in combination with cisplatin (CP) in patients with advanced solid tumours. Methods: Thirty-six patients with advanced solid tumours received eribulin mesylate 0.7-1.4 mg m(-2) and CP 60-75 mg m(-2). Eribulin mesylate was administered on days 1, 8, and 15 in combination with CP day 1 every 28-day cycle. The protocol was amended after dose level 4 (eribulin mesylate 1.4 mg m(-2), CP 60 mg m(-2)) when it was not feasible to administer eribulin mesylate on day 15 because of neutropenia; the treatment schedule was changed to eribulin mesylate on days 1 and 8 and CP on day 1 every 21 days. Results: On the 28-day schedule, three patients had DLT during the first cycle: grade (G) 4 febrile neutropenia (1.0 mg m(-2), 60 mg m(-2)); G 3 anorexia/fatigue/hypokalemia (1.2 mg m(-2), 60 mg m(-2)); and G 3 stomatitis/nausea/vomiting/fatigue (1.4 mg m(-2), 60 mg m(-2)). On the 21-day schedule, three patients had DLT during the first cycle: G 3 hypokalemia/hyponatremia (1.4 mg m(-2), 60 mg m(-2)); G 4 mucositis (1.4 mg m(-2), 60 mg m(-2)); and G 3 hypokalemia (1.2 mg m(-2), 75 mg m(-2)). The MTD and recommended phase II dose was determined as eribulin mesylate 1.2 mg m(-2) (days 1, 8) and CP 75 mg m(-2) (day 1), on a 21-day cycle. Two patients had unconfirmed partial responses (PR) (pancreatic and breast cancers) and two had PR (oesophageal and bladder cancers). Conclusions: On the 21-day cycle, eribulin mesylate 1.2 mg m(-2), administered on days 1 and 8, in combination with CP 75 mg m(-2), administered on day 1 is well tolerated and showed preliminary anticancer activity.
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