Article

Electrochemical Energy Storage for Green Grid

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA.
Chemical Reviews (Impact Factor: 46.57). 03/2011; 111(5):3577-613. DOI: 10.1021/cr100290v
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

A comprehensive review on electrochemical energy storage (EES) technologies or batteries is presented. Principles of operation and the status and challenges in materials, chemistries, and technologies of these batteries is also provided. A redox flow battery (RFB), is a type of rechargeable battery that stores electrical energy, typically in two soluble redox couples contained in external electrolyte tanks sized in accordance with application requirements. Sodium-beta alumina membrane batteries reversibly charge and discharge electricity via sodium ion transport across a solid electrolyte that is doped with Li or Mg. Li-ion batteries store electrical energy in electrodes made of Li-intercalation compounds and graphite is the material of choice for most lithium-ion candidate chemistries. Lead-carbon batteries with a split negative electrode is known as an ultrabattery, which was invented by CSIRO in Australia.

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    • "With the non-renewable resources exhausted rapidly and continuously, the renewable energy resources have been developed quickly to meet the increasing energy demand and to reduce the carbon emission[1,2]. Energy storage system is indispensable to the renewable energy resources owing to its intermittency property. "
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    ABSTRACT: The operating temperature of vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) will change with seasons and places. Hence, the broad temperature adaptability of VRFB is one of the key issues which affect its large-scale practical application. In our previous work, we have reported the impact of temperature (−35 °C–50 °C) on the static stability, physicochemical and electrochemical properties of five typical vanadium electrolytes (Electrochim. Acta, 2016, 187, 525). As a follow-up study, VRFB single cells are evaluated in this paper at a broad temperature range under current density of 40–200 mA cm−2. The results show that VRFB can operate from −20 °C to 50 °C with acceptable energy efficiency under appropriate current densities (e.g. 65%–78% at 100 mA cm−2). Ohmic and polarization resistances of VRFB decrease with temperature while the voltage efficiency and electrolyte utilization present the opposite tendency. The fast crossover of the vanadium ions at high temperatures aggravates the capacity fading of the cell. Notably, VRFB suffers much more damage during alternate temperatures operation between moderate temperature and high temperature, which should be given special attention.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    • "However, the random and intermittent nature of renewable energy resources like solar energy and wind energy induces instability to the grid, which vastly limits their development [1] [2] [3]. In order to smooth out the intermittency of renewable energy production, electrical energy storage (EES) has become an indispensable part to integrate the grid and renewable energy [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The broad temperature adaptability of vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is one of the key issues which affects the large-scale and safety application of VRFB. Typically, five types of vanadium electrolytes, namely V2+, V3+, V3.5+ (V3+:VO2+ = 1:1), V4+ (VO2+) and V5+ (VO2+), are the most common electrolytes’ status existing in VRFB system. In this work, the physicochemical and electrochemical properties of these vanadium electrolytes are studied in detail at a broad temperature range (-35 oC─50 oC). The results show that all types of vanadium electrolytes are stable between -25 oC─30 oC. The temperature fluctuation will largely influence the conductivity and viscosity of the electrolytes. Besides, the electrochemical properties of the positive (VO2+) and negative (V3+) electrolytes are greatly affected by the temperature; and the charge transfer process fluctuates more greatly with the temperature variation than the charge diffusion process does. These results enable us to better and more comprehensively evaluate the performance of the electrolyte changing with the temperature, which will be beneficial for the rational choice of electrolyte for VRFB operation under various conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    • "recognized the importance of storage. In Japan, for instance, 15% of supplied electricity has been cycled through a storage facility whereas in Europe closer to 10% of supplied energy passes through a storage medium with Germany being the leading nation [21]. Identifying the best storage mix for a country is a complex task that must consider not only the techno-economics of the technology, but also metrics, effects on energy security, carbon emissions, locational and geographical constraints as well as social aspects. "
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    ABSTRACT: A wide variety of energy storage methods are currently employed around the world, including electrical storage, thermal storage, chemical storage. The correct storage mix will satisfy a range of constraints relating to the specific nature of electricity generation and demand connected to the grid, the physical nature of the landscape and it's geology as well as the political environment. Finding synthesis among these conflicting concerns is a difficult task and the lack of a clear vision for energy storage can lead countries to adopt a disjointed approach to energy storage. This paper addresses this by presenting a framework based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) that may be used to identify the most attractive storage mix for three scenarios: renewable integration, load shifting and power quality. Our analysis shows that for the power quality scenario, the most appropriate choices are supercapacitors, SMES and flywheel storage. For renewable integration the best options are pumped hydro and hydrogen storage. Both technologies are able to store excess renewable energy for relatively long period, making them an ideal way to deal with the intermittency of renewables. For load shifting purposes, pumped hydro storage is the optimal choice but limited due to the number of new storage sites available to construct, followed by thermal storage and batteries (VRB, ZnBr and NaS). These technologies are characterized by quick response time, high power density and low losses.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Energy Procedia
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