Prior lung disease and lung cancer risk in an occupational-based cohort in Yunnan, China
Tianjin Key Laboratory of Lung Cancer Metastasis and Tumor, Tianjin Lung Cancer Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, PR China.Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) (Impact Factor: 3.96). 02/2011; 72(2):258-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.lungcan.2011.01.032
We used the data from a prospective cohort study among tin miners in Yunnan, China to investigate whether prior lung disease is a risk factor for lung cancer. Information on prior lung disease was obtained from baseline questionnaires. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine the relationship between prior lung disease and lung cancer risk. From 1992 to 2001, a total of 502 lung cancer cases were confirmed among 9295 cohort participants. Prior chronic bronchitis was associated with an increase in lung cancer risk with an adjusted HR of 1.50 (95% CI: 1.24-1.81). There was an increased risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma in the setting of prior chronic bronchitis and small cell carcinoma in association with asthma with an adjusted HRs of 1.57 (95% CI: 1.19-2.09) and 2.56 (95% CI: 1.38-4.75), respectively. This prospective study provides further evidence that prior chronic bronchitis correlates with increased lung cancer risk, especially for squamous cell carcinoma. Asthma is associated with increased risk of small cell lung carcinoma.
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ABSTRACT: Numerous epidemiological studies have investigated potential associations between allergy history and cancer risk with strong inverse associations reported in studies of pancreatic cancer, glioma, and childhood leukemia. Recently, there has been a rapid expansion of the epidemiological literature both of studies evaluating self-reported allergy history in relation to cancer risk and of studies evaluating biological indicators of allergy history and immune function including levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) E. However, there are several potential methodological limitations associated with prior studies, and further research is required to clarify associations observed. This paper summarizes the recent epidemiological literature examining associations between allergy history and cancer risk. From 2008, a total of 55 epidemiological studies were identified that examined some aspect of the association between allergy and cancer. Although the majority of studies examined self-reported allergy history in relation to cancer risk, there were also studies examining allergy diagnoses or discharges as captured in existing administrative databases, levels of IgE, polymorphisms of allergy, inflammatory- or allergy-related cytokine genes, and concentrations of immune regulatory proteins. The most frequently studied cancer sites included brain and lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers. Potential methodological sources of bias are discussed as well as recommendations for future work.
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ABSTRACT: In 2008, lung cancer replaced liver cancer as the number one cause of death among people with malignant tumors in China. The registered lung cancer mortality rate increased by 464.84% in the past 3 decades, which imposes an enormous burden on patients, health-care professionals, and society. We performed a systematic review of the published data on lung cancer in China between 1990 and 2011 to analyze the incidence and mortality rates, economic burden, and risk factors of cancer and the effectiveness of interventions. Lung cancer incidence varies within China. People in eastern China, especially women, likely have a higher risk of developing lung cancer than those in western China. The crude mortality rates from lung cancer in 2008 were 47.51 per 100,000 men and 22.69 per 100,000 women. The crude mortality rate was highest in Shanghai (76.49 per 100,000 men and 35.82 per 100,000 women) and lowest in Tibet (25.14 per 100,000 men) and Ningxia (12.09 per 100,000 women). Smoking and environmental pollution are major risk factors for lung cancer in China. Continuous efforts should be concentrated on education of the general public regarding lung cancer to increase prevention and early detection. Specific interventions need to be implemented to reduce smoking rates and environmental risk factors. Standardized treatment protocols should be adapted in China.
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