39 IN VITRO DEVELOPMENT OF CANINE EMBRYOS PRODUCED BY INTERSPECIES SOMATIC CELL NUCLEAR TRANSFER USING ENUCLEATED BOVINE OOCYTES.
Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is an invaluable tool for studying nucleous-cytoplasm interactions, and may provide an alternative for cloning endangered animals, whose oocytes are difficult to obtain. Using readily available oocytes from domestic/farm animals as recipients for iSCNT would greatly benefit ongoing research on somatic cell reprogramming. However, little information is available concerning the development of canine iSCNT embryos reconstructed with bovine oocyte cytoplasm. In the first experiment, we investigated the influence of donor cell type on the development of canine iSCNT embryos reconstructed with enucleated bovine oocytes. Canine mammary gland tumour (MGT) cells and cumulus cells were used as donor cell. The bovine oocytes matured for 22h were enucleated by the micromanipulator, and the donor cells were transferred into the perivitelline space adjacent to the plasma membrane of the oocyte. The couples were fused and activated simultaneously with a single DC pulse of 2.3kVcm(-1) for 30μs, using an electro cell fusion generator. The reconstructed embryos were cultured for 72h in the mSOF medium supplemented with 0.4% BSA. After 72h of culture, only cleaved embryos were further co-cultured with bovine cumulus cells in mSOF supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for an additional 5 days. In the second experiment, we examined the effects of serum type on the development of canine iSCNT embryos. The embryos reconstructed with canine cumulus cells were co-cultured with canine cumulus cells in mSOF supplemented with 5% FBS, and canine oestrous and diestrous serum for 5 days after 72h of culture with 0.4% BSA. Data were analysed by chi-square analysis with a Yates' correction. More than 75% of the canine somatic cells successfully were fused with bovine enucleated oocytes following electrofusion, irrespective of the types of the donor cells. There were no significant differences in the cleavage rates of iSCNT embryos between the cumulus cell and MGT cell (66.2% v. 62.6%). Although none of the embryos reconstructed with MGT cells (n=123) developed to the 16-cell stage, 6% of embryos with cumulus cells (n=133) reached at least the 16-cell stage. There were no significant differences in the cleavage rates of iSCNT embryos among the types of serum. The iSCNT embryos could not develop to the blastocyst stage, irrespective of the type of donor cell and serum. In conclusion, our results indicate that the bovine oocytes partly supported the remodelling and reprogramming of the canine somatic cell nuclei, but they were unable to support the development to the blastocyst stage of canine iSCNT embryos. Moreover, the development to the late embryonic stage of iSCNT embryos may be influenced by the type of donor cell but not serum.
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