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Diabetes is a chronic, potentially debilitating and often fatal disease. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in all populations worldwide. The investigation was carried out to study the impact of barley grass powder (BGP) supplementation on the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of stable type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects. A total of 59 stable type 2 diabetic subjects were enrolled in the study from pathology laboratories and divided into experimental (n=36) and control groups (n=23). BGP (1.2 g/day) in the form of capsules (n=4) was given to the experimental group subjects for a period of 60 days. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and lipid profile levels were monitored at baseline and at 60 days. Paired t test was applied using Microsoft® Office Excel 2003. Supplementation with BGP resulted in a significant decrease in FBS, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Non-HDL-C) and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest that BGP holds promise to be used as a functional food to optimise the health of diabetic subjects.
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... Podophyllotoxin derivatives as etoposide and teniposides and camptothecins are also plant derived anticancer agents. A novel peptide lunasin isolated initially from soya but also found in other cereals  also exhibit cancer preventive activities. ...
The present communication is a review on various integrative approaches for the cure of cancer with an involvement of modern methodology, the chemotherapy, radiation, Yoga, and use of herbal medicines. In general, the cancer is manageable as pre and post treatment management by the use of Yoga and herbal medicines. Various types of Yoga and Pranayama keeps the body free from ailments even the serious diseases like cancer. During chemo and radiation therapy of the cancer patient’s number of body disorders are reported, viz., giddiness, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue, etc. To manage these upcoming symptoms Yoga and herbal medicines play very vital role for the management of these disorders. On various literature survey from the world 42 medicinal plants were recorded to manage cancer disorders out of which Allium sativum, Curcuma longa, Coptis chinensis, Hemidesmus indicus, Pistacea integerrima, Tinospora cordifolia and Withania somnifera plays vital role as a preventive and post therapy management of cancer.
... Barley grass comprises 20 amino acids related to the production of energy, cell construction, and regeneration (Lahouar, El-Bok, & Achour, 2015). Barley grass powder has potential application as a functional food to improve diabetic and cancer health (Venugopal & Iyer, 2010). Consequently, barley can be a potential functional cancer-prevention food for the worldwide population. ...
Highland barley (Hordeum vulgare, Poaceae) contains wide-ranging nutrients, such as bioactive carbohydrates and polyphenols, minerals, vitamins, phenolic, flavonoids, and β-glucan. The unique composition of highland barley contributes to its various health benefits, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, antibacteria, antiobesity, antifatigue antiaging hyperglycaemia, and hyperlipidemia. Compared with various barley cultivars, highland barley contains higher amounts of bioactive components including β-glucan, thereby displaying greater efficiency in inhibiting/treating different disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, heart disease, and cancers. This review describes the present knowledge on the chemical composition of highland barley and their biofunctions as researched by both in vitro and in vivo models. The food-industry uses of highland barley are gaining research interest because of its large β-glucan content. Indeed, the health-food applications of highland barley are increasing. Highland barley can further be developed as a sustainable crop to enhance human health.
... Some of the suggested benefits include preventing and curing cancer, HIV infection treatment, lower cholesterol, detoxification of pollutants, protection against solar and other forms of radiation, and boosting energy and immunity (Kim et al. 2007;Paznocht et al. 2018). A barley seedling has a lot of nutritional and medicinal value: pungent smells, treatment for alcohol poisoning, and relief of extreme heat as well as yellow eye based on young barley juice, the removal of irritancy as well as benefits for the intestine based on barley grain juice, and improved color of seedling food (Venugopal and Iyer 2010;Paznocht et al. 2018). ...
Cereals, including barley, have been playing a key role in human diet for a long time. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of nanosilver (nAg) on limitation of infections, morphological features, and their chemical composition of young barley seedlings under in vitro condition. Addition of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 mg dm–3 nAg into MS medium was used. Obtained results showed that the effect on the morphological features depended on the nAg concentration. The addition of 6 and 8 mg dm–3 nAg into MS medium limited the number of infected barley embryos in vitro, whereas 4 and 8 mg dm–3 nAg resulted in the highest seedlings with the longest roots. nAg in the medium affected the colour of leaves and increased the contents of chlorophyll and β-carotene, in particular in seedlings growing in MS medium supplied with 6 mg dm–3 nAg. The addition of 8 mg dm–3 had the greatest effect on the contents of vitamin C and E in young barley seedlings. It was found that the contents of K and Ca in the young barley leaves were lower, as compared to control plants. The presence of 6 mg dm–3 nAg in the medium resulted in an increased contents of N, Mg, Zn, Cu, and P. Hence, a diversified effect of nAg on individual groups of polyphenolic compounds was noticed. The presence of 2 and 8 mg dm–3 nAg caused higher content values of polyphenolic compounds in young barley leaves (3) (PDF) Effect of nanosilver (nAg) on disinfection, growth, and chemical composition of young barley leaves under in vitro conditions.
... Furthermore, young green barley has a broad spectrum of health-promoting properties, such as antioxidant [8,9,10,12], anti-inflammatory [10,13], anti-depressant , hypoglycemic [15,16] and anti-atherosclerotic [17,18,19,20]. Barley seedlings also may inhibit differentiation of osteoclasts and bone-resorbing activity in all the stages of osteoclastogenesis . ...
Introduction and objective
Young green barley is the most valuable source of nutrients and bioactive substances. It has a broad spectrum of health-promoting properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, anti-depressant, anti-atherosclerotic and anticancer. The presented study is an attempt to extend this knowledge with particular emphasis on the possibility of using green barley in colon cancer prevention.
Material and methods
Extracts were prepared on the basis of two commercial products: ground dried barley grass (YGB INT) and powder of young green barley juice (YGB GW). Their influence on colon epithelial cells (CCD841 CoN) viability and proliferation were analyzed by LDH and MTT assays. Anticancer properties of extracts were screened on colon cancer cell lines (LS180, HT-29) by MTT and BrdU assays. Changes in cells morphology induced by extracts were investigated after May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining.
Tested extracts were not toxic against CCD841 CoN and did not affected their proliferation or morphology (LDH test, MTT test, microscopy observation). The MTT revealed that extracts significantly inhibited proliferation of colon cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Results of BrdU test confirmed antiproliferative properties of extracts, but opposite to MTT test, indicated YGB GW as a better anticancer agent. Light microscopy observation proved the data obtained from both MTT and BrdU tests and additionally suggested the ability of the extracts to induce necrosis in LS180 and HT-29 cells.
The study demonstrated that YGB extracts specifically inhibit proliferation of colon cancer cells without any undesirable effect on colon epithelial cells. Obtained results will provide a rationele for the future development of dietary
supplements which could be beneficial in colon cancer chemoprevention.
... Saponarin in BG can control the postprandial blood glucose of diabetes . Barley grass powder (1.2 g/day) within two months can significantly reduce fasting blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, but significantly increase the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels . Hexacosanol in barley leaf can improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis . ...
Barley grass powder is the best functional food that provides nutrition and eliminates toxins from cells in human beings; however, its functional ingredients have played an important role as health benefit. In order to better cognize the preventive and therapeutic role of barley grass for chronic diseases, we carried out the systematic strategies for functional ingredients of barley grass, based on the comprehensive databases, especially the PubMed, Baidu, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI, between 2008 and 2017. Barley grass is rich in functional ingredients, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), flavonoids, saponarin, lutonarin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), K, Ca, Se, tryptophan, chlorophyll, vitamins (A, B1, C, and E), dietary fiber, polysaccharide, alkaloid, metallothioneins, and polyphenols. Barley grass promotes sleep; has antidiabetic effect; regulates blood pressure; enhances immunity; protects liver; has anti-acne/detoxifying and antidepressant effects; improves gastrointestinal function; has anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antigout effects; reduces hyperuricemia; prevents hypoxia, cardiovascular diseases, fatigue, and constipation; alleviates atopic dermatitis; is a calcium supplement; improves cognition; and so on. These results support that barley grass may be one of the best functional foods for preventive chronic diseases and the best raw material of modern diet structure in promoting the development of large health industry and further reveal that GABA, flavonoids, SOD, K-Ca, vitamins, and tryptophan mechanism of barley grass have preventive and therapeutic role for chronic diseases. This paper can be used as a scientific evidence for developing functional foods and novel drugs for barley grass for preventive chronic diseases.
... The Near East Fertile Crescent is not only one of the earliest domestication of crop in the world, but also the center of origin and diversity of wild wheat and barley , the cradle for human civilization. Barley grass powder is a remarkable decrease in fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but a remarkable increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels . The diet of Theropithecus for a common large-bodied primate was making up of grasses or sedges, which occurred with hominins in East and South Africa . ...
... On the other hand, nutraceutical compounds in many natural functional foods, such as red yeast rice, black cohosh, red ginseng and red clover (Dog, 2005; Geller & Studee, 2005; Leach & Moore, 2012; Lipovac et al., 2012; Kim et al., 2012), have been proposed to exert holistic health benefits, particularly with regard to cardiovascular, metabolic, and oncogenic events. At the same time, intervention with plant products, such as barley grass powder (Horduem vulgare) and Panchratna juice (containing Ocimum sanctum, Emblica officinalis, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha spicata), have shown hypolipidemic effects in diabetic subjects (Iyer et al., 2010; Venugopal & Iyer, 2010). One such plant substance that has been hypothesized to contain a plethora of nutraceutical polyphenols, mucopolysacccharides, vitamins, antioxidant enzymes, and generous amounts of antioxidant pigments, is wheatgrass or Triticum aestivum L. (Rana, Kamboj, & Gandhi, 2011). ...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum L.) on atherogenic lipoproteins, inflammation, and menopausal symptoms.
Fifty-nine hyperlipidemic women were randomized into control (n = 30) and intervention groups (n = 29). Intervention group was administered 3.5 g of freeze-dried wheatgrass powder in encapsulated form daily for 10 weeks, while the control group received no intervention.
The intervention group experienced a reduction of 5.4% in total cholesterol (TC), 4.4% in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and 9.5% in triacylglycerols (TAG); however, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) also reduced by 6% following 10 weeks of intervention. Compared with the control group, the baseline-adjusted post-intervention levels of TC, TAG, and Apolipoprotein B (Apo B) were significantly lower in the experimental group compared with the control group (p = 0.043, 0.045, and 0.016, respectively). Prevalence of menopausal symptoms saw nonsignificant reductions: vasomotor, 42%; somatic, 33%; and psychological, 50%, while urogenital symptoms remained unaltered.
Wheatgrass supplementation at a dose of 3.5 g per day for a period of 10 weeks results in significant reductions in Apo B fraction, TC, and TAG without significantly reducing the HDL cholesterol.
... In barley leaves, flavonoids are the major antioxidants which have strong free radical scavenging activity, anti-lipid oxidation activity (Cook and Samman, 1996), and may have the potential to inhibit platelet aggregation, lower low density lipoprotein (LDL), and protect the cardiovascular function (Formica and Regelson, 1995). In addition, young barley leaves have been reported to possess other physiological and pharmacological activities including antidepressant (Yamaura et al., 2012), hypoglycemic (Venugopal and Iyer, 2010) and hypolipidemic (Yu et al., 2002) activities. Therefore, young barley leaves have the potential to be developed as functional foods/nutraceuticals. ...
A central composite design combined with response surface methodology was utilized to optimise microwave-assisted extraction of flavonoids from young barley leaves. The results showed that using water as solvent, the optimum conditions of microwave-assisted extraction were extracted twice at 1.27 W g⁻¹ microwave power and liquid-solid ratio 34.02 ml g⁻¹ for 11.12 min. The maximum extraction yield of flavonoids (rutin equivalents) was 80.78±0.52%. Compared with conventional extraction method, the microwave-assisted extraction was more efficient as the extraction time was only 6.18% of conventional extraction, but the extraction yield of flavonoids was increased by 5.47%. The main flavonoid components from the young barley leaf extract were probably 33.36% of isoorientin-7-O-glueoside and 54.17% of isovitexin-7-O-glucoside, based on the HPLC-MS analysis. The barley leaf extract exhibited strong reducing power as well as the DPPH radical scavenging capacity.
... Barley grass powder: Supplementation with barley grass powder (BGP) resulted in a significant decrease in fasting blood sugar, glaciated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (Venugopal and Iyer, 2010). The barley seedlings (0.5, 1g/ml) dropped blood glucose significantly on the model of DM inducted by alloxan (p<0.01) and the drop rate of blood glucose are 36.76 ...
Diabetes is the most important modifiable risk factor for life-threatening diseases. The following conclusions were drawn on the basis of the analysis of different factors: (1) Main reasons for the prevalence of diabetes in China are low dietary fiber, unhealthy life-style, obesity, and genetic factors. (2) All factors that cause diabetes are linked to dietary factors, especially the loss of functional components from brown rice (whole grains) to white rice (wheat flour) especially good rice (wheat flour) for diet is a major factors that cause diabetes. Since the diabetes has become the major public health problem in China strategies aimed at its prevention and treatment are needed. (3) Functional food for dietary uses is the key for diabetes prevention in China, including whole grains foods (brown rice, wheat flour of whole grains, barley, buckwheat, oats and others) as well as functional rice with high resistant starch for dietary purpose. (4) There are a lot of challenges to promote functional foods with whole grains or high resistant starch in China. Our goal is to establish one research center of functional foods with members from the manufacturers, breeding scientists, education, medical and news media, to promote functional foods.
... Salrok and consumption of barley could play an important role of cancer prevention in barley-consuming populations (Jeong and Jeong, 2010). Barley grass powder holds promise to be used as a functional food to optimise the health of diabetic and cancer subjects (Venugopal and Iyer, 2010). Therefore, barley has the potential functional food on cancer prevention for the global population. ...
Functional food for prevention of chronic diseases is one of this century's key global challenges. Cancer is not only the first or second leading cause of death in China and other countries across the world, but also has diet as one of the most important modifiable risk factors. Major dietary factors now known to promote cancer development are polished grain foods and low intake of fresh vegetables, with general importance for an unhealthy lifestyle and obesity. The strategies of cancer prevention in human being are increased consumption of functional foods like whole grains (brown rice, barley, and buckwheat) and by-products, as well some vegetables (bitter melon, garlic, onions, broccoli, and cabbage) and mushrooms (boletes and Tricholoma matsutake). In addition some beverages (green tea and coffee) may be protective. Southwest China (especially Yunnan Province) is a geographical area where functional crop production is closely related to the origins of human evolution with implications for anticancer influence.
The present research study was designed for the development of functional drinks from wheat and barley grasses followed by their physicochemical and sensorial characterization. In 1st phase, wheatgrass and barley grass juices were prepared with different concentrations and were subjected for physicochemical analysis and sensorial evaluation. Moreover, these juices were analyzed for color indices, pH, acidity, and total soluble solids (TSS) during storage study at 0, 2, 4, and 6 days. Results showed that TSS and pH of juices were 1.321, 2.8900, 3.100, and 6.225, 6.032, 6.491 for T0, T1, and T2, respectively, whereas a slight decreasing trend in acidity was observed during storage. Furthermore, treatments and storage (days) showed nonsignificant effect on these traits; however, storage affected significantly except for a* value for color indices. Conclusively, with respect to sensory aspects, the cereal grass juices showed satisfactory indexes of acceptability and promising marketing potential. The current article elucidate about health benefits of cereal grasses such as anti‐anemic perspectives. Cereal grasses juices contain higher amount of iron content.
Medicinal plants have played a major role as a functional food and pharmacological source of active substances. Barley grass (BG) is young green barley leaves. It is the young grass of the common barley plant Hordeum vulgare L of the family Poeaceae (Graminae). It is a type of green grasses, and the only vegetation on the earth that can supply sole nutritional support from birth to old age. It contains a wide spectrum of vitamins, minerals, as well as eight essential amino acids that we must get from our diets. BG possesses several pharmacological activities as anticancer activity, anti-oxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity. It has been argued that BG helps blood flow, digestion and general detoxification of the body. The major pharmacologic interest of BG is its use in the treatment of chronic diseases. The beneficial effects observed in chronic disease may be related to bioactive compounds contained in BG such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and bioflavonoids (lutonarin and saponarin). Thus, this paper is focused on the various studies that emphasize the therapeutic potential of BG in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases.
The antioxidative and hypolipidemic effects of barley leaf essence (BL) were investigated in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. Twenty-four New Zealand White male rabbits were assigned randomly into four dietary groups. The normal group was fed regular rabbit chow and the control group was fed a chow containing 0.5% cholesterol and 10% corn oil. The BL group and the probucol group were fed the same diet as the control group plus 1% (w/w) BL or 1% (w/w) probucol, respectively. The plasma levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, lucigenin-chemiluminescence (CL) and luminol-CL were increased in the control group compared to the normal group; and they were decreased in the BL group and the probucol group compared to the control group. The value of T50 of red blood cell hemolysis and the lag phase of low-density lipoprotein oxidation increased in the BL group and in the probucol group compared to the controls. Ninety percent of the intimal surface of the thoracic aorta was covered with atherosclerotic lesions in the control group, but only 60% of the surface was covered in the BL group. This 30% inhibition of hyperlipidemic atherosclerosis by BL was associated with a decrease in plasma lipids and an increase in antioxidative abilities (as measured by T50, lag phase and CL). These results suggest that the antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of BL could be useful in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in which atherosclerosis is important.
Several papers have appeared in the literature since 1992 which refer to a major "isoflavonoid" antioxidant in young green barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare) as 2''-O-glucosylisovitexin. In the present paper the original NMR data supporting this structural assignment are examined and found to have been misinterpreted. HPLC and NMR data are used to prove that the major flavonoid antioxidants in young green barley leaves are in fact the flavone-C-glycosides, saponarin and lutonarin.
Proanthocyanidins derived from cacao (CLP) have various antipathophysiological functions. We have tested whether dietary supplementation with CLP prevents cataract formation in rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ), using histological, histochemical, and biochemical analyses. Starting at 7 days after the streptozotocin challenge, the animals were fed either a normal diet or a diet containing 0.5% w/w CLP over 10 weeks. There were no significant differences in plasma and urine glucose concentrations, plasma fructose amines, and plasma thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) between the two dietary groups. Antioxidant status as assessed by measuring lipid peroxide production in plasma in response to azocompounds was lower in the STZ-rats fed control diet than in animals fed CLP. Opacity was first detected in the lenses of the control dietary group 5 weeks after STZ injection and cataracts had developed in the majority of these animals by 10 weeks. These changes were rarely seen in the STZ/CLP diet group. Histological examinations of the eyes of the STZ-treated normal diet group revealed focal hyperplasia of the lens epithelium and liquefaction of cortical fibers. There were similar but considerably less severe changes in the animals fed CLP. Hydroxynonenal (HNE), a marker of oxidative stress, was detected immunohistochemically in the lenses of the STZ-treated normal diet group, but not of those receiving CLP. Our findings suggest that CLP inhibits diabetes-induced cataract formation possibly by virtue of its antioxidative activity.
India leads the world with largest number of diabetic subjects earning the dubious distinction of being termed the "diabetes capital of the world". According to the Diabetes Atlas 2006 published by the International Diabetes Federation, the number of people with diabetes in India currently around 40.9 million is expected to rise to 69.9 million by 2025 unless urgent preventive steps are taken. The so called "Asian Indian Phenotype" refers to certain unique clinical and biochemical abnormalities in Indians which include increased insulin resistance, greater abdominal adiposity i.e., higher waist circumference despite lower body mass index, lower adiponectin and higher high sensitive C-reactive protein levels. This phenotype makes Asian Indians more prone to diabetes and premature coronary artery disease. At least a part of this is due to genetic factors. However, the primary driver of the epidemic of diabetes is the rapid epidemiological transition associated with changes in dietary patterns and decreased physical activity as evident from the higher prevalence of diabetes in the urban population. Even though the prevalence of microvascular complications of diabetes like retinopathy and nephropathy are comparatively lower in Indians, the prevalence of premature coronary artery disease is much higher in Indians compared to other ethnic groups. The most disturbing trend is the shift in age of onset of diabetes to a younger age in the recent years. This could have long lasting adverse effects on nation's health and economy. Early identification of at-risk individuals using simple screening tools like the Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS) and appropriate lifestyle intervention would greatly help in preventing or postponing the onset of diabetes and thus reducing the burden on the community and the nation as a whole.
Forty hyperlipidemic patients, smokers and non-smokers, were studied. Subjects received 15 g young barley leaf extract (BL) or 60 g adlay daily for four weeks. Overnight fasting blood samples were drawn immediately prior to and after four weeks of supplementation. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma lipid profiles and their susceptibility to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. The plasma total and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were reduced following treatment with either BL or adlay; furthermore, the lag phase of LDL oxidation increased after either supplementation. However, it seemed that BL had stronger antioxidative effect on the prevention of LDL oxidation than adlay. Our results also indicated that the antioxidative effect was less pronounced in smokers than in non-smokers. Therefore, supplementation with BL or adlay can decrease plasma lipids and inhibit LDL oxidation in hyperlipidemic smokers and/or non-smokers.
Both epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed that intake of wine, particularly red wine, in moderation protects cardiovascular health; however, the experimental basis for such an action is not fully understood. Because all types of red wine contain varying amounts of alcohol and antioxidants, it is likely that the cardioprotective effect of red wine is due to both these constituents. In view of its direct action on the vascular smooth muscle cells, alcohol may produce coronary vasodilation in addition to attenuating oxidative stress by its action on the central nervous system. The antioxidant components of red wine may provide cardioprotection by their ability to reduce oxidative stress in the heart under different pathological conditions. Mild-to-moderate red wine consumption improves cardiac function in the ischemic myocardium through the protection of endothelial function, the expression of several cardioprotective oxidative stress-inducible proteins, as well as the activation of adenosine receptors and nitrous oxide synthase mechanisms.
The effects of supplementation of young barley leaf extract (BL) and/or antioxidative vitamins C and E on different low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfractions susceptibility to oxidation and free radical scavenging activities in patients with type 2 diabetes were evaluated.
Thirty-six type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled in this study. The subjects received one of the following supplements daily for 4 weeks: 15 g BL, 200 mg vitamin C and 200 mg vitamin E (CE), or BL plus CE (BL + CE).
The lucigenin-chemiluminescence (CL) and luminol-CL levels in blood were significantly reduced in all groups. Vitamin E content of LDL subfractions increased significantly following supplements, especially for BL + CE group. The percent increase of lag times in the BL + CE was significantly higher than those in the BL or CE group. The antioxidative effect of BL + CE was the greatest for small, dense LDL (Sd-LDL) with further increases in percentage of lag times 4 folds compared to BL alone.
Our results indicate that supplementation with BL may help to scavenge oxygen free radicals, save the LDL-vitamin E content, and inhibit LDL oxidation. Furthermore, the addition of vitamins C and E to BL can inhibit the Sd-LDL oxidation more effectively, which may protect against vascular diseases in type 2 diabetic patients.
The plant sterol, beta-sitosterol, has been administered to nine subjects on unrestricted diet. A sustained reduction of serum total cholesterol and a lowering of the ratio of cholesterol to lipid phosphorus occurred. Interference by sitosterol with the absorption of cholesterol, both dietary and that excreted into the gastrointestinal tract, is presumably responsible for this hypocholesterolemic effect. No toxic or undesirable side effects were observed. A means of studying the effects of a sustained lowering of serum cholesterol on atherosclerotic states would now seem to be available.
Natural plant flavonoids, saponarin/lutonarin=4.5/1, isolated from young green barley leaves were examined for their antioxidant activity using cod liver oil, omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, and blood plasma. The saponarin/lutonarin (S/L) mixture inhibited malonaldehyde (MA) formation from cod liver oil by 76.47+/-0.11% at a level of 1 micromol and 85.88+/-0.12% at a level of 8 micromol. The S/L mixture inhibited MA formation from the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by 45.60+/-1.08 and 69.24+/-0.24%, respectively, at a level of 8 micromol. The S/L mixture inhibited MA formation from the phospholipids lecithin I and II by 43.08+/-0.72 and 69.16+/-2.92%, respectively, at a level of 8 micromol. It also inhibited MA formation from blood plasma by 62.20+/-0.11% at a level of 8 micromol. The antioxidant activities obtained from the S/L mixture were comparable to those obtained from alpha-tocopherol and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) in all lipids tested.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the promising potential of polymers and oligomers from proanthocyanidins of persimmon peel as antioxidants and therapeutic agents for diabetes. Both polymers and oligomers showed the scavenging effect of 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl, with IC50 values of 4.35 and 2.41 microg/mL, respectively, and they also showed a protective activity against protein oxidation induced by 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride. In particular, oligomers exerted a stronger activity against free radicals than polymers. In addition, to investigate their protective potential against diabetes-related pathological conditions, their inhibitory activities on digestive enzymes and advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) formation were evaluated. Polymers showed a strong inhibitory activity against alpha-amylase, while oligomers had a relatively weak effect. This suggests that the inhibition of alpha-amylase activity would probably depend on the degree of polymerization. On the other hand, against alpha-glucosidase activity and AGE formation, oligomers exerted a stronger protective effect than polymers. The present study suggests that polymers and oligomers from proanthocyanidins of persimmon peel could play a role as antidiabetic agents with antioxidative effects. Moreover, oligomers rather than polymers from proanthocyanidins of persimmon peel may be expected to be a more promising antioxidative and antidiabetic agent in relation to utilization in biological systems.