Percutaneous absorption of haloacetonitriles and chloral hydrate and simulated human exposures

Joint Graduate Program in Exposure Science, Rutgers University, Graduate School of New Brunswick and UMDNJ, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.
Journal of Applied Toxicology (Impact Factor: 2.98). 06/2012; 32(6):387-94. DOI: 10.1002/jat.1657
Source: PubMed


Disinfection-by-products (DBPs) have long been a human health concern and many are known carcinogens and teratogens. Skin is exposed to DBPs in water through bathing and swimming; however, dermal uptake of many DBPs has not been characterized. The present studies were initiated to measure the permeation coefficients (K(p) ) for haloacetonitriles (HANs) and chloral hydrate (CH), important cytotoxic DBPs. The K(p) values measured using fully hydrated dermatomed torso skin at 37 °C for the HANs ranged from 0.099 to 0.17 cm h⁻¹, and was 0.0039 cm h⁻¹ for CH. Of the HANs, dibromoacetonitrile had the highest permeability while chloroacetonitrile had the lowest permeability and a direct relationship was observed between their K(p) and their octanol/water partition coefficients (K(ow) ). The K(p) values of the HANs were also approximately 30 times that of CH. The monthly dermal and ingestion doses of HANs and CH of an average American population were estimated using Monte Carlo simulations. The dermal doses of HANs from showering and bathing ranged from 0.39 to 0.78 times their ingestion doses but only approximately 0.02 times their ingestion doses for CH, assuming that the K(p) values determined are applicable to shorter water contact times. However, that ratio can vary markedly with chlorinated swimming pool exposures, with a range of 0.30-2.3 for HANs and 0.19-0.25 for CH. Dermal exposure to HANs and CH seems to be a significant route of exposure and should be considered when evaluating their total exposure during the routine usage of water for bathing and swimming.

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Available from: Clifford Weisel, Jun 03, 2014
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    • "However, levels of brominated DBPs can be higher than chlorinated DBPs when bromide is present in raw water. Human exposure to DBPs occurs in mixtures, and among other factors, the internal dose differs by exposure route (Xu and Weisel, 2003, 2005; Xu et al., 2002; Trabaris et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Although disinfection by-products (DBPs) occur in complex mixtures, studies evaluating health risks have been focused in few chemicals. In the framework of an epidemiological study on cancer in 11 Spanish provinces, we describe the concentration of four trihalomethanes (THMs), nine haloacetic acids (HAA), 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), four haloacetonitries, two haloketones, chloropicrin and chloral hydrate and estimate correlations. A total of 233 tap water samples were collected in 2010. Principal component analyses were conducted to reduce dimensionality of DBPs. Overall median (range) level of THMs and HAAs was 26.4 (0.8-98.1) and 26.4 (0.9-86.9) μg/l, respectively (N=217). MX analysed in a subset (N=36) showed a median (range) concentration of 16.7 (0.8-54.1)ng/l. Haloacetonitries, haloketones, chloropicrin and chloral hydrate were analysed in a subset (N=16), showing levels from unquantifiable (<1 μg/l) to 5.5 μg/l (dibromoacetonitrile). Spearman rank correlation coefficients between DBPs varied between species and across areas, being highest between dibromochloromethane and dibromochloroacetic acid (r(s)=0.87). Principal component analyses of 13 DBPs (4 THMs, 9 HAAs) led 3 components explaining more than 80% of variance. In conclusion, THMs and HAAs have limited value as predictors of other DBPs on a generalised basis. Principal component analysis provides a complementary tool to address the complex nature of the mixture.
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    ABSTRACT: Dermal exposure has been recognized as an important contributor to the total internal dose to disinfection-by-products (DBPs) in water. However, the effect of the use of surfactants, water temperature and area of the body exposed to DBPs on their dermal flux has not been characterized and was the focus of the present study using an in-vitro system. The dermal flux of mg/l concentrations of haloacetonitriles and chloral hydrate (CH), important cytotoxic DBPs, increased by approximately 50% to 170% with increasing temperature from 25 °C to 40 °C. The fluxes for the torso and dorsum of the hand were much higher than that of palm and scalp skin. An increase in flux was observed for chloroacetonitrite and dichloroacetonitrile, two less lipophilic HANs, but not for trichloroacetonitrile or CH, with the addition of 2% sodium lauryl sulfate or 2% sodium laureth sulfate, two surfactants commonly used in soaps and shampoos used in showering and bathing. Thus, factors such as temperature, surfactants and skin location affect dermal penetration and should be considered when evaluating dermal absorption.
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    ABSTRACT: Haloacetonitriles (HANs) are a chemical class of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that form from reactions between disinfectants and nitrogen-containing precursors, the latter more prevalent in water sources impacted by algae bloom and municipal wastewater effluent discharge. HANs, previously demonstrated to be genotoxic, were investigated for their effects in mammalian cell cycle. Treating Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with monoHANs followed by the release from the chemical treatment resulted in accumulation of abnormally high DNA content in cells over time (hyperploid). The potency for the cell cycle alteration followed the order: iodoacetonitrile (IAN) > bromoacetonitrile (BAN) > chloroacetonitrile (CAN). Exposure to 6 µM IAN, 12 µM BAN and 900 µM CAN after 26 h post-treatment incubation resulted in DNA repair; however, subsequent cell cycle alteration effects were observed. Cell proliferation of HAN-treated cells was suppressed for as long as 43 to 52 h. Enlarged cell size was observed after 52 h post-treatment incubation without the induction of cytotoxicity. The HAN-mediated cell cycle alteration was mitosis- and proliferation-dependent, which suggests that HAN treatment induced mitosis override, and that HAN-treated cells proceeded into S phase and directly into the next cell cycle. Cells with multiples genomes would result in aneuploidy (state of abnormal chromosome number and DNA content) at the next mitosis since extra centrosomes could compromise the assembly of bipolar spindles. There is accumulating evidence of transient tetraploid state proceeding to aneuploidy in cancer progression. Biological self-defense systems to ensure genomic stability and to eliminate tetraploid cells exist in eukaryotic cells. A key tumor suppressor gene, p53, is often times mutated in various types of human cancer. It is possible that HAN disruption of the normal cell cycle and the generation of aberrant cells with an abnormal number of chromosomes may contribute to cancer induction and perhaps be involved in the induction of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with long-term consumption of disinfected water. Here we present the first observation of the induction of hyperploidy by a class of DBPs.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Environmental Science and Technology