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Decreased Intensity of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection in Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane Under Influence of Ultradiluted Belladonna Extract

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Problem statement: No specific antiviral therapy is currently available despite an emergence and resurgence of Japanese encephalitis in South-East Asian Countries. There are only few recent studies, which were aimed to treat Japanese encephalitis with newer drugs. There is thus a real need for study on antiviral agents that can reduce the toll of death and neurological sequelae resulting from infection with this virus. Approach: Optimum dilution of the JE virus was determined which could produce significant number of pocks on Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM). Then ultradiluted belladonna preparations were used to see their inhibitory action on JE virus infection in CAM. Results: Ultradiluted belladonna showed significantly decreased pock count in CAM in comparison to JE virus control. Conclusion: Ultradiluted belladonna could inhibit JE virus infection in CAM, which may be mediated through glycosidase inhibitory role of calystegines present in belladonna.
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American Journal of Infectious Diseases 6 (2): 24-28, 2010
ISSN 1553-6203
© 2010 Science Publications
Corresponding Author: Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay, Department of Microbiology, Virology Unit, School of Tropical Medicine,
Kolkata-700073, India
24
Decreased Intensity of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection in Chick
Chorioallantoic Membrane Under Influence of Ultradiluted Belladonna Extract
1
Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay,
2
Satadal Das,
1
Milan Sengupta,
3
Chandan Saha,
4
Kartick Chandra Das,
4
Debabrata Sarkar
and
5
Chaturbhuj Nayak
1
Department of Microbiology, Virology Unit, School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata-700073, India
2
Department of Pathology and Microbiology, D.N. De H. Medical College,
West Bengal University of Health Sciences, Kolkata-700046, India
3
Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology,
School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata-700073, India
4
Drug Proving Research Centre, CCRH, Government of India,
Kolkata-700 046, India
5
Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health, CCRH, Government of India, JLN Anudandhan Bhawan,
61-65 Intitutional Area, Janakpuri, New Delhi 110058
Abstract: Problem statement: No specific antiviral therapy is currently available despite an
emergence and resurgence of Japanese encephalitis in South-East Asian Countries. There are only few
recent studies, which were aimed to treat Japanese encephalitis with newer drugs. There is thus a real
need for study on antiviral agents that can reduce the toll of death and neurological sequelae resulting
from infection with this virus. Approach: Optimum dilution of the JE virus was determined which
could produce significant number of pocks on Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM). Then ultradiluted
belladonna preparations were used to see their inhibitory action on JE virus infection in CAM.
Results: Ultradiluted belladonna showed significantly decreased pock count in CAM in comparison to
JE virus control. Conclusion: Ultradiluted belladonna could inhibit JE virus infection in CAM, which
may be mediated through glycosidase inhibitory role of calystegines present in belladonna.
Key words: Japanese Encephalitis (JE), Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM), pock, belladonna
INTRODUCTION
Neglect of the basic requirements of health; poor
political support for health; a weak public health
capacity; centralized programs for control based on
selective interventions and poorly-planned development
projects have created conditions ideal for the outbreak
of JE like diseases (Bhargava and Chatterjee, 2007). A
good community awareness of encephalitis, a prompt
referral system and a good supportive treatment for the
patients and a good surveillance system was found to
help in the reduction in cases, deaths and disabilities
due to this disease (Gupta et al., 2008). Approximately
2 billion people live in countries where JE presents a
significant risk to humans and animals, particularly in
China and India, with at least 700 million potentially
susceptible children (Gould et al., 2008). In Southeast
Asia around 50.000 cases and 10.000 deaths occur per
year affecting essentially children below 10 years of
age. Further threats to humanity are there because the
JE virus has shown a tendency to extend to other
geographic areas. The combined effects of climate
change, altered bird migratory patterns, increasing
movement of humans, animals and goods, increasing
deforestation and development of irrigation projects
will also help this geographic dispersal of the virus
producing an enhanced threat. The disease is also
highly prevalent in animals. In Nepal, sero-
prevalence of JE in pigs, ducks and horses was
48.11, 26.79 and 50.0%, respectively (Pant, 2006).
At present in Nepal JE is seasonally endemic to the
Terai region (Wierzba et al., 2008) and in Kathmandu
valley (Partridge et al., 2007) affecting population of
both lowland plains as well as the hilly regions.
Phylogenetic analysis showed that JE isolates in India
belonged to genogroup 3 (Parida et al., 2005).
Belladonna or Atropa belladonna (deadly
nightshade)-the source of the drug atropine belong to
Am. J. Infect. Dis., 6 (2): 24-28, 2010
25
genus Atropa along with two other species (Hunziker,
2001). Although the phylogenetic affinity of Atropa to
Hyoscyameae has been controversial for over a century
(Hunziker, 2001), however, in a recent study this
affinity was conclusively proved (Yuan et al., 2006).
The plant Atropa belladonna is surrounded by myth,
fear and awe. That this plant contains poison is known
from the ancient Greek and Roman civilization to
medieval witches, professional poisoners, sorcerors and
ultimately in 1830s atropine was isolated from the plant
(Lee, 2007). Atropa belladonna is rich in tropane
alkaloids, primarily atropine and scopolamine
(Talaty et al., 2005).
Roots are the major organs of tropane alkaloid
biosynthesis and after their formation in roots, tropane
alkaloids are transported to the aerial parts of the plant.
Putrescine N-Methyltransferase (PMT) is the pivotal
enzyme for the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids. The
PMT cDNAs were cloned from A. belladonna and were
found to encode a protein homologous to spermidine
synthases indicating the evolutionary origin of PMT
from spermidine synthase. In A. belladonna, PMT is
located in pericycle and xylem cells of the root. Root
cultures of A. belladonna form the tropine derived
alkaloids hyoscyamine, scopolamine and calystegines.
While hyoscyamine and scopolamine are also found in
other related species to A. belladonna, thus calystegines
appear to be the key agent which is present in high
concentration to A. belladonna only and thus
differentiates biological activities of belladonna from
other related plants. The biosynthetic pathway of
tropane alkaloids is very complex. Putrescine first
converted into N-methyl putrescine by PMT. N-methyl
putrescine yields tropinone. In tropinone I pathway
tropinone is converted to tropine, tropine is converted
to hyoscyamine and finally converted to scopolamine
by the action of hyoscyamine-6-hydroxylase. In the
relatively less investigated tropinone II pathway at first
there is formation of pseudotropine, which is then
converted to calystegine.
Although most human infections are mild or
asymptomatic, about 50% of patients who develop
Japanese encephalitis suffer permanent neurologic
defects and 30% of them die due to the disease
(Babu et al., 2006).
Vaccines for JE have been available for many years
and their use has been effective in reducing the incidence
of JE disease in several countries (Diagana et al., 2007)
but, as disease incidence has decreased, concerns
regarding adverse events following immunisation have
increased (Beasley et al., 2008). Childhood mass
immunization programs with first generation, mouse
brain-derived vaccines showed occurrence of severe
side effects in Japan.
No specific antiviral therapy is currently available
(Gould et al., 2008) despite an emergence and
resurgence of flavivirus-mediated diseases (Ray and
Shi, 2006). There are few recent studies, which were
aimed to treat JE with new drugs. A plant lignan
arctigenin was found to reduce viral load and viral
replication within the brain, neuronal death and
secondary inflammation and oxidative stress resulting
from microglial activation, suggesting its potential for
treating JE, however, unless it is tested in human beings
it can not be used in treatment of JE (Swarup et al.,
2008). Similarly, Interferon alpha-2a was tested in
children with JE, but with negative results. There is
thus a real need for antivirals that can reduce the toll of
death and neurological sequelae resulting from
infection with JE virus (Gould et al., 2008). Therefore,
this study was aimed to see whether ultradiluted
belladonna has a role in this infection.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Ultradiluted belladonna: For the study we selected
Ultradiluted Belladonna 3,6,30,200. These medicines
were included in this study because they are claimed by
practitioners and researchers of alternative medicine to
have a positive role in the treatment and prevention in
Japanese Encephalitis (JE). All these medicines were
available commercially and were prepared according to
standard procedures advocated by homeopathic
pharmacopoeia of India (Ministry of Health,
Government of India, 1971, 1:1, 7-16, 72).
Procurement of ultradiluted belladonna for this
study: Medicines were reconstituted in sterile pyrogen
free water immediately before their applications after
complete elimination of alcohol.
The aqueous dilution of Belladonna (3, 6, 30, 200)
was prepared and procured from reputed Homeopathic
drug company, Hahnemann Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd
(HAPCO), Kolkata.
Virus stock: JE virus stock (Nakayama strain), which
is maintained in School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata,
was used in this study.
Embryonated chick egg inoculations: For preventive
studies one dose (50 µL) of aqueous dilution of each
selected medicine was inoculated in the chorioallantoic
membrane followed by the administration of 50 µL of
the JE viral suspension, 5-10 min later. The chorio
allantoic membrane consists of an outer layer of stratified
epithelium, which constitutes the respiratory surface of
the embryonated egg and an inner layer of endoderm (the
lining of the allantoic cavity).
Dermotropic viruses (poxviruses and some herpes
viruses) and JE viruses grow on this membrane and at
Am. J. Infect. Dis., 6 (2): 24-28, 2010
26
low concentrations, they produce discrete foci of cell
proliferation and necrosis (pocks). The membrane was
therefore used to assay JE viruses in this study.
Different viruses cause pocks of different color and
morphology and this is also of diagnostic value for
distinguishing between different viruses. One-day-old
fertile hen’s (White leghorn) eggs were obtained from
State Poultry Farm of Govt. of West Bengal,
Tollygunge, Kolkata. They were collected from healthy
flocks, which were maintained on a well balanced and
antibiotic free diet. The eggs were incubated at 37°C
within a special egg incubator with 65% humidity.
On the 12th day eggs were candled with the help of
an illuminator in a dark room to check viability,
movements of embryos and the area of the blood vessels
was defined. The air space was marked on the eggshell
with a pencil and a point was selected on CAM avoiding
injury of large blood vessels. The air space was
punctured with a pointed end of hand punch. The shell
was also punctured after clearing with a sterile cotton
swab on the marked spot over the CAM, using the hand
punch with slight rotatory motion, avoiding injury to the
shell membrane. The shell dust was blown away with
capillary pipette. A drop of sterile normal saline was
placed over the inoculation site. The tip of the blunt
instrument was inserted through the drop of saline. This
tore the cell membrane and the drop of fluid was sucked
inside as the CAM fell away creating a new air space.
Slight suction with a rubber teat over the hole at the blunt
end of the egg was applied to have a complete dropping
of the membrane confirmed by candling.
The inoculum was deposited into the CAM with
the help of tuberculin syringe and the inoculated egg
was rotated to facilitate the dispersion of the inoculum.
The hole in the air sac was sealed and the inoculated
eggs were incubated at 37°C for 48 h in a horizontal
position. After 48 hours the shell over the false air sac
was painted with tincture Iodine and the shell
membrane was broken with a blunt forceps for
maximum exposure of the CAM. The membrane was
cut out with a sterile pair of scissors and placed in a
Petri dish for further examination.
Control study: Japanese encephalitis virus (50 µL) in
the same concentration (10
3
) in bovine albumin
phosphate saline pH 7.20 mixed with equal volume
(50 µL) of sterile pyrogen free distilled water was also
inoculated on chorioallantoic membrane. The pock
count of this control virus study was considered as
baseline data and any deviation from this baseline was
noted after application of different medicines in the test
series. An initial experiment was also done with
different concentrations of viruses to find out the
dilution which gave the maximum number of pocks on
CAM (optimum dilution). If during the study, there was
death of the inoculated eggs or membranes were not
found properly the data of that lot were excluded.
Apart from this virus control experiment, similar
control studies were also done with all the medicines
without the virus in equal dilutions with water. Control
studies were also performed with Bovine albumin in
phosphate saline pH 7.2 and potentised distilled water
and studied similarly as viral dilutions.
Observation of growths on CAM: Inoculated CAMs
were observed after 48 h of inoculation particularly to
see the formation of pocks and other associated changes
on CAM.
RESULTS
Optimum dilution of the JE virus was studied first
which can produce significant number of pocks on
CAM with different concentrations of the virus-Neat
(10% infected brain suspension), 10
1
, 10
2
, 10
3
,10
4
,
10
5
, along with control (buffer solution without the
virus). The results showed that 10
3
dilutions showed
maximum pock count and thus this optimum
concentration was used throughout the experiment.
Results of different experiments with Belladonna 3,
6, 30, 200 are given in Table 1, Fig. 1 and 2. Control
studies with different medicines without virus and
bovine albumin phosphate saline showed no significant
findings on CAM. The results showed significantly
decreased pock count when JE virus infection on CAM
was challenged with belladonna.
Table 1: Changes in pock count on CAM with ultradiluted belladonna
Experiment Pock count on CAM in number (Average ± SD ± SEM) t-value of the difference and its significance
Belladonna 3 (N-500)
Virus control 80.73±31.91±5.32 9.84, P value highly significant at 0.01 level
Virus + Medicine 25.32±11.18±1.86
Belladonna 6 (N-500)
Virus control 90.97±12.87±2.14 28.43, P value highly significant at 0.01 level
Virus + Medicine 20.74±7.43±1.24
Belladonna 30 (N-200)
Virus control 55.92±15.56±2.59 15.61, P value highly significant at 0.01 level
Virus + Medicine 13.31±5.20±0.87
Belladonna 200 (N-300)
Virus control 53.97±28.21±4.70 6.95, P value highly significant at 0.01 level
Virus + Medicine 18.17±12.66±2.11
CAM: Chorioallantoic Membrane; SD: Standard Deviation; SEM: Standard Error of Mean; N: Number of inoculated eggs; Eggs that were dead
or yielded deformed or absent CAM, were not considered for calculation of the results
Am. J. Infect. Dis., 6 (2): 24-28, 2010
27
(a)
(b)
Fig. 1: Pocks on CAM-(a) with JE virus, 10
3
dilution; (b) inhibition of pocks with JE
virus, 10
3
dilution and Belladonna 3
Fig. 2: Remarkable decreased pock count on JE virus
infected CAM with Belladonna
DISCUSSION
In this study JE virus infections on CAM and in
mice were challenged with different ultradiluted
Belladonna preparations-Belladonna 3, 6, 30, 200.
Encouraging results were obtained with all ultradiluted
Belladonna 3, 6, 30, 200 preparations used in this study
showing inhibition of viral growth on CAM. Therefore,
this initial study conclusively showed the beneficial
role of these medicines in JE infection. However, it is
not possible to explain this action with our current poor
knowledge about these ultradiluted preparations.
Various mechanisms of these ultradiluted preparations
were postulated by many workers but there is no
confirmation of all these hypothetic research
(Andersson et al., 1997).
If we look into the occurrence of calystegines and
related compounds in A. belladonna and related plants
then it is obvious that these are present in significantly
higher amounts in A. belladonna only. Thus amounts
(microgram per gram fresh mass) of calystegine A
3
in
young leaf, flower, mature leaf and in root of
A. belladonna are 280, 146, 62 and 14 respectively.
Similarly amounts (microgram per gram fresh mass) of
calystegine B
2
in young leaf, flower, mature leaf and in
root of A. belladonna are 380, 263, 70 and 13
respectively (Draeger et al., 1995).
Calystegines are selective glycosidase inhibitors in
contrast to common tropane alkaloids atropine and
scopolamine of A. belladonna, which are mainly
parasympatholytic.
Like most glycosidase inhibitors, calystegines
compete with the substrate for binding to the active site.
There are evidences that N-linked oligosaccharide
processing events in the endoplasmic reticulum are
important for the secretion of some enveloped viruses
(Mehta et al., 1998) characterized by sequential
trimming of the glucose residues on oligosaccharide
precursor. It was found that Dengue virus envelope
glycoprotein processing in cells was strongly affected
by this unique mechanism. Thus it is probable that
these ultradiluted preparations may also act in a similar
way by calystegines.
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, we may claim that ultradiluted
Belladonna 3,6,30,200 have potential role in
diminishing JE virus infection on CAM. The probable
mechanism of action of these ultradilued preparations
appeared to be due to glycosidase inhibitor action of
calystegines present in Belladonna.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This study was done as a part of the project study
(No.17-88/2006-2007/CCRH/Tech/Coll/STM) financed
by CCRH, AYUSH, Govt. of India. We thank Prof.
D.K. Neogi, Ex Professor, Department of Virology,
School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata; Dr. P.C. Mal,
Dr. N.R. Dey of CCRH, Govt. of India for fruitful
suggestions. We are also thankful to our technical
Am. J. Infect. Dis., 6 (2): 24-28, 2010
28
personnel Surja Kumar Halder, Suniti Bikash Ghosh,
Kajori Mukherjee and Kartick Chandra Roy, for their
dedicated study in the project. Lastly we sincerely
acknowledge the helpful suggestions given by Dr.
Rathin Chakraborty, Member Scientific Advisory
Committee, CCRH, Govt. of India.
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Viral infections affect respiratory tract commonly, Most of the infections are mild and in some it would be severe with direct or indirect complications. Homoeopathic medicines are extensively used to treat influenza since long time. Several of those medicines have been possess anti-viral properties in ultra-diluted doses. Similarity in the pharmacodynamic properties and patient signs are the basis of Homoeopathic treatment. The curing property of these drugs is based on its disease causing property. Sanguinaria canadensis is one such important medicine used in Homoeopathy to treat influenza and its complications, both individually as well as in combination preparations. The signs and symptoms of most of the severe viral respiratory infections are similar to that of the drug proving observations on Sangunaria canadensis. The Sangunaraia respiratory symptoms are observed along with gastric and cardiac symptoms. The symptoms observed and recorded in Homoeopathic repertories are very similar to that of influenza like illness ranging from mild to severe respiratory illnesses. Secondary Metabolites action of Sangunaria canadensis displays antiviral activity impeding HIV protease. Protopine in addition to allocryptopine are more vigorous against Parainfluenza Virus-3. Sanguinarine is seen as the inhibitor of aminopeptidase A, dipeptidyl peptidase IV and aminopeptidase N. APN inhibitors could meddle in certain processes of the pathogenetic course of aggravation, tumor infiltration through the basal membrane and viral infection. Numerous plants produce Antiviral phyto-constituents which can target viral proteins, lipid envelope, and viral nucleic acids. DNA-intercalating drugs curb DNA and RNA polymerases and protein biosynthesis, and diminish viral replication. Fundamental oils and polyphenols are dynamic against the free infection, the intercalators can likewise repress the viral replication inside the host cell. Among the intercalating PSMs, alkaloids of the isoquinoline, quinoline and β-carboline type give a few incredible antiviral mixes to model. sanguinarine, in Sanguinaria canadensis is a solid DNA intercalator with articulated cytotoxic, antibacterial and antiviral properties. Homoeopathic dynamizations of Sanguinaria Canadensis are safe and has been successfully used for viral respiratory pneumonia for long time. This medicine in homoeopathy potencies could have a potential for inhibiting viral replication and disease progression. Based on the clinical experience gained from the use of Sanguinaria on viral respiratory illness and the adjuvant facts noted above, the potentized homoeopathic medicine Sanguinaria canadensis can be further studied for its application in severe viral respiratory illness like SARS Covid-2 as a stand-alone treatment or as an adjuvant treatment.
... [94] In a study undertaken by CCRH on JE showed that homeopathy as an adjuvant to the Institutional Management Protocol (IMP) decrease death rate by 15% in comparison to those who received only IMP. [95] It has also conducted preclinical studies in collaboration with School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata in both in vitro and in vivo models where it was found that Homoeopathic medicine Belladonna could inhibit JE virus infection in both the models significantly. [96,97] Another exploratory observational study in JE was undertaken in In-Patient Department (IPD) setting (epidemic ward) of Baba Raghav Das (BRD) Medical College and Nehru Hospital, Uttar Pradesh with successful reduction in mortality and morbidity rate. [98] Further, CCRH has undertaken a study in collaboration with Center for Cellular and molecular ...
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Homoeopathy is a therapeutic system founded by German physician Dr Samuel Hahnemann in the late 1700’s and has been used for 200 years around the world in acute and chronic disease conditions. Homoeopathy has also flourished during the times of epidemic diseases and the use of homoeopathic remedies as genus epidemicus and homoeoprophylaxis began with Hahnemann. Although the effectiveness of the homoeopathic remedies in epidemics has been scarcely proved by controlled studies, yet there is vast historical evidence which proves that homoeopathic remedies have been successfully used to prevent these conditions. The homoeopathic literature was searched to find out the historical evidences of the use of homoeopathic remedies during epidemics and pandemics. Homoeopathic treatment during epidemics is reviewed in Eight diseases and their results are found for epidemics of Scarlet fever, Typhus, Cholera, Dysentery, Spanish flu, Diphtheria, Measles, Whooping cough. Also the prophylactic effect of homoeopathic medicines is found in Fourteen epidemic diseases namely Scarlet fever, Smallpox, Poliomyelitis, Meningitis, Whooping cough, Dengue, Cholera, Japanese Encephalitis, Leptospirosis, Diphtheria, Influenza, Hepatitis, Malaria, Chikungunya. Many clinical trials have also been conducted during the epidemics of Chikungunya, Influenza like illness, Dengue, Acute Encephalitis Syndrome/Japanese Encephalitis. The current novel Coronavirus disease, COVID-19, has rapidly spread over the globe and has been declared as pandemic by World Health Organization. Till now, no specific treatment or vaccine has emerged to control this pandemic. However, many homoeopaths over different parts of the world have treated a wide range of COVID positive cases with different remedies. This review not only brings forward the success stories of homoeopathy during past epidemics but also presents its utility in the current pandemic.
... parkinsonism and paralysis agitants in Bulgaria. 4. Since conception, it is evident in homoeopathic literature as well as in recently published different scientific studies that Belladonna can abate the JE virus infection 5,6,7,8,9 . A comparative study was done between Belladonna and JE vaccine in treatment of JE virus infection in mice. ...
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Background: Different studies proved that the homoeopathic medicine "Belladonna 200C" can abate the Japanese encephalitis virus infection in experimental models. The aim of this study is to find out the recent evidence based information which will be supportive to treat the Japanese Encephalitis virus infection according to severity of disease (JE) stratified in different stages. Methods: A review of important recent studies regarding the treatment of Japanese encephalitis was made and analyzed for extraction of newer ways of homoeopathic treatment in JE.A final protocol for treatment in different stages of JE was formulated accordingly. Results: After detailed analysis of all evidences, three homoeopathic medicines-Belladonna, Helleborus and Phosphorus were found specifically effective in three different stages according to severity and complications of the disease. Belladonna is useful in first stage of encephalitis without effusion. Helleborus is effective in the second stage of the disease with effusion, stupor, dragging of legs and developing paralysis. Finally the Phosphorus is indicated when complete paralysis appears due to inflammation and degeneration of brain cells. Conclusion: This new outlook of treatment may decrease mortality and morbidity of JE virus infection besides reducing the complication and disability rates.
... [12] Interestingly, the protective effects through antiviral properties of Belladonna have also been observed in Japanese encephalitis in preclinical studies conducted by CCRH in collaboration with School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, and in molecular studies conducted in collaboration with King's George Medical University, Lucknow. [19,20] There have been many more outbreaks of epidemics of dengue and malaria, where homoeopathic GEs have been distributed with resultant success (absence of disease), though these have not been recognised due to lack of documentation. [21] Examples from the past as well as the recent times undoubtedly show the repeatedly verified power of the rightly selected GE in preventing the occurrence of the disease in unaffected persons during an epidemic. ...
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Background and Objectives: While the world is grappling with the current pandemic of COVID-19, medical fraternity and policy makers are still trying to find ways to control its spread in the absence of any definite treatment protocol. The escalating medical costs of infrastructural requirements in health care as well as development of vaccine are but a few challenges being faced. Alternative approaches to handle the situation require to be explored. This article reviews the role homoeopathy has played in controlling epidemics afflicting the mankind in the past while summarizing the scope of this approach in the current COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A literature search was conducted using various bibliographic databases like PubMed etc, google search engines to collect all relevant research and review articles, reports, archived texts, you tube recordings, webpages etc. in English language published uptil March 2020. Results: Scientific evidence in various epidemics clearly showcase that Homoeopathy can be used both therapeutically and/or as prophylactic with success using approaches like Genus epidemicus, nosodes etc. Its greatest successes have been recorded in the prevention & treatment of flu like illnesses. Conclusion: Homoeopathy has stood the test of time over centuries as a notable approach in controlling morbidity as well as mortality in epidemics. Administration of the homoeopathic 'Genus epidemicus' as a prophylactic for general public or adjuvant homoeopathic treatment in symptomatic cases can be an inexpensive, safe and feasible approach to manage and alleviate the compounding fear and panic that COVID-19 is creating across the globe. National polices & strategies to tackle the pandemic need to be revisited. © 2020 Indian Journal of Research in Homoeopathy | Published by Wolters Kluwer-Medknow.
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Background: Historically, several homoeopathic medicines are known to have attributed a significant role in the control and management of infectious epidemic diseases. Objectives: This study aimed to compile a list of prospective homoeopathic medicines for the treatment and prophylaxis of the COVID-19 epidemic by conducting a systematic review and statistical analysis of clinical characteristics of this emerging coronavirus disease. Materials and Methods: A> systematic review protocol was developed according to the reporting items of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Articles for review were selected from PubMed, World Health Organization database, MedRxiV, and BioRxiv. Studies in English and simplified Chinese from December 2019 to March 26 2020 were included. Data on clinical characteristics, laboratory and CT chest results of COVID-19 were extracted and analysed. Several symptoms and their intensity were statistically analysed. Results: Seventy-three studies were included. Amongst COVID-19 patients, fever (119.869 ± 24.425 [95% confidence intervals: 71.149–168.589]), dry cough (91.028 ± 19.555 [52.007–130.050]) and dyspnoea (24.594 ± 5.949 [12.722–36.465]) were the most common symptoms. Leucopenia (16.06 ± 5.07 [5.95–26.18]) in blood, ground-glass opacity (62.23 ± 18.82 [24.74–99.72]), patchy (21.48 ± 12.36 [3.13–46.11]) and consolidation (18.67 ± 9.18 [0.373–36.968]) in the lungs were observed. The selected sign and symptoms were repertorised, which resulted in a list of multiple homoeopathic medicines as potential medicines for COVID-19, led by Arsenic Album (94.59%) and Bryonia alba (91.89%). Conclusion: Considering the current clinical manifestations, this is a pioneer study related to finding a plausible list of homoeopathic medicines that might help the profession in the treatment as well as to select a prophylactic of COVID-19 disease.
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Since early civilisation human race has suffered from infectious diseases and has struggled to minimize its impact by efforts such as changing to accessory circumstances and life style modifications. Epidemics have troubled the human race time to time and now it is COVID-19 the infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered corona virus. History shows that homoeopathy reflects its potentiality in epidemic management since its inception. As India is the global leader in the field of homoeopathy, almost every new emerging disease was successfully tackled by the veteran homoeopathic physicians of India. Initiatives in government level were taken from time to time to generate evidences. It is need of the hour to build the evidence based data and present it before the sceptics.
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