Although data indicate omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are beneficial nutrients in cancer therapy, the evidences for efficacy of nutritional interventions during chemo (radio) therapy are still limited. The leading goal of the present meta-analysis was to summarize randomized controlled trials involving the administration of ω-3 PUFA-enriched oral nutritional supplements during chemo (radio) therapy, and evaluate the effects on nutritional status and clinical outcomes in patients. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane databases to identify interventions assessing body weight, BMI, immune and inflammatory indicators, plasma omega-3 fatty acids and adverse events, with subgroup analyses for region, types of ω-3 fatty acids, dose, duration and dosage form. In total, 22 studies including 1155 participants met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed a significant increase in body weight (BW) (WMD = 0.59 kg, 95% CI: 0.06, 1.13, P = 0.03), body mass index (BMI) (WMD = 0.43 kg/m², 95% CI: 0.07, 0.79, P = 0.02), and plasma total ω-3 fatty acids (SMD = 2.52, 95% CI: 1.27, 3.78, P<0.0001), and a significant reduction in plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) (SMD= −0.53, 95% CI: −0.80, −0.25, P = 0.0001), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (WMD = −0.40 pg/mL, 95% CI: −0.80, −0.01, P = 0.05), interleukin 6 (IL-6) (WMD = −1.25 pg/mL, 95% CI: −2.41, −0.10, P = 0.03) and the incidence of adverse events (RR= 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.95, P = 0.02). However, plasma albumin levels (WMD = 0.02 mg/dL, 95% CI: −0.13, 0.18, P = 0.75) was remained unaffected. Overall, our meta-analysis provides evidences that the consumption of ω-3 PUFA-enriched oral nutritional supplements exert beneficial effects on nutritional status and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing chemo (radio) therapy.