Strategies for Quantifying C60 Fullerenes in Environmental and Biological Samples and Implications for Studies in Environmental Health and Ecotoxicology

Center for Environmental Biotechnology, The Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA.
TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry (Impact Factor: 6.47). 01/2011; 30(1):44-57. DOI: 10.1016/j.trac.2010.08.005
Source: PubMed


Fullerenes are sphere-like molecules with unique physico-chemical properties, which render them of particular interest in biomedical research, consumer products and industrial applications. Human and environmental exposure to fullerenes is not a new phenomenon, due to a long history of hydrocarbon-combustion sources, and will only increase in the future, as incorporation of fullerenes into consumer products becomes more widespread for use as anti-aging, anti-bacterial or anti-apoptotic agents.An essential step in the determination of biological effects of fullerenes (and their surface-functionalized derivatives) is establishment of exposure-assessment techniques. However, in ecotoxicological studies, quantification of fullerenes is performed infrequently because robust, uniformly applicable analytical approaches have yet to be identified, due to the wide variety of sample types. Moreover, the unique physico-chemistry of fullerenes in aqueous matrices requires reassessment of conventional analytical approaches, especially in more complex biological matrices (e.g., urine, blood, plasma, milk, and tissue).Here, we present a review of current analytical approaches for the quantification of fullerenes and propose a consensus approach for determination of these nanomaterials in a variety of environmental and biological matrices.

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Available from: Benny Pycke
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    • "Several methods have been developed for the determination of concentrations of fullerenes in environmental matrices e.g., LC–UV [11], or LC–MS [12] [13] [14] using atmospheric pressure ionisation [15] [16] [17], but information about the size of their aggregates in water cannot be obtained as they need to be extracted from the aqueous phase. Information on the aggregate size is, however, crucial as the mobility and deposition of fullerenes in the aquatic environment strongly depends on this characteristic [18] [19] [20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this short communication we report on the technical implementations of coupling an asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) instrument to a high resolution mass spectrometer (Orbitrap) using an atmospheric photoionisation interface. This will allow for the first time online identification of different fullerenes in aqueous samples after their aggregates have been fractionated in the FFF channel. Quality parameters such as limits of detection (LODs), limits of quantification (LOQs) or linear range were evaluated and they were in the range of hundreds ng/L for LODs and LOQs and the detector response was linear in the range tested (up to ∼20 μg/L). The low detection and quantification limits make this technique useful for future environmental or ecotoxicology studies in which low concentration levels are expected for fullerenes and common on-line detectors such as UV or MALS do not have enough sensitivity and selectivity.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Chromatography A
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    • "Sample preparation and prefractionation can be done in different stages or analytical processes to reduce complexity of the sample matrices with minimum alteration (Tiede et al., 2008; Bandyopadhyay et al., 2012b). In addition, physicochemical parameters, such as size, type, surface charge, and reactivity, might influence the fate, transport, and ecotoxicology of NMs (Magnuson et al., 2011; Pycke et al., 2011; Bandyopadhyay et al., 2012b). Available separation and characterization techniques are discussed in detail. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nanotechnology offers substantial prospects for the development of state-of-the-art products and applications for agriculture, water treatment, and food industry. Profuse use of nanoproducts will bring potential benefits to farmers, the food industry, and consumers, equally. However, after end-user applications, these products and residues will find their way into the environment. Therefore, discharged nanomaterials (NMs) need to be identified and quantified to determine their ecotoxicity and the levels of exposure. Detection and characterization of NMs and their residues in the environment, particularly in food and agricultural products, have been limited, as no single technique or method is suitable to identify and quantify NMs. In this review, we have discussed the available literature concerning detection, characterization, and measurement techniques for NMs in food and agricultural matrices, which include chromatography, flow field fractionation, electron microscopy, light scattering, and autofluorescence techniques, among others.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Environmental Engineering Science
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    • "Quantifying recovery of C 60 from this formulation will validate the potential detection of fullerenes in cosmetics. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques have been used to detect fullerenes in various matrices (Becker et al., 1994; Benn et al., 2010; Chen et al., 2008; Fortner et al., 2005; Heymann et al., 1995; Santa et al., 1995) and are extensively reviewed elsewhere (Isaacson et al., 2009; Pycke et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Detection methods are necessary to quantify fullerenes in commercial applications to provide potential exposure levels for future risk assessments of fullerene technologies. The fullerene concentrations of five cosmetic products were evaluated using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry to separate and specifically detect C60 and C70 from interfering cosmetic substances (e.g., castor oil). A cosmetic formulation was characterized with transmission electron microscopy, which confirmed that polyvinylpyrrolidone encapsulated C60. Liquid-liquid extraction of fullerenes from control samples approached 100% while solid-phase and sonication in toluene extractions yielded recoveries of 27-42%. C60 was detected in four commercial cosmetics ranging from 0.04 to 1.1 μg/g, and C70 was qualitatively detected in two samples. A single-use quantity of cosmetic (0.5 g) may contain up to 0.6 μg of C60, demonstrating a pathway for human exposure. Steady-state modeling of fullerene adsorption to biosolids is used to discuss potential environmental releases from wastewater treatment systems.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Environmental Pollution
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