Translating the Lessons From Gene Therapy to the Development of Regenerative Medicine
Division of Cancer Biology, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.Molecular Therapy (Impact Factor: 6.23). 03/2011; 19(3):439-41. DOI: 10.1038/mt.2011.14
mt is a cross-disciplinary biomedical journal devoted to publishing the most exciting advances in pharmacology and therapeutics, as they pertain to advances in translational and clinical medicine. It is recognized as one of the most prestigious journals in the field. With an impact factor of 6.825*, mt ranks in the top 4.2% of scientific journals in the latest Science Citation Index. Published monthly online and in print.
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) encompass more than 50 distinct diseases, caused by defects in various aspects of lysosomal function. Neurodegeneration and/or dysmyelination are the hallmark of roughly 70% of LSDs. Gene therapy represents a promising approach for the treatment of CNS manifestations in LSDs, as it has the potential to provide a permanent source of the deficient enzyme, either by direct injection of vectors or by transplantation of gene-corrected cells. In this latter approach, the biology of neural stem/progenitor cells and hematopoietic cells might be exploited. AREAS COVERED: Based on an extensive literature search up until March 2011, the author reviews and discusses the progress, the crucial aspects and the major challenges towards the development of novel gene therapy strategies aimed to target the CNS, with particular attention to direct intracerebral gene delivery and transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells. EXPERT OPINION: The implementation of viral vector delivery systems with specific tropism, regulated transgene expression, low immunogenicity and low genotoxic risk and the improvement in isolation and manipulation of relevant cell types to be transplanted, are fundamental challenges to the field. Also, combinatorial strategies might be required to achieve full correction in LSDs with neurological involvement.
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ABSTRACT: The process of DNA targeting or repair of mutated genes within the cell, induced by specifically positioned double-strand cleavage of DNA near the mutated sequence, can be applied for gene therapy of monogenic diseases. For this purpose, highly specific artificial metallonucleases are developed. They are expected to be important future tools of modern genetics. The present state of art and strategies of research are summarized, including protein engineering and artificial 'chemical' nucleases. From the results, we learn about the basic role of the metal ions and the various ligands, and about the DNA binding and cleavage mechanism. The results collected provide useful guidance for engineering highly controlled enzymes for use in gene therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from the micro- to the macroscale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D-printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printingfacilitated tissue fabrication.