Early Patterns of Gene Expression Correlate With the Humoral Immune Response to Influenza Vaccination in Humans

Department of Pathology & Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030-2504, USA.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6). 02/2011; 203(7):921-9. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiq156
Source: PubMed


Annual vaccination is the primary means for preventing influenza. However, great interindividual variability exists in vaccine responses, the cellular events that take place in vivo after vaccination are poorly understood, and appropriate biomarkers for vaccine responsiveness have not been developed.
We immunized a cohort of healthy male adults with a licensed trivalent influenza vaccine and performed a timed assessment of global gene expression before and after vaccination. We analyzed the relationship between gene expression patterns and the humoral immune response to vaccination.
Marked up regulation of expression of genes involved in interferon signaling, positive IL-6 regulation, and antigen processing and presentation, were detected within 24 hours of immunization. The late vaccine response showed a transcriptional pattern suggestive of increased protein biosynthesis and cellular proliferation. Integrative analyses revealed a 494-gene expression signature--including STAT1, CD74, and E2F2--which strongly correlates with the magnitude of the antibody response. High vaccine responder status correlates with increased early expression of interferon signaling and antigen processing and presentation genes.
The results highlight the role of a systems biology approach in understanding the molecular events that take place in vivo after influenza vaccination and in the development of better predictors of vaccine responsiveness.

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    • "In addition to whole transcriptome analysis of vaccinated animals, recent advances in genome research enabled the acquisition of whole transcriptional data from vaccinated individuals and identification of gene expression after immunization with vaccines to yellow fever, measles, tularemia and tuberculosis [22]. With a focus on the influenza vaccine, Bucasas et al. reported a 494 gene set, including biomarkers identified in our previous study (MX1, IRF7) that strongly correlated with antibody responses in humans [23]. Wei et al. reported gene expression differences between HAv and live attenuated influenza vaccine. "
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