Augmented Rififylin Is a Risk Factor Linked to Aberrant Cardiomyocyte Function, Short-QT Interval and Hypertension

Physiological Genomics Laboratory, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, 3000 Arlington Ave, Toledo, OH 43614-2598, USA.
Hypertension (Impact Factor: 6.48). 02/2011; 57(4):764-71. DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.110.165803
Source: PubMed


Using congenic strains of the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat introgressed with genomic segments from the normotensive Lewis rat, a blood pressure quantitative trait locus was previously mapped within 104 kb on chromosome 10. The goal of the current study was to conduct extensive phenotypic studies and to further fine-map this locus. At 14 weeks of age, the blood pressure of the congenic rats fed a low-salt diet was significantly higher by 47 mm Hg (P<0.001) compared with that of the S rat. A time-course study showed that the blood pressure effect was significant from very young ages of 50 to 52 days (13 mm Hg; P<0.01). The congenic strain implanted with electrocardiography transmitters demonstrated shorter-QT intervals and increased heart rate compared with S rats (P<0.01). The average survival of the congenic strain was shorter (134 days) compared with the S rat (175 days; P<0.0007). The critical region was narrowed to <42.5 kb containing 171 variants and a single gene, rififylin. Both the mRNA and protein levels of rififylin were significantly higher in the hearts of the congenic strain. Overexpression of rififylin is known to delay endocytic recycling. Endocytic recycling of fluorescently labeled holotransferrin from cardiomyocytes of the congenic strain was slower than that of S rats (P<0.01). Frequency of cardiomyocyte beats in the congenic strain (62±9 bpm) was significantly higher than that of the S rat (24±6 bpm; P<0.001). Taken together, our study provides evidence to suggest that early perturbations in endocytic recycling caused by the overexpression of Rffl is a novel physiological mechanism potentially underlying the development of hypertension.

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Available from: Sivarajan Kumarasamy
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    • "Evidence from increased polyubiquitinated proteins within the proximal tubules of the congenic strain compared with S point to the latter, i.e., upregulation of the cellular degradation machinery. This is not surprising because rififylin is also a known E3 ubiquitin ligase and we have previously demonstrated similar increased cellular polyubiquitination of proteins within the cardiomyocytes of the congenic strain used in the current study compared with S (Gopalakrishnan et al., 2011). Increased accumulation of polyubiquitination leads to cellular stress, which is known to adversely affect proteinuria (Meyer-Schwesinger et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Cell surface proteins are internalized into the cell through endocytosis and either degraded within lysosomes or recycled back to the plasma membrane. While perturbations in endosomal internalization are known to modulate renal function, it is not known whether similar alterations in recycling affect renal function. Rififylin is a known regulator of endocytic recycling with E3 ubiquitin protein ligase activity. In this study, using two genetically similar strains, the Dahl Salt-sensitive rat and an S.LEW congenic strain, which had allelic variants within a < 330 kb segment containing rififylin, we tested the hypothesis that alterations in endosomal recycling affect renal function. The congenic strain had 1.59-fold higher renal expression of rififylin. Transcriptome analysis indicated that components of both endocytosis and recycling were upregulated in the congenic strain. Transcription of Atp1a1 and cell surface content of the protein product of Atp1a1, the alpha subunit of Na(+)K(+)ATPase were increased in the proximal tubules from the congenic strain. Because rififylin does not directly regulate endocytosis and it is also a differentially expressed gene within the congenic segment, we reasoned that the observed alterations in the transcriptome of the congenic strain constitute a feedback response to the primary functional alteration of recycling caused by rififylin. To test this, recycling of transferrin was studied in isolated proximal tubules. Recycling was significantly delayed within isolated proximal tubules of the congenic strain, which also had a higher level of polyubiquitinated proteins and proteinuria compared with S. These data provide evidence to suggest that delayed endosomal recycling caused by excess of rififylin indirectly affects endocytosis, enhances intracellular protein polyubiquitination and contributes to proteinuria.
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    ABSTRACT: Previously linkage and substitution mapping were conducted between the Dahl Salt-sensitive (S) rat and the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) to address the hypothesis that genetic contributions to blood pressure (BP) in two genetically hypertensive rat strains are different. Among the BP quantitative trait loci (QTLs) detected, two are located on chromosome 9 within large genomic segments. The goal of the current study was to develop new iterations of congenic substrains, to further resolve both of these BP QTLs on chromosome 9 as independent congenic segments. A total of 10 new congenic substrains were developed and characterized. The newly developed congenic substrains S.SHR(9)x8Ax11A and S.SHR(9)x10Ax1, with introgressed segments of 2.05 and 6.14 Mb, represented the shortest genomic segments. Both of these congenic substrains, S.SHR(9)x8Ax11A and S.SHR(9)x10Ax1 lowered BP of the S rat by 56 mm Hg (P<0.001) and 15 mm Hg (P<0.039), respectively. The BP measurements were corroborated by radiotelemetry. Urinary protein excretion was significantly lowered by SHR alleles within S.SHR(9)x10Ax1 but not by S.SHR(9)x8Ax11A. The shorter of the two congenic segments, 2.05 Mb was further characterized and found to contain a single differentially expressed protein-coding gene, Tomoregulin-2 (Tmeff2). The protein expression of Tmeff2 was higher in the S rat compared with S.SHR(9)x8Ax11A, which also had lower cardiac hypertrophy as measured by echocardiography. Tmeff2 is known to be upregulated in patients from multiple cohorts with cardiac hypertrophy. Taken together, Tmeff2 can be prioritized as a candidate gene for hypertension and associated cardiac hypertrophy in both rats and in humans.
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic analysis of polygenic traits in rats and mice has been very useful for finding the approximate chromosomal locations of the genes causing quantitative phenotypic variation, so-called quantitative trait loci (QTL). Further localization of the causative genes and their ultimate identification has, however, proven to be slow and frustrating. A major technique for gene identification in such models utilizes series of congenic strains with progressively smaller chromosomal segments introgressed from one inbred strain into another inbred strain. Under the assumption that a single causative locus underlies a QTL, nested series of congenic strains were earlier suggested as an appropriate configuration for the congenic strains. It is now known that most QTL are compound, that is, the QTL signal is caused by clusters of loci where alleles exert positive, negative, and interactive effects on the trait in a given strain comparison. It is argued that in this situation an initial series of nonoverlapping contiguous congenic strains over a relatively large chromosomal region will lead to a better appreciation of the underlying complexity of the QTL and therefore more rapid gene identification. Examples from the literature where this strategy would be helpful, as well as a case where it would be potentially counterproductive, are given.
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