Attenuated Vasodilatation in Lambs with Endogenous and Exogenous Activation of cGMP Signaling: Role of Protein Kinase G Nitration
Pulmonary vasodilation is mediated through the activation of protein kinase G (PKG) via a signaling pathway involving nitric oxide (NO), natriuretic peptides (NP), and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In pulmonary hypertension secondary to congenital heart disease, this pathway is endogenously activated by an early vascular upregulation of NO and increased myocardial B-type NP expression and release. In the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, this pathway is exogenously activated using inhaled NO or other pharmacological agents. Despite this activation of cGMP, vascular dysfunction is present, suggesting that NO-cGMP independent mechanisms are involved and were the focus of this study. Exposure of pulmonary artery endothelial or smooth muscle cells to the NO donor, Spermine NONOate (SpNONOate), increased peroxynitrite (ONOO(-) ) generation and PKG-1α nitration, while PKG-1α activity was decreased. These changes were prevented by superoxide dismutase (SOD) or manganese(III)tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (MnTMPyP) and mimicked by the ONOO(-) donor, 3-morpholinosydnonimine N-ethylcarbamide (SIN-1). Peripheral lung extracts from 4-week old lambs with increased pulmonary blood flow and pulmonary hypertension (Shunt lambs with endogenous activation of cGMP) or juvenile lambs treated with inhaled NO for 24 h (with exogenous activation of cGMP) revealed increased ONOO(-) levels, elevated PKG-1α nitration, and decreased kinase activity without changes in PKG-1α protein levels. However, in Shunt lambs treated with L-arginine or lambs administered polyethylene glycol conjugated-SOD (PEG-SOD) during inhaled NO exposure, ONOO(-) and PKG-1α nitration were diminished and kinase activity was preserved. Together our data reveal that vascular dysfunction can occur, despite elevated levels of cGMP, due to PKG-1α nitration and subsequent attenuation of activity.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria induces acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. This injury is associated with lung edema, inflammation, diffuse alveolar damage, and severe respiratory insufficiency. We have previously reported that LPS-mediated nitric oxide synthase (NOS) uncoupling, through increases in asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), plays an important role in the development of ALI through the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Therefore, the focus of this study was to determine whether mice deficient in endothelial NOS (eNOS-/-) are protected against ALI. In both wild-type and eNOS-/- mice, ALI was induced by the intratracheal instillation of LPS (2 mg/kg). After 24 hours, we found that eNOS-/-mice were protected against the LPS mediated increase in inflammatory cell infiltration, inflammatory cytokine production, and lung injury. In addition, LPS exposed eNOS-/- mice had increased oxygen saturation and improved lung mechanics. The protection in eNOS-/- mice was associated with an attenuated production of NO, NOS derived superoxide, and peroxynitrite. Furthermore, we found that eNOS-/- mice had less RhoA activation that correlated with a reduction in RhoA nitration at Tyr34. Finally, we found that the reduction in NOS uncoupling in eNOS-/- mice was due to a preservation of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) activity that prevented the LPS-mediated increase in ADMA. Together our data suggest that eNOS derived reactive species play an important role in the development of LPS-mediated lung injury.0Comments 1Citation
- "The formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO -) was determined by the ONOO -dependent oxidation of dihydrorhodamine (DHR) 123 to rhodamine 123, in the presence of PEG-catalase as described previously . Briefly, mouse lung tissue was pulverized using a mortar and pestle; 10 mg was placed in a microfuge tube, 100 μl of 1x PBS was added, and the tissue was vortexed 3x for 10 sec. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NO/ONOO-cycle is a primarily local, biochemical vicious cycle mechanism, centered on elevated peroxynitrite and oxidative stress, but also involving 10 additional elements: NF-κB, inflammatory cytokines, iNOS, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide, mitochondrial dysfunction (lowered energy charge, ATP), NMDA activity, intracellular Ca2+, TRP receptors and tetrahydrobiopterin depletion. All 12 of these elements have causal roles in heart failure (HF) and each is linked through a total of 87 studies to specific correlates of HF. Two apparent causal factors of HF, RhoA and endothelin-1, each act as tissue-limited cycle elements. Nineteen stressors that initiate cases of HF, each act to raise multiple cycle elements, potentially initiating the cycle in this way. Different types of HF, left vs. right ventricular HF, with or without arrhythmia, etc., may differ from one another in the regions of the myocardium most impacted by the cycle. None of the elements of the cycle or the mechanisms linking them are original, but they collectively produce the robust nature of the NO/ONOO-cycle which creates a major challenge for treatment of HF or other proposed NO/ONOO-cycle diseases. Elevated peroxynitrite/NO ratio and consequent oxidative stress are essential to both HF and the NO/ONOO-cycle.0Comments 15Citations
- "S-Nitrosylation of sGC may be predicted to occur as a consequence of oxidative stress and iNOS induction in HF but has not been studied in HF, to my knowledge. There are two additional pathways of action by which peroxynitrite/oxidative stress can act to lower signaling via the cGMP/protein kinase G. Protein kinase G has been shown undergo peroxynitrite-mediated high level tyrosine nitration on specific residue, leading to inactivation of the enzyme114115116117. This has been most studied in pulmonary hypertension and consequently, there is no substantial evidence on whether or to what extent this occurs in HF. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vascular endothelium plays a critical role in vascular health by controlling arterial diameter, regulating local cell growth, and protecting blood vessels from the deleterious consequences of platelet aggregation and activation of inflammatory responses. Circulating chemical mediators and physical forces act directly on the endothelium to release diffusible relaxing factors, such as nitric oxide (NO), and to elicit hyperpolarization of the endothelial cell membrane potential, which can spread to the surrounding smooth muscle cells via gap junctions. Endothelial hyperpolarization, mediated by activation of calcium-activated potassium (K(Ca)) channels, has generally been regarded as a distinct pathway for smooth muscle relaxation. However, recent evidence supports a role for endothelial K(Ca) channels in production of endothelium-derived NO, and indicates that pharmacological activation of these channels can enhance NO-mediated responses. In this review we summarize the current data on the functional role of endothelial K(Ca) channels in regulating NO-mediated changes in arterial diameter and NO production, and explore the tempting possibility that these channels may represent a novel avenue for therapeutic intervention in conditions associated with reduced NO availability such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and diabetes mellitus.0Comments 4Citations
- "Beckman and Koppenol 1996). Increased formation of ONOO – is a pivotal event in development of vascular disease , as it causes structural damage to vascular cells, inhibits prostacyclin synthesis, and disrupts NO signaling through protein kinase G (Bachschmid et al. 2003; El-Remessy et al. 2003; Maneen and Cipolla 2007; Szabó et al. 2007; Korkmaz et al. 2009; Aggarwal et al. 2011 ). Furthermore, ONOO – exacerbates O À 2 production by oxidizing the NO synthase cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH 4 ); in the absence of this cofactor , NO synthase reduces molecular oxygen to generate O À 2 (Xia et al. 1998; Landmesser et al. 2003; Fig. 2). "