Primary myoepithelial carcinoma of the vulva and review of the literature

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research (Impact Factor: 0.93). 02/2011; 37(6):617-22. DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2010.01392.x
Source: PubMed


Myoepithelial carcinoma of the vulva is extremely rare, with only five cases reported. Here, we describe a case of vulvar myoepithelial carcinoma along with a review of the literature. The patient, a 49-year-old woman, was referred for a tumor on the right labium majora. She underwent a wide local excision and bilateral inguinal lymph node dissection. Pathological examination revealed an unencapsulated, infiltrative pattern, with solid, nested and trabecular components and areas with myxoid or hyalinized stroma. The tumor consisted of oval to round epithelioid cells with moderate nuclear pleomorphism. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells were diffusely positive for cellular adhesion molecule (CAM) 5.2, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), S-100 protein, and vimentin and focally positive for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and p63, while negative for alpha- smooth muscle actin (SMA). The tumor was diagnosed as a myoepithelial carcinoma of the vulva, with metastases to the bilateral inguinal lymph nodes. Following completion of adjuvant radiotherapy, the patient remained alive without any evidence of recurrence at 56 months. A review of six cases of this tumor (including the present case), demonstrated variable morphology with some overlapping features. Therefore, immunohistochemistry using a panel of epithelial and myogenic markers is essential for definitive diagnosis. Two cases had inguinal lymph node metastases and received adjuvant radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy, which resulted in good local control. One case had lung metastasis and was successfully treated by chemotherapy. Given the rarity of this disease and its uncertain prognosis, no clinical trials have been conducted regarding the necessity of adjuvant therapy. Myoepithelial carcinomas of the vulva are extremely rare making case series the most viable means of optimizing diagnosis and therapy.

10 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Myoepithelial carcinoma (MC) is a rare type of carcinoma occurring mainly in the parotid gland, while other carcinomas occur in submandibular or the accessory glands of the oral cavity. They may arise from the glands of the respiratory tract. However, primary MC of the bone is extremely rare. In the present study, a rare case of a 41-year-old woman with MC in the maxilla bone was reported. Following misdiagnosis as a bone cyst, a local excision was performed. The patient then presented with an extremely high malignancy and showed no response to chemoradiation treatment. The bone cyst was thought to be MC, thus early diagnosis with complete surgical excision was highly important. After confirmation of MC, a secondary extensive surgery may be crucial, following the primary local surgical resection.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Molecular and Clinical Oncology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study describes a case of primary myoepithelial carcinoma of the skin and reviews the available literature on this topic. Myoepitheliomas and carcinomas arise most frequently from myoepithelial cells within the salivary glands but are found in many anatomical locations. We documented a case of an 80-year-old man with a 2 × 2 × 1 cm tumour located on the scalp. This tumour emerged over a period of 2 months. The tumour was radically excised, and histological examination revealed a cutaneous myoepithelial carcinoma. At an 18-month follow-up, no recurrence of the tumour was found. A systematic literature search identified 23 papers that reported 58 cases of cutaneous myoepitheliomas and myoepithelial carcinomas. All cases are reviewed in the presented paper. This case report and literature review serves to increase awareness regarding myoepithelial carcinomas. These tumours exhibit high metastatic potential, and it is thus very important to perform radical surgery.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Apmis
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Loss of expression of the SMARCB1 (INI1/BAF47/SNF5) tumor-suppressor protein, originally identified in pediatric malignant rhabdoid tumors, has been noted in significant percentages of epithelioid sarcomas of classical and proximal-type and in myoepithelial carcinomas. Epithelioid sarcoma and myoepithelial carcinoma are very rare in the vulvar region, and few of these cases have been evaluated for SMARCB1 protein loss by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or for SMARCB1 gene alterations by molecular genetic techniques. We studied the clinicopathologic, IHC, and molecular genetic features of 14 SMARCB1-deficient vulvar neoplasms. All available routinely stained sections were reexamined, and IHC analysis for wide-spectrum cytokeratins, high-molecular weight cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen, S100 protein, CD34, smooth muscle actin, desmin, and SMARCB1 was performed. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and DNA sequencing of the SMARCB1 gene was performed on 12 cases with sufficient available tissue. The 14 vulvar tumors occurred in adult women (mean age 46 y, range 22 to 62 y) and measured 1.1 to 8.8 cm in size (mean 4.7 cm). Tumors were classified as classical-type epithelioid sarcoma (N=1), proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma (N=6), myoepithelial carcinoma (N=4), and "SMARCB1-deficient vulvar sarcoma, not otherwise specified" (N=3) on the basis of combined histopathologic and IHC findings. One myoepithelial carcinoma showed divergent rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. All tested cases showed partial or complete SMARCB1 deletions (homozygous: 9 cases; heterozygous: 3 cases). One case with a heterozygous deletion also showed a c.528delC mutation in exon 5. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for EWSR1 rearrangement was performed for 3 cases classified as myoepithelial carcinoma and was negative. Follow-up (13 patients, range 5 to 72 mo, mean 31 mo) data showed 3 patients dead of disease, 1 alive with unresectable metastatic disease, 1 alive with radiographic evidence of extensive lymph nodal disease, and 8 alive without disease. We conclude that SMARCB1-deficient vulvar neoplasms chiefly comprise epithelioid sarcoma and myoepithelial carcinoma, although some defy easy classification. No association was seen between clinical behavior and the type of SMARCB1 alteration.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Show more