Assessing receipt of medical care and disparity among persons with HIV/AIDS in San Francisco, 2006–2007
San Francisco Department of Public Health, USA. AIDS Care
(Impact Factor: 1.6).
03/2011; 23(3):383-92. DOI: 10.1080/09540121.2010.507740
We used data from HIV/AIDS surveillance case registry to assess the timing of entry into medical care, level of care received after HIV diagnosis, and to identify characteristics associated with delayed and insufficient care among persons diagnosed with HIV/AIDS between 2006 and 2007 in San Francisco. Laboratory reports of HIV viral load and CD4 test results were used as a marker for receipt of medical care. The time from HIV diagnosis to entry into care was estimated using Kaplan-Meier product limit method and independent predictors of delayed entry into care were determined using the proportional hazards model. Insufficient care was defined as less than an average of two viral load/CD4 tests per person-year of follow-up. Predictors of insufficient care were evaluated using a logistic regression model. An estimated 85% of persons diagnosed with HIV/AIDS entered care within three months after HIV diagnosis; the proportion increased to 95% within 12 months after diagnosis. Persons who were born outside of the USA and those tested at the public counseling and testing sites were more likely to delay care. Nineteen percent of persons were determined to have received insufficient care. Younger persons and those diagnosed at a hospital were more likely to receive insufficient care. A high proportion of persons diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in San Francisco established timely and adequate care after HIV diagnosis. However, delays for some individuals in entry into care and markers of insufficient care suggest that there remains a need to improve access to and sustainability of HIV-specific medical care.
Available from: María Luisa Zúñiga
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ABSTRACT: Timely treatment of HIV infection is a public health priority, yet many HIV-positive persons delay treatment initiation. We conducted a community-based study comparing HIV-positive persons who received an HIV diagnosis at least 3 months ago but had not initiated care (n=100) with a reference population of HIV-positive persons currently in care (n=115) to identify potential barriers to treatment initiation. Study participants were mostly male (78.0%), and persons of color (54.9% Latino, 26.3% black), with median age 37.8 years. Median time since HIV diagnosis was 3.7 years. Univariate analysis revealed that those never in care differed substantially from those currently in care with regard to sociodemographics; HIV testing and counseling experiences; perceived barriers to care; and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding HIV. Factors independently associated with never initiating HIV care were younger age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88, 0.99), shorter time since diagnosis (AOR=0.87; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.98), lacking insurance (AOR=0.11; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.35), not knowing someone with HIV/AIDS (AOR=0.09; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.30) not disclosing HIV status (AOR=0.13; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.70), not receiving help making an HIV care appointment after diagnosis (AOR=0.04; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.14), and not wanting to think about being HIV positive (AOR=3.57; 95% CI: 1.22, 10.46). Our findings suggest that isolation and stigma remain significant barriers to initiating HIV care in populations consisting primarily of persons of color, and that direct linkages to HIV care at the time of diagnosis are critical to promoting timely care initiation in these populations.
Available from: Susan Scheer
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Engagement across the spectrum of HIV care can improve health outcomes and prevent HIV transmission. We used HIV surveillance data to examine these outcomes.
San Francisco residents who were diagnosed with HIV between 2009 and 2010 were included. We measured the characteristics and proportion of persons linked to care within 6 months of diagnosis, retained in care for second and third visits, and virally suppressed within 12 months of diagnosis.
Of 862 persons included, 750 (87%) entered care within 6 months of diagnosis; of these, 72% had a second visit in the following 3-6 months; and of these, 80% had a third visit in the following 3-6 months. Viral suppression was achieved in 50% of the total population and in 76% of those retained for 3 visits. Lack of health insurance and unknown housing status were associated with not entering care (P < 0.01). Persons with unknown insurance status were less likely to be retained for a second visit; those younger than 30 years were less likely to be retained for a third visit. Independent predictors of failed viral suppression included age <40 years, homelessness, unknown housing status, and having a single or 2 medical visits compared with 3 visits.
Socioeconomic resources and age, not race or gender, are associated with disparities in engagement in HIV care in San Francisco.
Available from: Kathleen A Brady
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: To compare the accuracy of linkage to care metrics for patients diagnosed with HIV using retention in care and virologic suppression as the gold standards of effective linkage. DESIGN:: A retrospective cohort study of patients aged 18 and over with newly-diagnosed HIV infection in the City of Philadelphia, 2007 to 2008. METHODS:: Times from diagnosis to clinic visits or laboratory testing were used as linkage measures. Outcome variables included being retained in care and achieving virologic suppression, 366-730 days after diagnosis. Positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and area under the curve (AUC) for each linkage measure and retention and virologic suppression outcomes are described. RESULTS:: Of the 1781 patients in the study, 503 (28.2%) were retained in care in the Ryan White system and 418 (23.5%) achieved virologic suppression 366-730 days after diagnosis. The linkage measure with the highest PPV for retention was having two clinic visits within 365 days of diagnosis, separated by 90 days (74.2%). Having a clinic visit between 21 and 365 days after diagnosis had both the highest NPV for retention (94.5%) and the highest adjusted AUC for retention (0.872). Having two tests within 365 days of diagnosis, separated by 90 days, had the highest adjusted AUC for virologic suppression (0.780). CONCLUSIONS:: Linkage measures associated with clinic visits had higher PPV and NPV for retention, while linkage measures associated with laboratory testing had higher PPV and NPV for retention. Linkage measures should be chosen based on the outcome of interest.
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