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Abstract

In this paper we explore changes over time in higher education (HE) participation and attainment between people from richer and poorer family backgrounds during a time period when the UK higher education system expanded at a rapid rate. We use longitudinal data from three time periods to study temporal shifts in HE participation and attainment across parental income groups for children going to university in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. The key finding is a highly policy relevant one, namely that HE expansion has not been equally distributed across people from richer and poorer backgrounds. Rather, it has disproportionately benefited children from relatively rich families. Despite the fact that many more children from higher income backgrounds participated in HE before the recent expansion of the system, the expansion acted to widen participation gaps between rich and poor children. This finding is robust to different measures of education participation and inequality. It also emerges from non-parametric estimations and from a more detailed econometric model allowing for the sequential nature of education choices with potentially different income associations at different stages of the education sequence. Copyright (c) Scottish Economic Society 2004.

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... It develops human skills, raises human productivity and, consequently, enables them with higher monetary incentives and greater scopes for better jobs. Thus, it provides greater economic opportunities, especially to the poor (Blanden & Machin, 2004). In addition, education refines human thoughts, broadens their outlook and enriches them with knowledge, and all these returns motivate non-educated people to educate their descendants so that they can benefit from such returns in future. ...
... According to Abdullah et al. (2011), higher education has not equally expanded in many countries (e.g., Brazil as depicted in World Bank, 1977), and the resulting benefits are enjoyed by those in higher-income brackets. Blanden and Machin (2004) also have found a significant association between family income and university degree attainment in Britain. Therefore, people with higher income are more likely to grasp the returns generated from education, which is termed as 'endogeneity'. ...
Article
Education develops human skills, raises human productivity and, consequently, enables them with higher monetary incentives and better jobs. But the realisation of benefits may differ across income groups due to various limiting factors to achieve it. This article estimates the impacts of education on income and consumption of rural households in Bangladesh, using mean differential approach and unconditional quantile regression approach. It utilises Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS) data for the years 2012 and 2015 to estimate the impact of education on the income and consumption of rural households. To address the potential endogeneity problem in impact estimation, ‘total distance from school’ is used as an instrumental variable (IV) in the case of the fixed-effect regression model applied here. Though education affects mean differentials of income and consumption positively, the fixed-effect regression coefficients are surprisingly insignificant. However, quantile regression results suggest that education contributes to income and consumption of lower quantile households more than that of uppermost quantile households. Consequently, these indicate a decline in inequality in rural areas of Bangladesh. Interestingly, education has diminishing positive returns for lower quantiles, implying a declined inequality with an increase in education, but at a diminishing rate, confirming that the impact is non-linear in nature.
... Previous literature on the returns to a university degree has presented convincing evidence that university degrees lead to large labor market returns in terms of earnings and income compared to those without a degree (Card 1999;Blundell, Dearden, and Sianesi 2005;Dickson 2013;Oreopoulos and Petronijevic 2013). This had led policymakers to view university access as a key to social mobility and spurred a large literature on higher education and social mobility (Blanden and Machin 2004;Chetty et al. 2014;Britton et al. 2016). In the interest of improving access, universities across the world have introduced affirmative action policies to diversify the profile of their student intake and increase the participation of disadvantaged individuals who were traditionally less likely to attend university (Arcidiacono and Lovenheim 2016). ...
... There is a large and complementary literature on the intergenerational transmission of education and socioeconomic status (e.g. Blanden and Macmillan 2016;Blanden and Machin 2004). Henderson, Shure, and Adamecz-Völgyi (2020) provide the first descriptive evidence on FiF individuals in England. ...
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We exploit linked survey-administrative data from England to examine how first in family (FiF) graduates (those whose parents do not have university degrees) fare on the labor market. We find that among graduate women, FiF graduates earn 8.3% less on average than graduate women whose parents have a university degree. For men, we find no such difference. A decomposition of the difference between FiF and non-FiF graduate women reveals that prior academic attainment, whether they attended an 'elite' institution, and whether they needed their degree for their job fully explains this gap. We also estimate returns to graduation for potential FiF and non-FiF young people. We find that although the wage returns to graduation are higher among FiF women compared to women who match their parents with a degree, the negative effects of coming from a lower educated family are so large that they counteract the high returns of graduation. JEL Classification: I24, I26, J24
... Inequality also continues to be associated with a geographical location. Most people living in poor neighbourhoods like council flats are less likely to complete their A-level (Blanden and Machin, 2004). Burns and Keswell (2012) study of South Africa observed the continued persistent intergenerational inequality despite easy access to education. ...
... In Jamaica, Cook and Jennings (2016), ascertain the significance of parents' value of education to children's secondary school attainment. Some studies in intergenerational education inequality have been carried out in Germany (Heineck and Riphahn, 2009), the USA Heckman, 1998, 2001), and the UK, (Blanden and Machin, 2004). Despite Germany's investment to bring equity in education, the population's intergenerational mobility remains low (Riphahn and Heineck, 2009). ...
... Indeed, even in high participation systems, social inequality in higher education access persists (Marginson, 2016). Scholars from across the OECD countries repeatedly demonstrate that socioeconomically disadvantaged and ethnic minority students are still underrepresented in higher education, and particularly so in the more prestigious institutions (i.e., universities, or four-year colleges; e.g., in the U.K.: Blanden and Machin, 2004;Boliver, 2010; in the U.S.: Engberg, 2012;Grodsky and Jackson, 2009;Wolniak et al., 2016;in France: Brinbaum and Guégnard, 2013;Insee and Dares, 2007; in Germany : Forster, Chmielewksi and van de Werfhorst, 2020;Reimer and Polak, 2010;in Spain: López, 2009; in Italy: Ballarino and Panichella, 2016;in Belgium: Declercq and Verboven, 2015;Ortiz and Dehon, 2013). Consequentially, if educational expansion is to fulfill its role as "the great equalizer", it is crucial to find out why social inequality still persists. ...
... Despite the massification of higher education during the last decades in most of the OECD countries, recent OECD reports and scholars consistently demonstrate that such a massification has not eradicated social inequality in educational attainment (OECD, 2020). Indeed, students from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds and/or ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in higher education, especially at university (e.g., in the U.K.: Blanden and Machin, 2004;Boliver, 2010; 2013; in the U.S.: Engberg, 2012;Grodsky and Jackson, 2009;Wolniak et al., 2016;in France: Brinbaum and Guégnard, 2013;Insee and Dares, 2007; in Germany : Forster, Chmielewksi and van de Werfhorst, 2020;Reimer and Polak, 2010;in Spain: López, 2009; in Italy: Ballarino and Panichella, 2016;in Belgium: Declercq and Verboven, 2015;Ortiz and Dehon, 2013). ...
... Second, by documenting the diverging patterns for children and parents from different educational backgrounds over time in the UK and the US, we also complement the growing literature on the role of human capital investments in shaping intergenerational inequality (for recent examples see Del Boca et al., 2014;Fiorini and Keane, 2014). Third, by gathering and documenting for the first time unique evidence on the competition for slots at elite universities in the UK over three decades, we also add to the literature on inequality in university access in the UK (Dearden et al., 2011;Machin and Vignoles, 2004;Blanden and Machin, 2004;Chowdry et al., 2013;Bhattacharya et al., 2012). ...
... Compared to the US, in the UK changes in the demand for college slots responded in a greater extent to structural factors related to the regulation of the high education sector which resulted in increases in college competition up to the mid 1990s and decreases thereafter. In particular, the introduction in 1988 of the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), a national examination taken when students reach the age of 16 in specific subjects, resulted in a step-change of 40 per cent increase in the proportion of students staying on beyond the compulsory school leaving age from 51 per cent in the late 80s to 70 per cent in the late 90s (see Blanden and Machin, 2004). The reform was introduced to end the previous two-tier system separating children into high and low education streams, in which students could either take O (Ordinary) levels, if they aimed to stay beyond compulsory education, or the Certificate of Secondary Education if students did not want to pursue further education. ...
Article
We use novel diary surveys coupled with universities' administrative student data for the last three decades to document that increased competition for university places at elite institutions in the United Kingdom contributes to explain growing gaps in time investments between college and non-college educated parents. Competition for university places in the UK grew significantly during the 1980s and early 1990s, and gradually diminished afterwards. We find that the gap in time investments by college and non-college educated parents and their children widened up precisely during this first period, especially in terms of human capital enhancing activities.
... Enrollment rates have not been shown to differ substantially by region and distance from a university (Gibbons & Vignoles, 2012), although they do differ greatly according to neighborhood deprivation and parental income (Singleton, 2010;Vignoles & Powdthavee, 2009). Between the 1960s and 1980s, academic achievement became less predictive and social class more predictive of university applications (Machin & Vignoles, 2004), a trend that continued into the 1990s (Blanden & Machin, 2004;Galindo-Rueda et al., 2008;Glennerster, 2002). By 2009, students from the most advantaged quintile of households were six times more likely to attend university than those from the least advantaged quintile (Vignoles & Powdthavee, 2009). ...
... The second factor that researchers have examined in relation to access to postsecondary education is students' prior curricular exposure and academic achievement. Achievement differences tend to broaden throughout pre-elementary, elementary, and secondary education and it may be too late by secondary school to address university readiness gaps (Blanden & Machin, 2004;Feinstein, 2003;Heckman & Lochner, 2000;Jerrim & Vignoles, 2013). However, previous studies of subject choice and university enrollment examined achievement gaps, especially in mathematics and science proficiency, at the secondary school level without addressing achievement at earlier educational stages. ...
Chapter
England is among the many nations aspiring to increase highly qualified and diversified human resources in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Gender disparities in enrollment and persistence in STEM undergraduate education in England are replicated internationally. Despite the expansion of higher education in England, women remain underrepresented in STEM subjects. Politicians have voiced their worries over the economy’s overall health and security due to the inadequate number of women in STEM fields in England. While numerous studies have documented gender disparities in STEM subjects in England, there is still a need for better understanding about how to promote gender equity in STEM from early childhood to higher education. In this chapter, we examine the difference in early educational achievement in mathematics and science subjects and students’ plan to study STEM subjects by gender. We also examine women’s odds of studying STEM subjects in England after controlling for academic performance and social class characteristics. We particularly test gendered differences in studying STEM at prestigious Russell Group universities. We analyze data from the British Department of Education’s Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (also known as Next Steps). Finally, we highlight factors that policy makers, researchers, instructors, and STEM workforce members should consider to close gender gaps in STEM undergraduate education.
... Previous literature has presented convincing evidence that earning a university degree leads to significant labor market returns in terms of earnings and income (Blundell et al. 2005;Card 1999;Dickson 2013;Oreopoulos and Petronijevic 2013). This had led policymakers to view university access as a key to social mobility and spurred a large literature on higher education and social mobility (Blanden and Machin 2004;Britton et al. 2016;Chetty et al. 2017Chetty et al. , 2014. In the interest of improving access, universities across the world have introduced affirmative action policies to diversify the profile of their student intake and increase the participation of disadvantaged individuals who were traditionally less likely to attend university (Arcidiacono and Lovenheim 2016). ...
Article
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We examine how first-in-family (FiF) graduates — those whose parents do not have university degrees — fare in the labor market in England. We find that among women, FiF graduates earn 7.4% less on average than graduates whose parents have a university degree. For men, we do not find a FiF wage penalty. A decomposition of the wage difference between FiF and non-FiF graduates reveals two interesting findings. First, two-thirds of the female FiF penalty is explained by certain characteristics, including having lower educational attainment, not attending an elite university, selecting particular degree courses, working in smaller firms, working in jobs that do not require their degree, and motherhood. Second, FiF graduate men also differ in their endowments from non-FiF graduate men; however, FiF men earn higher returns on their endowments than non-FiF men and thus compensate for their relative social disadvantage, while FiF women do not. We also estimate the returns to graduation for potential FiF and non-FiF young people. We find that the wage returns to graduation are not lower among FiF graduates compared to those who match their parents with a degree.
... Among all the neighboring and regional countries of Pakistan, the progress of Iran has been remarkable where total years of schooling increased by 16 times between 1950 and 2010 followed by Afghanistan. The average years of tertiary schooling have also increased in Iran by 64 times in the same period followed by Sri Lanka ( Barro& Lee, Educational Data Base(2013) Higher education contributes positively to national productivity by increasing skill levels and increase in opportunities in the field of education is co-associated with higher equality of opportunity because students with poor backgrounds often able to get more potential for advancement with a university degree (Blanden & Machin, 2013). Pakistan"s overall achievement in the field of tertiary or higher education has been of average level and years of AARJSH tertiary education increased by 10.5 times, a lowest increase among all the regional countries including Afghanistan between 1950 and 2010 (Table 3). ...
Article
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The current paper is aimed to ascertain and analyze the determinants of Human Capital Formation in Pakistan. Human capital has been measured by student‟s completion of primary, secondary and tertiary schooling. Gross national income (GNI) per capita, literacy rate, governmental expenditures on education, number of educational institutions and pupil-teacher ratio have been used as explanatory variables. According to results, through bivariate correlation and multivariate regression analysis, literacy, number of educational institutions and pupil-teacher ratio has been emerged as significant determinants of primary, secondary and tertiary education in Pakistan. Although GNI per capita and public spending on education as percentage of GDP are positively correlated with education, however their influence for the enhancement of education has not been found as significant.
... In this situation, children of higher income earners had better educational opportunities compared to those from lower-income groups; thus, higher-income groups enjoyed greater benefits from government investment in education. Blanden and Machin (2004) find a strong relationship in Britain between family income and university degree attainment. This particular pattern of government investment in education expected to increase the inequality in income. ...
Article
Generally, inequalities of any kind are undesirable and the often mentioned income inequality in particular is a manifestation of inequality in other capability domains. Given the adverse implication of income inequality upon the economic and political environments, many would agree that having a less skewed distribution of income is preferable to a highly unequal one. Among various capabilities, education is seen as a potentially powerful income equalizer. The policy of equal access to education is supported, when there is an interest in equalizing income distribution. In this background, the present paper makes an attempt to examine the association between educational expansion and income distribution using cross-sectional data from India. This exercise is carried out independently for rural and urban sector. During the course of analysis, an attempt is made to examine the relationship between the mean and inequality in per capita income. The empirical results confirm the U-shaped relation between the mean and inequality in per capita income for rural sector. But for urban sector, it is found to be linear and positive. The analysis did not find any significant association between the levels of schooling and income inequality in rural sector. However, in urban sector, income inequality is found to be positively related to the share of graduates in the work force.
... Alongside this, the report called for a need to consider access to university, proposing that Widening Participation would support students from lower socioeconomic groups in accessing HE. Coincidentally, the mid and late 90s saw an increase in the gap in HE participation based on socio-economic situation (SES), classified in Socio-economic Groups (SEG) (Blanden and Machin, 2004). This changed the dynamic of the university as a public service, and although Universities continue to hold 'charity' status, they are permitted to charge fees, which rose again in 2004 following the 2003 report The Future of Higher Education (Clawson and Page, 2012) and the subsequent Higher Education Act of 2004. ...
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Although relating directly to the lives of young people, the employability agenda and attempts to address the so-called ‘STEM skills gap’ do not appear to take into consideration the very people it intends to affect. This research addresses a limitation in understanding the factors that influence decision-making processes of young people as they make their way from a degree to their future trajectories. I conducted a qualitative, narrative-based longitudinal study over 18 months with eight students from the beginning of their final year on their physics degree to six months after graduation. These ‘case stories’ are analysed by using Margaret Archer’s (2003, 2007, 2012) theoretical lens of Internal Conversations to understand everyday reflexivity in making decisions relating to career and employment. The research highlights a paradox in the expectations placed on graduates, particularly young people, as they prepare for employment. It finds that (1) rather than just the formal routes of employability development, young people’s decisions about their employment and career futures are influenced by the interplay of personal and structural aspects beyond financial exchange-value of a degree. It incorporates the competing demands of employers, university and their social networks, alongside personal expectations for themselves. (2) The thesis provides an improved understanding of the impact of physics in relation to getting any job; here I present the concept of the ‘Science Ego’ which enables physicists to transition to their futures with a certain sense of confidence. (3)The findings also call for a careful consideration of the impact of geography on transitioning from a degree. Overall, the research reveals the paradoxical nature of developing employability in a perpetually changing landscape of HE which is influenced by a neoliberal form of economy. Here, the individual also takes into consideration their own fulfilment rather than only complying with job market demands.
... A body of literature has established the importance of higher education (HE) in achieving social mobility (Blanden and Macmillan 2016;Chetty et al. 2014) and a range of positive life outcomes (Oreopoulos and Petronijevic 2013). At the same time, there is a large evidence base that university participation and graduation is graded by socioeconomic status, with individuals from advantaged backgrounds more likely to attend and complete university than their peers from disadvantaged backgrounds (Blanden and Machin 2004;Britton et al. 2016;Walker and Zhu 2018). In the interest of improving fairness and social justice, universities across the world have increased their efforts to diversify the profile of their student intake. ...
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Universities use 'first in family' or 'first generation' as an indicator to increase the diversity of their student intake, but little is known about whether it is a good indicator of disadvantage. We use nationally representative, longitudinal survey data linked to administrative data from England to provide the first comprehensive analysis of this measure. We employ parametric probability (logit) and non-parametric classification (random forest) models to look at its relative predictive power of university participation and graduation. We find that being first in family is an important barrier to university participation and graduation, over and above other sources of disadvantage. This association seems to operate through the channel of early educational attainment. Our findings indicate that the first in family indicator could be key in efforts to widen participation at universities.
... However, while some empirical studies demonstrated an increased probability for students from disadvantaged strata to get enrolled in higher education (Bratti et al. 2008;Breen et al. 2009;Chesters and Watson 2013;Chang 2018), other studies painted a gloomier picture. It was found that expansion in higher education disproportionately benefited students with high socioeconomic status, male students, and ethnic majorities (Blanden and Machin 2004;McCowan 2007;Rahona López 2009;Boliver 2010;Liu et al. 2016;Ilie and Rose 2018). In response to these seemingly contradictory findings, many theories have been proposed to explain the relationship between education expansion and education inequality. ...
Article
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In line with global trends, China experienced a rapid expansion in its higher education system in the second half of the twentieth century, and has seen especially large growth since the early 2000s. The expansion of higher education means an increase in the total quantity of educational opportunities. Although it is expected that education expansion can lead to a more equalized distribution of educational opportunities, based on the extant research in China, there is currently no consensus regarding the impact of higher education expansion on equality in educational opportunity. Moreover, only a few researchers have examined the difference in its impact between elite and non-elite higher education. By analyzing the data from the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) 2015, this study aims to investigate the relationship between higher education expansion and inequalities in educational opportunities in the context of China and to analyze the difference in the influence of this expansion between elite and non-elite higher education. The findings of this study show that, except for gender disparity, inequalities affected by household registration, family economic status, and parental education level were not ameliorated after expansion. In addition, the decrease in gender inequality in access to higher education was greater in elite than non-elite higher education. Possible reasons and policy implications are given based on the data analysis in this paper.
... Health literacy, specifically, has been shown to be lower among ethnic minority groups, and may account for the lower awareness scores among some of these groups [21]. Years of education, meanwhile, has been shown to be lower among older adults and is associated with health literacy [22]; as such, the results may not be generalisable to future generations with more years of education. ...
Article
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Background To date, research exploring the public’s awareness of bowel cancer has taken place with predominantly white populations. To enhance our understanding of how bowel cancer awareness varies between ethnic groups, and inform the development of targeted interventions, we conducted a questionnaire study across three ethnically diverse regions in Greater London, England. Methods Data were collected using an adapted version of the bowel cancer awareness measure. Eligible adults were individuals, aged 60+ years, who were eligible for screening. Participants were recruited and surveyed, verbally, by staff working at 40 community pharmacies in Northwest London, the Harrow Somali association, and St. Mark’s Bowel Cancer Screening Centre. Associations between risk factor, symptom and screening awareness scores and ethnicity were assessed using multivariate regression. Results 1013 adults, aged 60+ years, completed the questionnaire; half were of a Black, Asian or Minority ethnic group background (n = 507; 50.0%). Participants recognised a mean average of 4.27 of 9 symptoms and 3.99 of 10 risk factors. Symptom awareness was significantly lower among all ethnic minority groups (all p’s < 0.05), while risk factor awareness was lower for Afro-Caribbean and Somali adults, specifically (both p’s < 0.05). One in three adults (n = 722; 29.7%) did not know there is a Bowel Cancer Screening Programme. Bowel screening awareness was particularly low among Afro-Caribbean and Somali adults (both p’s < 0.05). Conclusion Awareness of bowel cancer symptoms, risk factors and screening varies by ethnicity. Interventions should be targeted towards specific groups for whom awareness of screening and risk factors is low.
... Countless studies have shown that increased levels of participation in higher education are significantly correlated with greater levels of socioeconomic development (Blanden & Machin, 2004). MOOCs as they are currently designed, however, seem to contribute to the increase of unequal opportunities that pose insurmountable challenges to underprivileged learners in developing countiries and to refugees who are forced into displacement throughout Europe, the Middle East, and Asia. ...
Article
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There is a growing body of literature that recognizes the role Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) can play in improving access to education globally, and particularly to thousands of people in developing and developed countries. There is increasing concern, however, that the millions of displaced refugee learners throughout Europe, the Middle East, and other regions are still disadvantaged when it comes to engaging in learning through MOOCs. The reasons for this disadvantage range from a lack of appropriate infrastructure or other supporting structures, to a lack of contextualized content. So far, little attention has been paid to contextualized MOOC models, which may both impact policies and be adapted to the specific needs of these learners who often do not have the means to access many education opportunities. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to propose a frugally-engineered MOOC model that addresses the barriers of access and participation for refugees. This paper engages in an exploratory research methodology, using findings from the literature and expert opinions gathered through interviews. These findings lead to the development of what the authors call a Frugal MOOC Model which can be contextualized to meet the needs of refugee learners. The paper goes on to highlight the development of the Frugal MOOC Model as the first phase of an ongoing study. It concludes with recommendations for the next phase of the study: how to implement the newly developed model.
... This is notable because these new university status institutions provided more vocationally focused courses than the traditional research based universities, and subsequently resulted in a rapid increase in participation in higher education in the UK. In the early 1960s around 6% of school leavers attended HEIs, rising to 14% by 1970, steadily rising to 20% in the late 1980s, before a more rapid increase to 33% by 2001 (Blanden and Machin, 2004). Government policy decisions encouraged HEIs to increase their income by recruiting larger numbers of students, and students were willing to invest in higher education as changes in the economy shifted demand from manufacturing towards more service industry based employment. ...
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This article outlines the origins of employability as a concept related to higher education, and its impact on Uzbek higher education policy. By arguing that the recognition of employability arose out of changes in global employment demands, and is aligned to global theories of human capital, it can be asserted that the topdown Uzbek government driven changes in higher education policy have reinforced the employability agenda. Although it is debatable whether a top-down enforced employability agenda is beneficial in terms of pedagogy, many universities are incorporating pedagogy to develop employability in their programmes. It is argued that ideas of pedagogy for employability can be best exploited if linked to the ideas of pre-professional and graduate identity, and even more so if both lecturers and students understand how learning environments can be used to best effect. Also highlighted is the fact that debates surrounding employability have taken place over recent years in primarily Anglo-Saxon contexts, and that there is a need for research in a more diverse range of higher education institutions, particularly in Central Asia.
... Underpinning the case for wider participation is research on the relationship between HE participation, parental education and children's educational attainment. Studies in the United Kingdom and the United States and by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development demonstrate that parental characteristics, especially education levels and socio-economic status, are key determinants of HE participation (Blanden and Gregg, 2004;Blanden and Machin, 2004;Carneiro and Heckman, 2002). Other UK and international research shows that socio-economic gaps in children's attainment emerge very early, before they start school, and grow over time, and that a child's family background has a substantial influence on their educational development (Cunha and Heckman, 2007;Feinstein, 2003;Demack et al., 2000). ...
... For proponents of education inequality correlating positively with income inequality, the main effect of education is through acquisition of skills that affect productivity and therefore earnings. They argue that education provides economic and social opportunities for poor individuals (Blanden and Machin 2004) and therefore can be perceived as a means of reducing income inequality. Access to education endows poor individuals with skills and sometimes decreases the gap between skilled and unskilled labourers. ...
... Eide and Showalter (1999) use US data and find that the intergenerational elasticity falls when years of schooling are considered as an additional variable. Blanden and Machin (2004) conclude that the higher education expansion mainly benefited children from relatively rich families. In the same line, Gregg et al. (2015) find that education is not so meritocratic with the role of parental income dominating that of education at the top of the distribution of earnings. ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to study the effect of family socioeconomic status (SES) on academic and labor market outcomes. Design/methodology/approach The authors used a rich data set of administrative records for test scores, individual background and adult earnings of a cohort of agents, covering a period spanning the agents' upper-secondary education and their early years in the labor market. Findings The authors find that students with the highest SES obtained a 1.5 standard deviations higher score in the college admission test than students who had the same academic outcomes in the eighth grade test but belong to the lowest SES. Similarly, among students that obtained the same scores in the college admission test, those with the highest SES earned monthly wages 0.7 standard deviations higher than those with the lowest SES. Originality/value The findings highlight that family socioeconomic background continues to influence outcomes during individuals’ upper secondary education and early years in the labor market.
... Furthermore, the increase in income inequality due to education expansion is likely to stem from inequality in education attainment. In the 1980s and 1990s, UK HE participation among children from richer families rose faster than among children from poorer backgrounds (Blanden and Machin, 2004). Although education Notes: HE = higher education; wBm = white British men; nwBm = non-white-British men; wBw = white British women; nwBw = non-white-British women; PCMI = population characteristics and market incomes; TBP = tax-benefit policies. ...
Article
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Over the past years, education attainment has increased at an unprecedented rate in Great Britain. We analyze how the education expansion affected inequality in household net incomes since the early 2000s. We show that, all else being equal, education composition changes led to higher living standards mostly through higher wages. As education expansion led to larger income gains in the middle and top than at the bottom of the distribution, income inequality increased. Despite the increasing share of high‐educated workers, we find limited evidence of a “compression” effect on inequality, as the higher education wage premium remained broadly unchanged.
... Higher education participation of youth in the society is also linked to cultural capital. According to Blanden and Machin (2004), to a certain extent, education is extremely benefited for those persons who belongs to rich families. In spite of the reality, numerous children from higher income backgrounds take part in higher education. ...
Article
Equality of opportunity in higher education participation is a basic right of people in a society that leads to their social mobility in the long run. Benadusi (2002) endorsed Bourdieu’s explanations that cultural capital acts as an empowering force that predetermines equality/inequality of educational opportunity of people in a society. The study, thus, aimed to explore cultural capital as means of participation in higher education and eventually social mobility of women. A cross sectional survey was used to collect data from 103 working and 97 non-working women using purposive and convenience sampling. The study found positive relation of cultural capital of women with their participation in higher education and social mobility. Significant difference was also found between cultural capitals of working and non- working women, where cultural capital of working women was high as compared to non-working. The study therefore, concludes that education for women must be the core value of our society to enhance their cultural capital as well as social mobility in a society. Because higher is the cultural capital of women; higher would be their participation rate in higher education and social mobility for them.
... Davies et al., 2005;Bernasconi and Profeta, 2012;Uchida, 2018;Assaad and Saleh, 2018), school tracking systems (Bauer and Riphahn, 2006), school starting age (Bauer and Riphahn, 2009), higher education expansion (e.g. Blanden and Machin, 2004;Li andZhang, 2017, Liu andWan, 2019), public expenditure on education (Grawe, 2010), household assets (Huang, 2013), cigarette tax policy (Settele and Ewijk, 2018) and natural disasters (Caruso and Miller, 2015;Caruso, 2017). However, literature on the role of epidemics in ITE is rare. ...
Article
This paper examines the impact of the SARS epidemic in 2003 on intergenerational mobility in China. Using large cross-city variation in SARS cases, our triple difference-in-differences estimates suggest that the SARS epidemic significantly increases the intergenerational transmission of education. Our results show that a one percent increase in the number of SARS cases leads to a 9.3 percent increase in the maternal intergeneration transmission coefficient. The effect of the SARS epidemic is stronger for admission to 4-year bachelor programmes and more concentrated in female students and students in large cities. This paper also investigates the potential mechanisms and finds that more highly educated mothers tend to be more engaged in children’s studies during the epidemic period when teachers are absent. These results convey the warning message that pandemics may reduce intergenerational mobility of education.
... Proportional to the size of the student body in college towns is the presence of a student population, many of whom have part-time jobs, which might displace local youths from the labour market. Especially, given that those at risk of YUR are typically from weaker socioeconomic backgrounds, whilst HE students are disproportionately middle-and upper-middle class (Blanden & Machin, 2004;Vryonides & Lamprianou, 2013). The labor supply of students is an important channel for the impact of HEIs on their host communities. ...
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This paper examines the impact of higher education on youth unemployment. Following the 2008 financial crisis, youth unemployment returned to the fore as a serious concern among policy makers in Europe. A crucial difference from previous recessions is that this time around supply of higher education opportunities was much higher than in the 1980s, and indeed higher education participation rates grew rapidly in many regions during this period. Drawing on previous work on youth unemployment and the economic impacts of education we identify a variety of channels through which higher education is likely to influence youth unemployment. We examine this issue using a macro-panel of European regions for the period 2002-2012. This decade was characterized by variation in economic activity and higher education rates. Our results suggest that expansion of higher education during this period had a mitigating effect on youth unemployment and not recognizing this external benefit of education risks underestimating the effects of macroeconomic shocks on young people.
... A large part of the literature is concerned with the question whether expansions help decrease the gap between adolescents from different parental backgrounds. Generally, this does not seem to be the case in both developed (Blanden and Machin, 2004;Blanden and Macmillan, 2016;Bratti et al., 2008;Oppedisano, 2011) and developing countries (Ou and Hou, 2019;Méndez, 2020). Few studies focus in equality of opportunity between genders. 1 1 Siegler (2015) evaluates whether the German education expansion helped increase local demand for higher education. ...
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In light of persistent gender inequality on the labour market, I investigate how social norms affect women’s labour market integration along two dimen- sions: through reduced labour supply upon the arrival of children and through constraints on geographic mobility. I first look at the persistence and change of gender norms around the time of childbirth. To that end, I explore the setting of the German reunification. East Germany, a state socialist country, encouraged mothers to participate in the labour market full-time, whereas West Germany propagated a male breadwinner-model. Zooming in on East and West Germans who migrated across the former inner-German border, I document a strong asymmetry in the persistence of the culture in which women were raised. Whereas East German female migrants return to work earlier and work longer hours after childbirth than their West German colleagues, West German migrants adjust their post-birth labour supply nearly entirely to that of their East German colleagues. West German return migrants continue to be influenced by the East German norm even after their return to the West, pointing towards the importance of learning from peers. Second, taking advantage of differential inflows of East German migrants across West German workplaces after reunification, I show that even a partial exposure to East German colleagues induces local mothers to accelerate their return to work after childbirth, suggesting that migration might be a catalyst for cultural change. Third, turning towards public policy, I document that women’s higher education in the 1960s in West Germany was severely restricted by mobility barriers, whereas men’s was not. Exploiting the German university expansion which brought universities to places where there were none before, I show that women benefited from a local university twice as much as men, indicating that creating local opportunities can be a meaningful way to promote gender equality.
... The ability of students in the United Kingdom, and more specifically Scotland, to transfer credits between FEC's and universities in part contributes to the government's overarching goal of widening access to higher education. The need to implement such policies is in response to findings revealing that the expansion in higher education that has so far occurred in the United Kingdom has not been evenly distributed across income brackets with those from higher income households disproportionately benefitting more than those from low income households (Blanden & Machin, 2004;Machin & Vignoles, 2004). The role of socioeconomic status is also highlighted in similar studies (Blanden & Gregg, 2004;Gayle et al., 2002) More recent research by Chowdry et al. (2013) indicates that secondary school performance plays a more significant role in determining the likelihood of higher education participation than one's place on the socioeconomic ladder. ...
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en We estimate the wage returns of undergraduates who attained their degree via Scotland's Further Education College Articulation policy. We contribute to existing literature by adding to the research on varying returns based on paths to acquiring a degree, while also being the first paper to examine the returns associated with Scottish Articulation. While Articulation students receive a wage premium relative to college students, we find lower returns for Articulation students relative to those from older and higher ranking university institutions in Scotland. This result questions whether improving educational equality, translates to improved income equality between low versus higher income backgrounds. Abstract it Stimiamo i rendimenti salariali degli studenti universitari che hanno conseguito la laurea tramite la politica di articolazione dell'Ulterior Education College (FEC) della Scozia. Contribuiamo alla letteratura esistente aggiungendo alla ricerca sui rendimenti variabili in base ai percorsi per l'acquisizione di una laurea, essendo anche il primo documento a esaminare i rendimenti associati all'articolazione scozzese. Mentre gli studenti di Articulation ricevono un premio salariale rispetto agli studenti universitari, troviamo rendimenti inferiori per gli studenti di Articulation rispetto a quelli delle istituzioni universitarie più vecchie e di rango superiore in Scozia. Questo risultato mette in dubbio se il miglioramento dell'uguaglianza educativa si traduca in una migliore uguaglianza di reddito tra ambienti a basso reddito rispetto a quelli più alti.
... There is, however, a large literature on socioeconomic gaps in access to higher education in the UK (e.g. Blanden and Machin, 2004). We know that parental education has a substantial impact on the educational levels of their children (e.g. ...
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Universities around the world are attempting to increase the diversity of their student population. This includes individuals who are 'first in family' (FiF), those who achieve a university degree, but whose (step) parents did not. We provide the first large scale, quantitative evidence on FiF graduates in England using a nationally representative survey linked to administrative education data. We find that FiF young people make up 18 percent of a recent cohort, comprising nearly two-thirds of all university graduates. Comparing individuals with no parental higher education we show that ethnic minorities and those with higher levels of prior attainment are more likely to experience intergenerational educational mobility and become a FiF. Once at university, those who are FiF are more likely to study Law, Economics and Management and less likely to study other Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities than students whose parents are university graduates. We also find evidence that FiF students are less likely to graduate from elite universities and have a higher probability of dropping out, even after prior educational attainment, individual characteristics and socioeconomic status are taken into account.
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How should a liberal democratic society value knowledge and understanding, and does this valuation inform how we ought to reason about the justice of our educational institutions? In scholarly and public discourse, it is orthodox to argue that because educational institutions bring about various goods—goods of character such as wellbeing or economic goods such as social mobility – they ought to be structured by principles of political justice. In this paper, I argue that knowledge and understanding valued for its own sake should also inform judgements of educational justice.
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L’articolo presenta nuove e più recenti evidenze sulla mobilità intergenerazionale di istruzione in Italia. Alla luce delle disuguaglianze educative appare importante verificare se esiste una relazione diretta tra il titolo di studio dei genitori e quello dei figli. I risultati ottenuti dalla stima delle matrici di transizione suggeriscono che è ancora presente un significativo differenziale tra figli di genitori non istruiti e figli di genitori laureati e che le persistenze nelle classi di origine sono elevate. La dinamica degli indici di mobilità evidenzia, peraltro, che per la coorte dei più giovani si assiste ad una riduzione degli spostamenti tra classi non immediatamente adiacenti.
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This paper examines whether opportunity of access to public university has improved over the period 2008–2013 in Uruguay; in which an important territorial expansion of the public university supply, historically located in Montevideo (the capital of Uruguay), to other regions of the country (named the Interior) took place. Results suggest that Uruguay expanded opportunity to access university increasingly towards the more disadvantaged individuals. However, as the coverage rate of students from better-off parental educational background increased more than for those from less-privileged ones, inequality of opportunity worsened in the Interior.
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Este estudo tem como um dos seus principais objetivos perceber até que ponto a massificação do acesso ao ensino superior tem contribuído para colmatar ou acentuar desigualdades no acesso, sucesso e permanência/abandono dos estudantes no ensino superior português. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a expansão do ensino superior em Portugal – que tem sido marcada pelo aumento da oferta formativa e pelo crescimento do número de candidatos e colocados a cada ano letivo – não se traduz na eliminação de desigualdades sentidas pelos estudantes no acesso, na decisão de permanência ou abandono, ou até na entrada no mercado de trabalho, sendo o contexto socioeconómico o fator aquele que mais impacta estes cenários. Procurou-se ainda mapear o número de estudantes internacionais inscritos no ensino superior português e analisar a sua evolução, bem como compreender as motivações, estratégias, fatores de atratividade e os desafios das instituições de ensino superior (IES) em Portugal no recrutamento de estudantes internacionais.
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La presente investigación analiza la evolución de las expectativas formativas entre los años 2003 y 2018 en España, y los mecanismos y estrategias que generan desigualdad por origen social en los planes formativos del alumnado español. Para ello, se emplea información del estudio PISA y se analiza la expectativa vertical de matriculación en la Educación Secundaria Superior, la expectativa horizontal de matriculación en el Bachillerato entre aquellos que esperan matricularse en la Educación Secundaria Superior, la expectativa vertical de matriculación en la Educación Terciaria y la expectativa horizontal de matriculación en la universidad entre aquellos que esperan matricularse en la Educación Terciaria.
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We study the causal impact of education on chronic health conditions by exploitng two UK education policy reforms. The first reform raised the minimum school leaving age in 1972 and affected the lower end of the educational attainment distribution. The second reform is a combination of several policy changes that affected the broader educational attainment distribution in the early 1990s. Results are consistent across both reforms: an extra year of schooling has no statistically identifiable impact on the prevalence of most chronic health conditions. The exception is that both reforms led to a statistically significant reduction in the probability of having diabetes, and this result is robust across model specifications. However, even with the largest survey samples available in the UK, we are unable to statistically rule out moderate size educational effects for many of the other health conditions, although we generally find considerably smaller effects than OLS associations suggest.
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Computer-Aided Assessment (CAA) is becoming an increasingly popular method for assessing students in their mathematics courses in higher education. This article examines six lecturers' practices of using CAA on their mathematics courses. The interviews with these lecturers revealed that the CAA system did provide many of the benefits that were promised; however, there were some important aims not satisfied by the system, which limited the scope of its effectiveness. Using a model for effective assessment, which draws upon ideas from the assessment literature and cultural-historical activity theory, the lecturer interviews give an insight into what stops this assessment tool from remaining effective. This study shows that the CAA system was reasonably effective to an extent, and lecturers had achieved a relatively stable practice that they were satisfied to maintain; however, there were shortcomings with the existing system that limited the scope of its effectiveness, which led to diverse practices and a desire to change system.
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This chapter charts 150 years of women’s university education. First, early women pioneers of university education including the ‘London Nine’ and the founding of Girton College are discussed. Second, teaching careers for women upon graduation in the early twentieth century are explored. Third, the women’s single-sex Oxbridge colleges are compared to the co-educational civic universities. Fourth, a discussion of the Robbins Report wanting women to benefit from the expansion of university provision is outlined. Fifth, women undertaking Open University degrees are discussed. Sixth, the social composition of universities as highlighted by the Dearing Report and university provision under the New Labour government are explained. Finally financing university study since 2019 is emphasised due to its relevance to this study of working-class women undergraduates.
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A number of studies demonstrate that quantitative teaching provides social science students with analytical and critical skills. Accordingly, the skills acquired during quantitative teaching are assumed to enhance students’ progress in and after their degree. However, previous studies rely on subjective measures of students’ evaluations of their skills. So far, no prior studies have examined whether the skills obtained through quantitative teaching can be transferred to an overall better performance at university. In order to address this gap, we use high-quality administrative records to examine the impact of quantitative teaching on undergraduate students’ overall marks. The results show that students subject to additional quantitative teaching obtain significantly better marks throughout their studies. The evidence emphasizes the importance of methodological pluralism for social science students.
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This research examines the influence of social class stratification on students’ self-reported academic engagement. Drawing from 44 interviews with students from the three major class groups at an elite university, we show how social class patterns academic engagement. We analyze academic engagement along the following four domains: strategies for academic achievement, beliefs in personal ability, connections to academics, and the alignments between academic activities and career plans (Wang and Castenada-Sound, 2008). Counterintuitively, compared to both upper class and students from the lower class, middle-class students reported the lowest levels of academic engagement. We discuss possible explanations for these non-linear findings. We conclude by recommending that our traditional conceptions of academic engagement need to take social class into account, and further, that policy makers consider scaffolding for all non-upper class students within elite spaces.
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Universities use ‘first in family’ or ‘first generation’ as an indicator to increase the diversity of their student intake, but little is known about whether it is a good indicator of disadvantage. We use nationally representative, longitudinal survey data linked to administrative data from England to provide the first comprehensive analysis of this measure. We employ parametric probability (logit) and non-parametric classification (random forest) models to look at its relative predictive power of university participation and graduation. We find that being first in family is an important barrier to university participation and graduation, over and above other sources of disadvantage. This association seems to operate through the channel of early educational attainment. Our findings indicate that the first in family indicator could be key in efforts to widen participation at universities.
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Over the last decades, various policies at national and local levels have been implemented to widen participation in higher education (HE) in Scotland and more widely in the UK. Despite this, the acquisition of a HE qualification is still largely determined by the family in which individuals are born. Our study provides new evidence on the extent to which family factors matter by examining sibling data from the Scottish Longitudinal Study, a large‐scale linkage study created using data from administrative and statistical sources. Random effects linear probability models are used to analyse individual and family‐level variance in the chances of obtaining a HE qualification. Our results show that about 40% of the variation in the chances of attaining a university degree is explained by siblings’ shared family characteristics and about a third of this share is explained by parental social class, education and housing tenure. A high degree of sibling similarity in the outcome was found across all social‐origin classes. However, while siblings of advantaged families are alike because they both graduated from HE, siblings of disadvantaged families are alike because neither of them did. We suggest that parental compensatory strategies in the former families and economic constraints in the latter families may explain such stark patterns of inequality. Finally, we do not find evidence that the availability of sub‐degrees makes a difference to these patterns.
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In recent years there has been a tendency to deregulate higher education systems, allowing them to follow the interplay of the supply and demand forces instead of shaping it through strong government regulation. One of the areas where these regulatory changes may have a more significant impact is that of access policies. In this article, we analyse a policy change in Portugal aimed at steering students’ behaviour and promoting greater institutional and geographical dispersion. This study discusses the effectiveness of this approach, namely by comparing its actual results with a simulation of what would have happened if there were no changes in the access system. We discuss to what extent the policy has had the impact it was expected or if students have reacted in a way that has undermined the intended policy objectives and draw some conclusions about the complexities of regulating students’ demand.
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We consider the implementation of Kernel methods in empirical microeconomics with specific application to Engel curve estimation in the analysis of consumer behavior. A set of recently developed tests for the parametric null hypothesis against a nonparametric alternative are discussed and implemented for the Engel curve application. We also consider semi-parametric estimation in partially linear models and the case of endogenous regressors. Gauss-based software is available for each technique implemented in the paper.
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This paper estimates a dynamic model of schooling attainment to investigate the sources of racial and ethnic disparity in college attendance. Parental income in the child's adolescent years is a strong predictor of this disparity. This is widely interpreted to mean that credit constraints facing families during the college-going years are important. Using NLSY data, we find that it is the long-run factors associated with parental background and family environment, and not credit constraints facing prospective students in the college-going years, that account for most of the racial-ethnic college-going differential. Policies aimed at improving these long-term family and environmental factors are more likely to be successful in eliminating college attendance differentials than short-term tuition reduction and family income supplement policies aimed at families with college age children.
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This paper examines an empirical regularity found in many societies: that family influences on the probability of transiting from one grade level to the next diminish at higher levels of education. We examine the statistical model used to establish the empirical regularity and the intuitive behavioral interpretation often used to rationalize it. We show that the implicit economic model assumes myopia. The intuitive interpretive model is identified only by imposing arbitrary distributional assumptions onto the data. We produce an alternative choice-theoretic model with fewer parameters that rationalizes the same data and is not based on arbitrary distributional assumptions.
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This paper compares the changing skill structure of wage bills and employment in the United States with six other OECD countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom). We investigate whether a directly observed measure of technical change (R&D intensity) is closely linked to the growth in the importance of more highly skilled workers which has occurred in all countries. Evidence of a significant association between skill upgrading and R&D intensity is uncovered in all seven countries. These results provide evidence that skill-biased technical change is an international phenomenon that has had a clear effect of increasing the relative demand for skilled workers.
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This paper reviews the achievements of the Labour government's education policy between 1997 and 2001. Tony Blair claimed that his government would make education a priority. The first part of the paper reviews the scale of education spending in relation to the economy at large and within the education budget. The second part of the paper looks at the productivity of schools. How far have the changes that have affected schools in the past 10 years, and in the past 5 years in particular, had an impact on the quality of school achievements? The paper suggests there have been significant improvements, not just on average but especially in the gains made in poor areas and in the least good schools. Finally the paper discusses the funding of higher education, the introduction of income-related loans to cover maintenance, and up-front fees. The paper concludes that some serious errors were made in policy design. Even so, the use of the Inland Revenue as the collection agency was a successful innovation and should be built upon. Copyright 2002, Oxford University Press.
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This paper reviews the achievements of the Labour Government's education policy between 1997 and 2001. Tony Blair claimed that his Government would make education a priority. The first part of the paper reviews the scale of education spending in relation to the economy at large and within the education budget. The second part of the paper looks at the productivity of schools. How far have the changes that have affected schools in the past ten years and the past five in particular affected the quality of school achievements? The paper suggests there have been significant improvements not just on average but especially in the gains made in poor areas and in the least good schools. Finally the paper discusses the funding of higher education, the introduction of income related loans to cover maintenance and up front fees. The paper concludes some serious errors were made in policy design. Even so the use of the Inland Revenue as the collection agency was a successful innovation and should be built upon.
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This paper looks at changes over time in the extent of educational inequality - defined as educational attainment by people from higher relative to lower income backgrounds. It draws upon household and longitudinal data sources in both the UK and US to look at this highly policy relevant question. The data shows a sharp rise in educational inequality over time in the UK, but with the stage of the education sequence mattering. In particular the rapid expansion of higher education seen in the recent past in the UK disproportionately benefited children from relatively affluent backgrounds. The international comparisons show different patterns of change in the association between education and family income over time in the UK relative to the US. We link these findings on changes in educational inequality to the literature on intergenerational mobility, arguing that international differences in educational systems matter for the extent of economic and social mobility across generations.
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Wage inequality has risen significantly in the UK since the late 1970s. The most rapid widening of the gap between well paid and low paid workers occurred in the 1980s, but wage inequality probably continued to rise (at least for men), albeit at a much slower pace, through the 1990s. An important feature of rising wage inequality in the last quarter century was increased wage gaps between workers with high levels of education as compared to those with low education levels. Educational wage differentials rose at the same time as the education levels of the workforce rose suggesting that the relative demand for more educated workers increased. There is some preliminary evidence that wage differentials by education may have stopped rising at the end of the 1990s and start of the 2000s, which is consistent with the very rapid supply increases that occurred with the expansion of the higher education system.
Article
A rapidly growing literature, surveyed in Solon (1999), is examining the empirical association between the incomes of parents and their children. With the acquisition of new data, researchers recently have begun to explore the ways in which intergenerational income mobility varies between countries and over time. Solon (2002) summarizes the new international evidence, which is substantially expanded by several of the chapters in this book. In addition, Reville (1995), Fertig (2001), and the authors of Chapter 5 have begun to study temporal change in intergenerational mobility in the United States, and the authors of Chapter 6 address that subject for the United Kingdom. This new research on intergenerational mobility variation over time and place is important both because it documents important features and trends in income inequality and because it may produce valuable clues about how income status is transmitted across generations. The purpose of this chapter is to present a theoretical framework for interpreting the evidence from this newly emerging literature. I begin by modifying the Becker–Tomes (1979) model in a way that rationalizes the log-linear intergenerational income regression commonly estimated by empirical researchers. Analysis of the model shows that the steady-state intergenerational income elasticity increases with the heritability of income-related traits, the efficacy of human capital investment, and the earnings return to human capital, and it decreases with the progressivity of public investment in human capital. Cross-country differences in both intergenerational mobility and cross-sectional income inequality could arise from differences in any of these factors.
Article
Logistic response models of the effects of parental socioeconomic characteristics and family structure on the probability of making selected school transitions for white American males are estimated by maximum likelihood using the 1973 Occupational Changes in a Generation Survey data. As a consequence of differential attrition patterns, parental socioeconomic effects decline sharply from the earliest school transitions to the latest. Estimated effects of parental income on grade progression decline by more than 50 percent between elementary school and college.
Article
We exploit the changes in the distribution of family income to estimate the effect of parental resources on college education. Our strategy exploits the fact that families at the bottom of the income distribution were much poorer in the 1990s than they were in the 1970s, while the opposite is true for families in the top quartile of the distribution. Our estimates suggest large effects of family income on enrollments. For example, we find that a 10 percent increase in family income is associated with a 1.4 percent increase in the probability of attending a four-year college.
Article
Higher education has undergone considerable expansion in recent decades in a number of OECD countries. Expansion has been especially dramatic in the UK where aggregate student numbers have doubled in 20 years. However, over the same period, funding per student has halved in real terms. In the UK as well as in other countries, most notably Australia, innovation to diversify the funding base has taken place. This has included a limited role for fee contributions. This paper makes the case for much greater reliance on fee contributions from students, accompanied by a greater availability of income contingent loans. Copyright Royal Economic Society 2003
Article
The paper uses data from the annual British General household Survey to examine changes in the structure of weekly earnings for full-time male employees aged 16 to 64 during the period 1974-1988. The principal findings are: (1) earnings inequality fell slightly in the second half of the 1970s only to grow sharply during the 1980s; (2) rising financial returns to education and labor market experience in the 1980s account for between one-third and one-half of the growth in earnings inequality during the 1980s; (3) the earnings if low-skilled workers increased by over 15 percent in real terms between 1974 and 1988. Rising returns to skills in the face of large increase in the supply of skilled labor suggest a substantial shift in labor demand in favor of skilled workers. Changes in British labor market institutions, particularly the decline in trade unions density may also help to explain part of the rise in inequality during the 1980s.
Estelle Morris' Speech 'Key challenges of the next decade
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Reforming Higher Education Wage inequality in the UK
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The Price of Admission: Rethinking how Americans Pay for College
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Wage inequality in the 1970s The State of Working Britain Wage inequality since 1975 The Labour Market Under New Labour Technology and changes in skill structure: evidence from seven OECD countries
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What Money Can't Buy: Family Income and Children's Life Chances The changing structure of male earnings in Britain
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Study now, pay later' or 'HE for free'? An assessment of alternative proposals for higher education finance. Institute for Fiscal Studies Commentary No
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GOODMAN, A. and KAPLAN, G. (2003). 'Study now, pay later' or 'HE for free'? An assessment of alternative proposals for higher education finance. Institute for Fiscal Studies Commentary No. 94.
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Changes in intergenerational mobility in Britain. Centre for the Economics of Education Discussion Paper No. 26, London School of Economics
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BLANDEN, J., GOODMAN, A., GREGG, P. and MACHIN, S. (2002). Changes in intergenerational mobility in Britain. Centre for the Economics of Education Discussion Paper No. 26, London School of Economics. Forthcoming in M. Corak (ed.), Generational Income Mobility in North America and Europe. Cambridge University Press.