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... The potential uses of biofertilizers in agriculture play an important role in providing an economically viable level for achieving the ultimate goal to enhance economical crops productivity. (Elhassan et al., 2010). Investigations in Sudan showed that plant inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi enhance nodule formation and dry matter (Mahdi et al., 2004). ...
... MS200 (82.3cm), MA200 (82.0cm), this results agree with (Elhassan et al., 2010). As shown in table (2) Top dry weight: ...
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Vesicular Arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi play an important role in plant nutrition and plant productivity. The experiment was conducted to examine the effect of indigenous strains of mycorrhizal Fungi and fertilization on maize plant under greenhouse conditions. Soil and root samples of three crop plants (Alfalfa, sugar cane and date palm) were collected from the rhizosphere from depth 0-30cm of two different sites of Sudan(Northern State and Khartoum State). The (VAM) spores were isolated by wet sieving and decanting method. Root dry weights, plant height, root colonization, tissue phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium were significantly affected by the VAM. At P treatment root dry weight was increased by 14.3% compared to the control. Compared with the control treatment, the MD400 treatment increased maize plant height, shoot dry weight, N (%), P (%), and K (%) by 10.1%, and 37.9%, 120%, 150%, and 100% respectively. The MS400 increased, root colonization by 70% relative to control treatment. While color rating increased by N treatment by 53.8%.
... There are many organic inputs existing in the local Sudanese market. Some are locally produced and some are introduced with varied quality especially in term of bio-organic fertilizers (Elhassan et al., 2010). On the other hand, 7% of registered pesticides are biopesticides is about 18 trading mark, but about 5-6 active ingredients mostly are bacterial origin. ...
... The suspected farmers and consumers, and the receptor market for products (locally and outside) is exist but the lack of leading or organizing body in such direction is key lock for the organic products. The market is open and there are many immature and incompatible types of compost without any control (Elhassan et al., 2010]). Water availability is major limiting factor in agriculture in Sudan (Malik, 2010). ...
... N has been gradually depleted from the soils and now poses serious threats to successful production of food and requires the use of N fertilizer (Kong et al., 2008). This problem can be alleviated by the use of nitrogen fertilizers which on the other hand increases the cost of production to farmers and adversely affect the environment (Gadalla et al., 2010;Gibson et al., 2013). The sustainable way to solve the problem of nitrogen deficiency is to use the environmental friendly biological nitrogen fixation technology in cropping systems (Gibson et al., 2013). ...
... The potential uses of biofertilizers in agriculture play an important role of providing an economically viable level for achieving the ultimate goal to enhance productivity. In a study of Rhizobial cross inoculation groups of Faidherbia albida and Acacia nilotica, Acacia senegal, A. tortilis, A. seyal and A. melifera, it was found that the frequency of nodulation and total nitrogen content were maximized when each individual plant species was inoculated with its own isolate of Rhizobium (Gadalla et al., 2010). ...
... In 2008 the factory was established in an area of 5.5 feddans at Elselate Scheme and the average production was 5 t/month, The average production rate in 2009 reached 150 t/month. It is packaged in two cans 50 Kg or 2Kg sacs and available in the market (7). ...
... There are some problems associated to inorganic fertilizer such as their unavailability of fertilizer at the right time, ruining and high cost. Excessive use of chemical fertilizer causes soil, water and environmental pollution associated with health hazards (Elhassan et al., 2010). The use of natural fertilizers (organic manures and biofertilizers) is the need of time to sustain the crop productivity as there is gradual increase in prices and pollution caused by chemical fertilizers (Zaki et al., 2007). ...
... increased shoot dry weight when guar genotype inoculated with. The inoculation with strains H12, H8, L10, L6 and L7 increased shoot dry weight respectively by 4%, 60%, 50%, 1% and 61%. the findings were on line with the results of Elhassan et al, [19] mentioned that The inoculation of faba bean with rhizobium strain TAL 1400 constantly resulted in severe increments in the fresh and dry weights of shoot, root, nodules, number of nodules, nodule dry weight, grain yield and N2 fixation. Inoculation with local and introduced strains significantly (p≤0.05) ...
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Bio-fertilizers are environment friendly and protect the environment against the pollutant. Afield experiment was conducted in semi-arid environment ”North Kordofan of Sudan” in rainy seasons (2008/09) to investigate the effect of inoculation of Bradyrhizobium on growth and yield of guar (Cyamopsis teteragonolopa L.) in gardoud soil. The treatments used were: un-inoculated control, inoculated with TAL169 and Hi12 (introduced), and other12 strains (Local Isolated Strains). The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Estimated Parameters were: fresh and dry weight of shoot and root, plant height, number of fruiting branches, number of nodules, number of pods per plant, 100-seed (g) and total seed yield (ton/ha). The results showed that, the Bradyrhizobium significant increased growth and yield attributes of guar
... In 2008 the factory was established in an area of 5.5 feddans at Elselate Scheme and the average production was 5 t/month, The average production rate in 2009 reached 150 t/month. It is packaged in two cans 50 Kg or 2Kg sacs and available in the market (7). ...
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Green house study was conducted in Shambat area to investigate the effect of chicken manure row or compost at 12 and 24 g/5kg alone or mixed with nitrogen (95.2 kgha -1) on Striga hermonthica growth and development on sorghum Abu Sabien. Chicken manure alone or in combination with nitrogen was effective in reducing and delaying Striga growth and early infestation in comparison with the control. At 10 WAS, compost chicken manure at 24g/5kg mixture with nitrogen displayed the most inhibitory to Striga emergence in comparison with the respective control. It reduced Striga infestation by 62%. Nitrogen alone displayed the most inhibitory to Striga growth as compared with control. It reduced Striga infestation by 83%. Striga free control or infested sorghum treated with compost at 24 g/5kg significantly increased the shoot dry weight as compared with the respective control. This study indicates that combination of chicken manure with nitrogen as urea is an effective weed management practice to control Striga.
... More over long and inefficient commercial channels, particularly where the product is imported, may mean that farmers are applying largely dead inocula that were of dubious efficacy when they were alive. Previous studies in Sudan recommended that further researches are required to study the response of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) in Gazira scheme and rainfed areas, to Rhizobium inoculation (Gadalla et al., 2010). In a study conducted in the rainfed areas of the Gadarif State to evaluate some rhizobium strains for nitrogen fixation in the groundnuts it was found that the effect of the new introduced strains did not reflected on the yield of the crop but it is clear that strain TAL1371 has its effect only on the pods weights and the shelling out tern percent (Saeed et al., 2007). ...
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Using of commercial bacteria showed unacceptable results in inoculation trials. This necessitates looking for locally isolated nitrogen fixing bacteria to use as inoculants. This study was done to isolate and select the most efficient bacteria from groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) root nodules. In this study three bacterial strains were isolated from El-Gadarif, El-Gezira and El-Obied soils and pot experiments were done. The study showed that, the field nodules were found distributed on both main and lateral roots of groundnut. The colour of nodules obtained from El-Gadarif soil was pink, while the nodules obtained from El-Gezira and El-Obied soils were of a white colour. All strains were Gram negative, white, circular, viscous, did not absorb Red Congo indicator, produced yellow colour and acidified Yeast Extract Mannitol Agar with bromothymol blue, fast growing, grew in Peptone Glucose Agar medium. All bacterial strains induced nodule formation to groundnut and unable to form nodules in Phaseolus valgaris and Vigna senesis. Inoculation of groundnut by the isolates enhanced groundnut growth. The strain isolated from groundnut nodules in El-Gadarif soil was found the best for groundnut growth promotion. The isolates in the present study showed high symbiotic effectiveness. The study concluded that the strains isolated were fast growing Rhizobia like. Isolation and application of local nitrogen fixing bacteria may resolve the competitiveness and environmental conditions variation and fluctuation problems in the field.
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TO INVESTIGATE the effect of biofertilization using Pseudomonas ……fluorescens and cobalt on growth and productivity of guar (Cyamposis tetragonoloba L.) under desert soil conditions. A field experiment was carried out for two successive seasons of 2010 and 2011 at the agriculture experimental station at El-Kharga Oasis, New Valley Governorate, Egypt. Bradyrhizobium spp. was used to inoculate seeds of all treatments and control as base application. Pseudomonas fluorescens was used as seed inoculant and cobalt at concentrations (5,10 and 20ppm) as foliar application in single and mixed treatment with Pseudomonas. Obtained results indicated that, interaction treatment between P. fluorescens inoculation and cobalt foliar application (20ppm) had the highest record for guar plant growth parameters, yield and its components as well as mineral contents of seeds (N,P,K as macronutrients) and (Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu as micronutrient). Cobalt content in plant and seed, nodulation and its efficiency and microbial activity in guar rhizosphere.
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Low yields of dry beans are often associated with lack of inoculation with biofertilisers and deficiencies in soil phosphorus (P). A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and P fertiliser on dry bean growth and soil properties in Limpopo province, South Africa. The experiment was laid out in a split-split plot design. The main treatments were: (a) dry bean cultivars (red-speckled and small-white haricot), (b) sub-plot treatments: AMF inoculation (mycoroots) levels (with and without inoculation) and (c) sub-sub plot treatments: different levels of P (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg P ha⁻¹). The soil and plant growth parameters were analysed using Analysis of Variance (p = 0.05). The interaction of cultivar and P levels indicated that P application improved growth and yield of both cultivars and also suggested that the optimum P level for red-speckled beans was 40 kg ha–1 while that of small-white haricot beans was 30 kg ha⁻¹. Red-speckled beans showed greater growth and yield than the small-white haricot beans. There was no clear impact on soil properties in the short term. These results indicate that raising the soil P levels may improve dry bean growth and yield, and red-speckled beans could be a better option for farmers than small-white haricot beans.
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A field experiment was conducted at EL-Hudeiba Research Station farm in north Sudan for two consecutive seasons to examine the effect of inoculation by different Rhizobium and phosphate solubilizing bacteria strains and their interaction on yield and seed quality of faba bean, and to compare between the effects of chemical fertilizers and biofertilizers. Rhizobium inoculation individually increased significantly yield, seed moisture, ash, crude fiber and crude protein. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria individually significantly increased yield, seed moisture, ash and fat in faba bean. Rhizobium and phosphate solubilizing bacteria significantly increased yield and seed quality (moisture, crude protein, fat, crude fiber and ash content) and decreased seeds carbohydrate content of faba bean plants. A synergetic effect was observed when the two types of microorganisms were combined. Comparable increments in yield were obtained resulting from either microbial fertilizers (nitrogen fixing and/or phosphate solubilizing bacteria) or chemical fertilizers (nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers). The study revealed the need for biological fertilizers with compatible effective strains to compensate the chemical fertilizers, to decrease the expenses of chemical fertilizers and to protect the environment from pollution hazards.
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Laboratory and pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Trichoderma viride, VA mycorrhiza and dry yeast, separately and in combination, as an integrated strategy of Rhizoctonia disease management in potato crop. The challenge inoculation with T. viride caused a significant reduction in vitro in the linear growth of Rhizoctonia solani, particularly when it was performed closer to the time of pathogen inoculation. With the exception of the number of stems, yield and growth attributes of potato plants infected with R. solani were significantly affected. T. viride application significantly increased the growth components (i.e., plant height, shoot fresh and dry weights, root fresh and dry weights) and tuber yield (i.e., number and weight of tubers) compared to potato plants inoculated with R. solani alone. Moreover, the disease incidence and severity, as stem canker or black scurf on progeny tubers, were also significantly alleviated by T. viride inoculation. Similarly, VA mycorrhiza enhanced both the growth and yield measurements of Rhizoctonia-inoculated potato plants and significantly reduced the harmful effects of the disease. The dry yeast appeared to be the least efficacious biocontrol agent to Rhizoctonia compared to the other two organisms; yet it also significantly improved the disease situation of the infected plants. The combined effect of T. viride and VA mycorrhiza with or without yeast excelled other treatments in alleviation of almost all tested facets of the disease development.
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Faba bean (Viciafaba L.) is an important food and cash crop in the Sudan. Faba beans, like other pulses, are good sources of calories, proteins, carbohydrates and fibres. However, faba bean cultivars vary greatly in their chemical composition, proximate analysis, in vitro protein digestibility (NPD) and tannin content (El Tinay et al. 1989). Biological, chemical and organic fertilizers were reported to affect faba bean yield, protein content and seed quality (Babiker et al. 1995; Elsheikh and Elzidany 1997). The objective of this investigation was to study the response of four faba bean genotypes to Rhizobium inoculation and nitrogen and chicken manure fertilization in terms of proximate composition, tannin content and in vitro protein digestibility. A field experiment was conducted in the Demonstration Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum (Shambat), during 1994/95 cropping season in a factorial design with four replicates. The experimental site was prepared by deep ploughing, harrowing, leveling and riding; then divided into 5x4 m plots. Seeds of the lines "H-72" (released as an improved variety), "00564", "00594" and "00605" were either treated with Rhizobium strain TAL 1397,80 kg N/ha (urea) or 2.5 ton chicken manure/ha. At harvest, seeds were cleaned and the proximate analysis was carried out according to AOAC (1975), whereas, the NPD was determined according to Saunder et at. (1973). The moisture and ash contents of the seeds were not affected by the fertilization treatments (Table I). However, the moisture content in line "00605" was significantly lower than in the other lines irrespective of
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Faba bean (Vicia faba) plants were inoculated with rhizobia and then their sap was infected with broad bean mottle bromovirus (BBMV) or bean yellow mosaic potyvirus (BYMV) in a field experiment. Both viral infections significantly decreased shoot and root dry weight, number of nodules, nodule dry weight, numbers of flowers and pods/plant, total plant N, grain yield and N2 fixation. However, inoculation withRhizobium leguminosarum significantly increased all these parameters, both in healthy and virus-infected plants. Although BYMV was more destructive than BBMV, inoculation with rhizobia could be used, with other control measures, to limit damage by both viruses.
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Field experiments were carried out at Shambat, Sudan (Latitude 15° 40´ N and Longitude 32° 32´ E) in three consecutive seasons (2000/03) to investigate the effect of Bradyrhizobium inoculation and chicken manure or sulphur fertilization on minerals composition of hyacinth bean. The results obtained showed that inoculation, chicken manure, sulphur and their interactions significantly (P = 0.05) improved both major and trace minerals composition of the seeds. The results also indicated that all measured parameters increased with increasing level of chicken manure or sulphur and the highest value of each mineral was observed with either 10 tone/fed chicken manure or 100 kg/fed sulfur with or without Bradyrhizobium inoculation. The study also showed that the residual effect of chicken manure or sulphur significantly (P = 0.05) improved minerals content particularly at 10 tone/fed chicken manure or 100 kg/fed sulfur with or without Bradyrhizobium inoculation.
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A field investigation of two faba bean cultivars (cv.), Agabat and Silaim, showed that bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) infection reduced (p < or = 0.001) yield (Kg/ha), protein content and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) but increased (p < or = 0.05) tannin content (mg/100 ml). Nitrogen fertilization with viral infection significantly reduced yield and IVPD for cv. Silaim and increased (p < or = 0.05) protein and tannin contents. Nitrogen fertilization alone was found to increase (p < or = 0.05) yield, protein and tannin contents but slightly reduced IVPD. Rhizobium inoculation with viral infection significantly decreased yield per unit area, protein content and IVPD, but increased (p < or = 0.05) tannin content. Rhizobium inoculation alone significantly increased (p < or = 0.001) yield and tannin content and slightly increased protein content but decreased IVPD. The results indicated that nitrogen fertilization or nitrogen fixation increased yield, protein and tannin contents and decreased IVPD. Viral infection had an adverse effect on yield, protein content and IVPD but had no effect on tannin content.
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Cultivation of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Western Sudan is still lacking nitrogen fertilizers. Hence, three effective Rhizobium strains (IC 7001, IC 7017, and IC 6006) were introduced from ICRISAT (India) and compared to the local strains under the conditions in the Western Kordofan State during the 1999, 2000 and 2001 growing seasons. Under the conditions of higher rainfall in the 1999 and 2001 growing seasons, the introduced strains had relatively higher, but non-significant, pod yields per hectare than the control. However, the naturally inoculated plants of the indigenous strains (i.e., the control) had outyielded those of the introduced Rhizobium strains during the lowest rainfall season of 2000. These results indicate that the introduction of rhizobia strains from abroad has no benefits for groundnut production in western Sudan. Hence, the future research on nitrogen fixation by groundnut in this area should be directed to selection and identification of the most effective rhizobia strains from the adapted local populations.
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SummaryA field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of Bradyrhizobium and mycorrhizal (Glomus sp.) inoculation compared to adding urea and super phosphate on proximate composition, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) and tannin content of groundnut. The results showed that mycorrhizal inoculation and/or superphosphate significantly (P≤ 0.05) increased both oil and protein content of groundnut seeds. Bradyrhizobium and/or nitrogen fertiliser significantly (P≤ 0.05) increased protein content and significantly decreased the oil content. Bradyrhizobium and/or mycorrhizal inoculation significantly (P≤ 0.05) increased the ash, crude fibre, IVPD and tannin content. Biological and chemical fertilisers significantly (P≤ 0.05) increased IVPD. Superphosphate fertilisers significantly (P≤ 0.05) increased the tannin content. The moisture content was not affected by any treatment.
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A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of two Bradyrhizobium strains (local and imported), chicken manure fertilisation (7 t/ha) and intercropping with sorghum on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of soybean seed. For both monocropping and intercropping systems, moisture content slightly increased for both systems and for all treatments, while ash, fibre and carbohydrate contents fluctuated for both systems and treatments. The protein content of the seeds was significantly (p ⩽ 0.05) increased for all treatments. Tannin content was increased significantly (p ⩽ 0.05) with a concomitant decrease in protein digestibility for both systems and for all treatments. The seed weight (100 seeds), hydration coefficient and cookability were increased for all treatments. Mineral composition of the seeds was increased and the increment varied with different treatments.