Subcellular Localization of Peptidylarginine Deiminase 2 and Citrullinated Proteins in Brains of Scrapie-Infected Mice
Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) and citrullinated proteins have emerged as key molecules in various human diseases, but detailed subcellular localizations of PAD2 and citrullinated proteins are poorly mapped in brain under normal and pathologic conditions. We performed subcellular fractionation and electron microscopic analysis using brains of normal and scrapie-infected mice. Peptidylarginine deiminase 2 was abundantly present in cytosol and weakly in microsomal and mitochondrial fractions and expression in these fractions was higher in brains of scrapie-infected mice. Despite relatively low PAD2 expression, in microsomal and mitochondrial fractions, citrullinated proteins were present at high levels in these fractions in scrapie-infected brains. Surprisingly, increased PAD2 expression and accumulated citrullinated proteins were also found in nuclear fractions in scrapie-infected brains. By electron microscopy, PAD2 and citrullinated proteins in scrapie-infected brains were widely distributed in most cellular compartments including mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, glial filaments, nuclei, and Golgi apparatus in astrocytes and hippocampal neurons. Taken together, we report for the first time the nuclear localization of PAD2 and the detailed subcellular localization of PAD2 and of citrullinated proteins in scrapie-infected brains. Our findings suggest that different subcellular compartmentalization of PAD2 and citrullinated proteins may have different physiological roles in normal and neurodegenerative conditions.
Available from: Patrizia Ferretti
- "Citrullination is carried out by a family of calcium-dependent enzymes , peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) that have different tissue distributions, often overlapping, and are believed to have distinct substrate specificity      . PAD activity has been reported in the cytoplasm , including mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, as well as in the nucleus . Among the known PAD substrates are cytoskeletal proteins and histones  . "
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ABSTRACT: PADs (peptidylarginine deiminases) are calcium-dependent enzymes that change protein-bound arginine to citrulline (citrullination/deimination) affecting protein conformation and function. PAD up-regulation following chick spinal cord injury has been linked to extensive tissue damage and loss of regenerative capability. Having found that human neural stem cells (hNSCs) expressed PAD2 and PAD3, we studied PAD function in these cells and investigated PAD3 as a potential target for neuroprotection by mimicking calcium-induced secondary injury responses. We show that PAD3, rather than PAD2 is a modulator of cell growth/death and that PAD activity is not associated with caspase-3-dependent cell death, but is required for AIF (apoptosis inducing factor)-mediated apoptosis. PAD inhibition prevents association of PAD3 with AIF and AIF cleavage required for its translocation to the nucleus. Finally, PAD inhibition also hinders calcium-induced cytoskeleton disassembly and association of PAD3 with vimentin, that we show to be associated also with AIF; together this suggests that PAD-dependent cytoskeleton disassembly may play a role in AIF translocation to the nucleus. This is the first study highlighting a role of PAD activity in balancing hNSC survival/death, identifying PAD3 as an important upstream regulator of calcium-induced apoptosis, which could be targeted to reduce neural loss, and shedding light on the mechanisms involved.
Available from: biochemj.org
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ABSTRACT: The citrullination of enolase by PAD (peptidylarginine deiminase) has emerged as an important post-translational modification in human disorders; however, the physiological function of citrullination remains unknown. In the present study, we report that citrullination diversely regulates the biological functions of ENO1 (α-enolase) and NSE (neuron-specific enolase). We developed three mouse IgG1 monoclonal antibodies with specificity to the following: (i) citrullination of Arg9 of ENO1 [ENO1Cit9; anti-CE1 (citrullinated enolase 1) antibody]; (ii) citrullination of Arg9 in ENO1 and NSE (ENO1Cit9/NSECit9; anti-CE1/2 antibody); and (iii) citrullination of Arg429 of NSE (NSECit429; anti-CE2 antibody). Regardless of the total protein expression level, the levels of ENO1Cit9 and NSECit429 were elevated, and their immunoreactivities were also increased in cortical neuronal cells or around blood vessels in the frontal cortex of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Alzheimer's disease compared with controls. In a time- and dose-dependent manner, PAD negatively regulated enolase activity via citrullination, and enolase in diseased patients was more inactive than in controls. Interestingly, the citrullination of enolase effectively promoted its proteolytic degradation by Ca2+-dependent calpain-1, and leupeptin (calpain inhibitor I) abrogated this degradation. Surprisingly, using an affinity assay, the citrullination of enolase enhanced its plasminogen-binding affinity, which was blocked by the lysine analogue ϵ-aminocaproic acid. These findings suggest that PAD-mediated citrullination regulates the diverse physiological activities of enolase and that CE may be a candidate diagnostic/prognostic factor for degenerative diseases.
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ABSTRACT: The peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) are a family of calcium-dependent enzymes that post-translationally convert positively charged arginine residues to neutrally charged citrulline in a process called citrullination. There are five PAD family members (PAD1-4 and 6), each with unique tissue distribution patterns and functional roles including: cellular differentiation, nerve growth, apoptosis, inflammation, gene regulation, and early embryonic development. Previous review articles have focused on the expression and function of PADs and on their catalytic activity, citrullination, while other, more recent reviews have addressed the role of these enzymes in disease [1-3]. What has not been previously reviewed in any level of detail is the role that PAD proteins play in female reproduction. Given that: (1) PAD family members are highly represented in female reproductive tissues, (2) that some of the earlier PAD literature suggests that PADs play a critical role in female reproduction, and (3) that our studies have demonstrated that oocyte and early embryo restricted PAD6 is essential for female reproduction, we felt that a more comprehensive review of this topic was warranted.
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