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When Managers and Their Teams Disagree: A Longitudinal Look at the Consequences of Differences in Perceptions of Organizational Support

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Abstract

The authors argue that over time the difference between team members' perception of the organizational support received by the team (or team climate for organizational support) and their manager's perception of the organizational support received by the team has an effect on important outcomes and emergent states, such as team performance and team positive and negative affect above and beyond the main effects of climate perceptions themselves. With a longitudinal sample of 179 teams at Time 1 and 154 teams at Time 2, the authors tested their predictions using a combined polynomial regression and response surface analyses approach. The results supported the authors' predictions. When team managers and team members' perceptions of organizational support were high and in agreement, outcomes were maximized. When team managers and team members disagreed, team negative affect increased and team performance and team positive affect decreased. The negative effects of disagreement were most amplified when managers perceived that the team received higher levels of support than did the team itself.

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... The exact correspondence effect plus a curvilinear level effect was supported four times by the five conditions of (a 1 ≠ 0, a 2 ≠ 0, a 3 = 0, a 4 < 0, and a 5 = 0; see Cao & Hamori, 2020;Lambert et al., 2012;Zhang et al., 2012). The commensurate compatibility effect plus a linear level effect was supported eight times by the five conditions of (a 1 ≠ 0, a 2 = 0, a 3 ≠ 0, a 4 < 0, and a 5 = 0; see Bashshur et al., 2011;Carter & Mossholder, 2015;Jansen et al., 2016;Lambert et al., 2012;Liao et al., 2019;Tepper et al., 2018). The commensurate compatibility effect plus a curvilinear level effect was supported twice by the five conditions of (a 1 ≠ 0, a 2 ≠ 0, a 3 ≠ 0, a 4 < 0, and a 5 = 0; see Bashshur et al., 2011;Richard et al., 2017). ...
... The commensurate compatibility effect plus a linear level effect was supported eight times by the five conditions of (a 1 ≠ 0, a 2 = 0, a 3 ≠ 0, a 4 < 0, and a 5 = 0; see Bashshur et al., 2011;Carter & Mossholder, 2015;Jansen et al., 2016;Lambert et al., 2012;Liao et al., 2019;Tepper et al., 2018). The commensurate compatibility effect plus a curvilinear level effect was supported twice by the five conditions of (a 1 ≠ 0, a 2 ≠ 0, a 3 ≠ 0, a 4 < 0, and a 5 = 0; see Bashshur et al., 2011;Richard et al., 2017). The commensurate compatibility effect with contingency was supported once by the five conditions of (a 1 = 0, a 2 = 0, a 3 ≠ 0, a 4 < 0, and a 5 ≠ 0; see Kim et al., 2019;Hypothesis 1a). ...
... Most studies fall short of considering all three core conceptual issues in theorization on congruence effects. Among the 31 studies, 21 studies have considered both variation in outcomes along the misfit line and variation in outcomes along the fit line, but ignoring the third core issue-the contingency (see Bashshur et al., 2011;Campagna et al., 2020;Cao & Hamori, 2020;Kim et al., 2019;Lambert et al., 2012;Ouyang et al., 2018;Richard et al., 2017;Rosen et al., 2020;Tepper et al., 2018;Vidyarthi et al., 2014;Zhang et al., 2012, for some examples). Nine studies only considered the effects of the difference along the fit line (see Ehrhardt & Ragins, 2019;Graham et al., 2018;Jordan et al., 2013;Liao et al., 2019;Vogel et al., 2020, for some examples). ...
Article
The polynomial regression with response surface analysis (PRRSA) model is widely used in congruence studies, yet its application in congruence research has not achieved the desired theoretical progress in this research area. As part of the continuous efforts to advance congruence research, this study analyzes 31 congruence-related articles recently published in top-tier management journals, including Journal of Applied Psychology, Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Management, Personnel Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, and Human Resource Management. We find that congruence researchers often fail to consider all the conditions required to test congruence effects. Our reanalysis of these studies shows that when all required conditions are used, the exact correspondence effect, sometimes also labeled as the exact match effect or the perfect match effect, is only supported in three studies. Caution is hence warranted both for citing these studies as evidence of congruence and for proposing practical implications based on the findings in these studies. A holistic perspective is then proposed in this study to facilitate the proper application of the PRRSA model to help congruence scholars develop stronger theories and enhance scientific rigor in congruence research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... To understand the consequences of justice, it is important to take into account both the one who is experiencing justice, the employee, and the one who is enacting justice, the supervisor (Scott et al., 2009;Graso et al., 2019). In other areas of organizational psychology (e.g., leadership, trust, learning), it has been shown that the level of congruence between supervisors' and employees' evaluations has considerable influence on employee outcomes (Bashshur et al., 2011;Tafvelin et al., 2017;Carter et al., 2018). It is even more seldom that studies examine both the employee and the supervisor perspectives of justice. ...
... Therefore, it is relevant to look not only at the individual effect of employees' justice perceptions and supervisors' justice enactment but also at the interplay between these two aspects. There are several concepts for describing the nature of consensus or congruence between supervisor and employee, such as perceptual congruence (Hatfield and Huseman, 1982;Turban and Jones, 1988), perceptual distance (Bashshur et al., 2011;Tafvelin et al., 2017), and self-other rating agreement (Atwater et al., 1998). ...
... When employees have a supervisor who behaves in such a way that aligns with their perceptions, they likely detect the positive signals, and this reinforces their beliefs and perceptions. Also, the supervisor can take actions that are appropriate in the eyes of employees (Bashshur et al., 2011). When supervisors and employees disagree, however, this likely creates misunderstanding and conflict and results in a loss of resources (Tafvelin et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Perceiving a pay system as just has been suggested to be a precondition for individualized pay to have a motivating effect for employees. Supervisors' enacted justice is central for understanding the effects that pay setting can have on employee attitudes and behavior. Yet, enacted justice has received little research attention, in regard to both organizational justice and pay-related topics. This study examines the effects of employees' perceived pay justice and supervisors' enacted justice, as well as the degree of congruence, on employees' work-related attitudes and behaviors. Questionnaire data from employees (N = 566) matched with data from their pay-setting supervisors (N = 208), employed in a Swedish manufacturing company, were analyzed. Results of polynomial regression with response surface analysis show that employees' perceptions of pay justice were important for their work-related attitudes and behaviors and that supervisor-employee congruence regarding pay justice was positively related to employees' attitudes and behavior, particularly when the ratings concerned high levels of justice. The results not only highlight the importance of developing a pay system that is perceived as just by employees but also emphasize the importance of reaching a congruence between supervisors' and employees' perceptions of high fairness, as this has positive implications for employees' attitudes and behaviors.
... Given that exchange is inherent in CRL and agreement about the exchange is implied, we suggest a novel means of exploring such leadership complexities is to consider teamlevel CRL as involving both leaders and team members. These two types of internal stakeholders share performance objectives but may hold conceptually different interpretations of processes influencing team effectiveness (Bashshur, Hernandez, & Gonzalez-Roma, 2011;Cole, Carter, & Zhang, 2013;Gibson, Cooper, & Conger, 2009). Unfortunately, research on CRL has typically assumed that a single perspective (leader or follower) accurately represents exchanges between them (e.g., Breevaart et al., 2014;Han, Bartol, & Kim, 2015). ...
... disagreement) benefits team effectiveness. For example, even when one of these parties perceived high levels of the focal variable (organizational support - Bashshur et al., 2011;goal accomplishment -Gibson et al., 2009), disagreement by the other could offset potential benefits on work outcomes. In the light of such findings, we argue a fuller understanding of CRL requires that perceptual similarities and differences between exchange expectations promoted by leaders (i.e., CRL intended by leaders) and those actually experienced by team members (i.e., CRL experienced by teams) be considered. ...
... The relationship between CRL and distributive justice has been examined infrequently, from a single perspective, and only at the individual level. Because leaders and their teams interact in jointly pursuing performance goals (e.g., Bashshur et al., 2011;Gibson et al., 2009), we argue that the full effect of CRL depends on perspectives of the two involved parties. In work contexts, leaders' capacity to address their teams' resource demands and distribute performance rewards is critical for team success. ...
... Building on organizational support theory (OST; Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, & Sowa, 1986;Kurtessis et al., 2017), and specifically the concept of perceived organizational support (POS; Eisenberger et al., 1986), we conceptualize this phenomenon as perceived organizational support for teamwork training (POS-TT), and operationalize this construct at the group level of analysis as a form of team climate (González-Romá, Fortes-Ferreira, & Peiro, 2009). While the literature on how POS yields positive consequences for organizations and employees is now well established (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002), specific gaps remain unaddressed regarding the examination of POS at the group level (Bashshur, Hernández, & González-Romá, 2011), as well as the consideration and differential impacts of specific types of support that organizations can choose to engage in (Kennedy, Loughry, Klammer, & Beyerlein, 2009). With the exception of just a handful of studies (Bashshur et al., 2011;González-Romá et al., 2009;Kennedy et al., 2009;Pearce & Herbik, 2004), little is known about if and how team climate for POS influences team performance outcomes, particularly so in the context of health care in which teams are arguably unique in terms of their structural characteristics and task demands (Hughes et al., 2016). ...
... While the literature on how POS yields positive consequences for organizations and employees is now well established (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002), specific gaps remain unaddressed regarding the examination of POS at the group level (Bashshur, Hernández, & González-Romá, 2011), as well as the consideration and differential impacts of specific types of support that organizations can choose to engage in (Kennedy, Loughry, Klammer, & Beyerlein, 2009). With the exception of just a handful of studies (Bashshur et al., 2011;González-Romá et al., 2009;Kennedy et al., 2009;Pearce & Herbik, 2004), little is known about if and how team climate for POS influences team performance outcomes, particularly so in the context of health care in which teams are arguably unique in terms of their structural characteristics and task demands (Hughes et al., 2016). Furthermore, of the few studies that have examined POS as a form of team climate, none have considered the impact of POS-TT specifically, despite recognition in the literature that organizational support to teams can take a variety of forms (Kennedy et al., 2009). ...
... However, the effects of POS are not limited to individual-level outcomes, and recent research has begun to explore how POS can emerge as a shared perception within teams to impact team performance (Bashshur et al., 2011;González-Romá et al., 2009;Kennedy et al., 2009;Pearce & Herbik, 2004). While individual perceptions of POS reside in the individual team member (i.e., psychological climate), they have been shown to integrate through frequent social interaction between team members to emerge as a group-level phenomenon (i.e., team climate; González-Romá, Peiró, & Tordera, 2002;Moran & Volkwein, 1992). ...
Article
This study examines the relationship between a specific type of team climate for perceived organizational support, team perceived organizational support for teamwork training (team POS-TT), and its effects on the productivity and innovation of acute health care teams. Drawing on organizational support theory, we examine how this relationship emerges via the mediating mechanism of shared objectives. Using survey data from 88 teams based in 13 health care organizations across the United Kingdom, we found support for the indirect effects of team POS-TT via shared objectives, but not for the direct effect of team POS-TT, thus indicating a mediated relationship with team productivity and innovation. As predicted, through the satisfaction of important esteem and affiliation needs of team members, team POS-TT compelled teams to engage in the process of generating shared objectives, which, in turn, positively predicted team productivity and innovation. These findings contribute to the scant literature on perceived organizational support (POS) as a form of team climate, and respond to recent calls to consider different types of POS by focusing on perceived support for teamwork training, an area which has particular relevance in the context of health care. Furthermore, the study serves to extend understanding regarding exactly how team POS-TT affects team outcomes via the specific process of shared objectives. We conclude with a discussion of these contributions to the literature and delineate several practical implications for leaders and managers in health care organizations.
... Building on organizational support theory (OST; Kurtessis et al., 2017), and specifically the concept of perceived organizational support (POS; , we conceptualize this phenomenon as perceived organizational support for teamwork training (POS-TT), and operationalize this construct at the group level of analysis as a form of team climate (González-Romá, Fortes-Ferreira, & Peiro, 2009). While the literature on how POS yields positive consequences for organizations and employees is now well established , specific gaps remain unaddressed regarding the examination of POS at the group level (Bashshur, Hernández, & González-Romá, 2011), as well as the consideration and differential impacts of specific types of support that organizations can choose to engage in (Kennedy, Loughry, Klammer, & Beyerlein, 2009). With the exception of just a handful of studies (Bashshur et al., 2011;González-Romá et al., 2009;Kennedy et al., 2009;Pearce & Herbik, 2004), little is known about if and how team climate for POS influences team performance outcomes, particularly so in the context of health care in which teams are arguably unique in terms of their structural characteristics and task demands (Hughes et al., 2016). ...
... While the literature on how POS yields positive consequences for organizations and employees is now well established , specific gaps remain unaddressed regarding the examination of POS at the group level (Bashshur, Hernández, & González-Romá, 2011), as well as the consideration and differential impacts of specific types of support that organizations can choose to engage in (Kennedy, Loughry, Klammer, & Beyerlein, 2009). With the exception of just a handful of studies (Bashshur et al., 2011;González-Romá et al., 2009;Kennedy et al., 2009;Pearce & Herbik, 2004), little is known about if and how team climate for POS influences team performance outcomes, particularly so in the context of health care in which teams are arguably unique in terms of their structural characteristics and task demands (Hughes et al., 2016). Furthermore, of the few studies that have examined POS as a form of team climate, none have considered the impact of POS-TT specifically, despite recognition in the literature that organizational support to teams can take a variety of forms (Kennedy et al., 2009). ...
... However, the effects of POS are not limited to individual-level outcomes, and recent research has begun to explore how POS can emerge as a shared perception within teams to impact team performance (Bashshur et al., 2011;González-Romá et al., 2009;Kennedy et al., 2009;Pearce & Herbik, 2004). While individual perceptions of POS reside in the individual team member (i.e., psychological climate), they have been shown to integrate through frequent social interaction between team members to emerge as a group-level phenomenon (i.e., team climate; González-Romá, Peiró, & Tordera, 2002; Moran & Volkwein, 1992). ...
... It is believed that perceptual distance is related to team outcomes, and research in the corporate setting has associated perceptual agreement on various aspects of the work environment (eg, organizational support, construct conflict, and organizational learning) with higher team performance and affective responses. [10][11][12] Furthermore, a recent study in the context of youth sport found that coach-athlete perceptual distance in regard to need supportive and thwarting behaviors from the coach was related to athletes' basic psychological needs. 13 Gibson et al 10 forwarded collective cognition as a possible explanation for the relationship between perceptual distance and outcomes. ...
... Previous research in organizational psychology has associated perceptual distance with both positive affect and negative affect, and findings seem to suggest that perceptual agreement is associated with more positive outcomes compared to disagreement. 11,25 However, Rocchi and Pelletier 13 showed that athletes experienced more need frustration when the coach and athletes were in perceptual agreement regarding the coach's need thwarting behavior. Thus, we argue that perceptual agreement will lead to positive outcomes only to the extent that the matter on which there is agreement is conducive to such outcomes. ...
... This is consistent with past research reporting that perceptual agreement between a leader and a team on a positive social stimulus is linked to positive affect. 11,25 Furthermore, perceptions of a coach-created mastery climate were negatively related to team ratings of anxiety when low agreement teams were excluded from the analyses. Combined these findings are consistent with previous research, 8 offering support for the potential positive outcomes of a coach-created mastery climate. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine whether coach‐team perceptual distance regarding the coach‐created motivational climate related to achievement goal orientations and affective responses. To this end we used polynomial regression analysis with response surface methodology. The sample consisted of 1359 youth soccer players (57.8% male; Mage = 11.81 years, SD = 1.18), belonging to 87 different teams (Msize = 16.47), and 87 coaches (94.6% male, Mage = 42 years, SD = 5.67). Results showed that team perceptions of a coach‐created mastery climate were positively related to team‐rated task goal orientation and enjoyment, whereas team perceptions of a coach‐created performance climate were positively related to team‐rated ego goal orientation and anxiety, and negatively related to team‐rated enjoyment. These relationships were generally stronger with higher levels of perceptual agreement between the coach and the team. In situations of perceptual disagreement, the most negative effects were seen when the coach held a more favorable perception of the motivational climate compared to the team. The findings highlight the importance of perceptual agreement between the coach and his/her team, contributing to the literature focusing on the effects of the coach‐created motivational climate. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Leaders and followers often differ in their perceptions of the leaders' behaviors (e.g., Atwater and Yammarino, 1992;Bass and Yammarino, 1991;Ostroff et al., 2004;Harris and Schaubroeck, 1988;Mabe and West, 1982;Van Velsor et al., 1993) and other phenomena (e.g., goals, performance) in a workplace (Bashshur et al., 2011). Gibson et al. (2009) proposed a model for studying perceptual distance between leaders and their followers and argued that differences in leaders' and followers' perceptions are detrimental to team performance because they hinder the team from maximizing collective cognition and reaching its full potential (Gibson et al., 2009). ...
... More specifically, in the leadership literature, leaders' and their teams' agreeing on the leaders' behaviors has been related to higher follower-rated leader performance as compared with those who disagreed (Atwater and Brett, 2005;Atwater and Yammarino, 1992;Bass and Yammarino, 1991;Furnham and Stringfield, 1994;Ostroff et al., 2004) and better follower outcomes in terms of job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Szell and Henderson, 1997). In a similar manner, studies in the area of perceptual distance showed that agreement between a leader and a team regarding, for instance, goal accomplishment and organizational support was associated with increases in team performance (Bashshur et al., 2011;Gibson et al., 2009). A limitation of these studies was that although they explored the impact of perceptual distance over time, they failed to explore how perceptual distance may influence leadership training outcomes. ...
... Studies on agreement between leaders and followers have also found that the level of ratings is important for outcomes (Fleenor et al., 2010). When leaders' and followers' ratings were high and in agreement (rather than low and in agreement), the performance outcomes were greater (Bashshur et al., 2011, McKay et al., 2009. In a similar manner, the study that Hasson et al. (2016) conducted showed that organizational learning improved more in teams where leaders and their followers agreed, and reported high levels of organizational learning climate pre-training. ...
Article
Whether leaders and their teams agree or not on perceptions of leadership has been found to impact follower well-being and performance. Less is known about how agreements or disagreements play a role in relation to safety and leadership training. The present study examined the effects of leaders’ and followers’ perceptual distance on safety leadership prior to a leadership safety training. Forty-eight leaders and a total of 211 followers from the paper industry completed surveys before and after training. Polynomial regression with response surface analyses revealed that the agreement between leaders and their followers regarding safety leadership before training was positively related to training outcomes including safety leadership and followers’ safety self-efficacy. Line managers who overrated themselves on safety leadership before training had less favorable training outcomes. Our findings suggest that 360-degree feedback may not be sufficient for motivating leaders to change their behaviors during leadership training.
... Thus, teams led by these types of managers feel that they receive no help in their efforts to be successful (Sidle, 2007). This feeling is expected to create frustration within the team (Bashshur, Hern andez, & Gonz alez-Rom a, 2011;Skogstad, Einarsen, Torsheim, Aasland, & Hetland, 2007), and this frustration may undermine team positive mood (Bashshur et al., 2011). Thus, consistent with arguments of laissez-faire management (e.g., Bass, 1990;Skogstad et al., 2007), when team members perceive that their leader's FI is very low, they can feel abandoned by him/her. ...
... Thus, teams led by these types of managers feel that they receive no help in their efforts to be successful (Sidle, 2007). This feeling is expected to create frustration within the team (Bashshur, Hern andez, & Gonz alez-Rom a, 2011;Skogstad, Einarsen, Torsheim, Aasland, & Hetland, 2007), and this frustration may undermine team positive mood (Bashshur et al., 2011). Thus, consistent with arguments of laissez-faire management (e.g., Bass, 1990;Skogstad et al., 2007), when team members perceive that their leader's FI is very low, they can feel abandoned by him/her. ...
... At the other extreme, too many interactions would have the negative effects typically observed in micromanagement and make team members experience a loss of autonomy and important resources such as time and energy. These types of management styles and the lack or loss of resources would cause frustration and stress within the team (Bashshur et al., 2011;Skogstad et al., 2007), which would undermine positive team mood (Bashshur et al., 2011). ...
Article
Based on contradictory arguments about whether the frequency of the interactions between team managers and the teams they manage is positive or negative for teams, we hypothesize a curvilinear relationship. Focusing on positive team mood and based on the leadership literature and the conservation of resources theory, we hypothesize an inverted‐U‐shaped relationship. In addition, adding arguments from the substitutes for leadership theory, we propose that this curvilinear relationship is moderated by team potency and tenure. Hypotheses were tested using panel data collected in a sample of 55 work teams by means of hierarchical non‐lineal regression. Results show that, as expected, the relationship between the frequency of the interactions and positive team mood was curvilinear and moderated by team potency and team tenure. As expected, the curve became increasingly convex downward as team tenure increased. However, for team potency, the results were contrary to what was expected. The results have important implications for planning the frequency of managers’ interactions with their teams, and they indicate the importance of considering team tenure and potency as contextual moderators. Practitioner points • Our study shows that the frequency with which team managers interact with team members to discuss work, organizational, and team functioning issues is a relevant predictor of positive team mood. • More frequent interactions do not always foster positive team mood. Average interaction levels, as perceived by team members, are more effective than low or high levels. • Managers should adapt the frequency of the interactions to the characteristics of the teams managed, particularly their tenure and potency.
... The perceptual (dis)agreement between employee and supervisor (Yammarino & Atwater, 1997); also referred to as the perceptual distance, fit, similarity, or congruence (Bashshur, Hernández, & González-Romá, 2011;Fleenor et al., 2010;Gibson, Cooper, & Conger, 2009;Ostroff, Shin, & Kinicki, 2005) can be defined by both its level and direction. A high level of FSSB agreement means that an employee's and a supervisor's perceptions of FSSBs are congruent. ...
... A high level of FSSB agreement implies a strong situation. In this case, a strong situation means that employees and supervisors similarly interpret how much the supervisor values work-life balance; how much they invest in it; and how appropriate it is for employees to value and spend time on family matters (Bashshur et al., 2011;Bowen & Ostroff, 2004;Mischel, 1979). Such a strong situation is the result of clear and consistent communication from the supervisor to employees, such that the supervisor consistently reinforces the same messages (Bashshur et al., 2011;Meyer, Dalal, & Hermida, 2010). ...
... In this case, a strong situation means that employees and supervisors similarly interpret how much the supervisor values work-life balance; how much they invest in it; and how appropriate it is for employees to value and spend time on family matters (Bashshur et al., 2011;Bowen & Ostroff, 2004;Mischel, 1979). Such a strong situation is the result of clear and consistent communication from the supervisor to employees, such that the supervisor consistently reinforces the same messages (Bashshur et al., 2011;Meyer, Dalal, & Hermida, 2010). Because of this clarity and consistency, there is certainty and predictability in what is valued by the supervisor, and in the kind of social exchange relationship that exists between employee and employer (Bowen & Ostroff, 2004;Marescaux, De Winne, & Forrier, 2019). ...
Article
Helping employees juggle work and family responsibilities is crucial at a time when the boundaries between work and family life are increasingly blurred. Family-supportive supervisor behaviours (FSSBs) contribute to this and benefit both employees and organizations. Yet, employees and supervisors do not necessarily agree about the displayed FSSBs. We explore how employee–supervisor (dis) agreement concerning FSSB perceptions relates to employees' intrinsic motivation and turnover intentions. Moreover, we incorporate work–family culture and employees' desire for segmentation as boundary conditions. Using 569 employee–supervisor dyads from El Salvador, we found that intrinsic motivation is highest when employees and supervisors agree about strongly exhibited FSSBs, but only when employees desire work/home segmentation. When employees desire integration, such FSSB agreement is associated with relatively low intrinsic motivation. Moreover, turnover intentions are lowest when employees and supervisors agree that the supervisor exhibits a strong level of FSSBs, but only when work–family culture is strong. We contribute to FSSB research by demonstrating the importance of employees and supervisors seeing eye to eye (the level of) FSSBs, as well as the need for a good fit with the work–family culture of an organization and employees' desire for segmentation.
... Yet, researchers have mainly examined service climate through team members' or customers' aggregated perceptions (Dean 2004), which implicitly assumes that managers do not hold distinct evaluations of service climate (Matta et al. 2015). This is troubling, in that there is considerable evidence to suggest that employees and managers do frequently disagree in their work-related assessments (Bashshur, Hernández, and González-Romá 2011;Gibson, Cooper, and Conger 2009;McKay, Avery, and Morris 2009) and that a lack of mutual understanding regarding customer service policies can undermine their successful implementation (Gibson, Cooper, and Conger 2009). To address this gap in the customer service literature, this article explores how employee-manager (dis)agreement regarding the level of service climate may affect store-level turnover and sales performance. ...
... However, certain factors may lead individuals, teams, and supervisors to maintain different perceptions when faced with the same stimuli or events (Gibson, Cooper, and Conger 2009). Disagreements regarding the organization's goals and values may result, for instance, from recruitment, selection, and placement errors (Schneider 1987), inadequate communication from the store manager, or differences in position and power between the manager and his or her team (Bashshur, Hernández, and González-Romá 2011). Indeed, although managers and team members are two potentially important sources of information for a given employee, their influence is not always symmetrical. ...
... There is pervasive evidence that agreement at a high level of favorable perceptions of the work context between leaders and team members is associated with various positive outcomes (e.g., Bashshur, Hernández, and González-Romá 2011;Ostroff, Shin, and Kinicki 2005). A recent study of service climate by Benlian (2014), for instance, revealed that team performance was greater when team-and leader-rated service systems were both high, rather than when both were low. ...
Article
This study examines the effect of (dis)agreement between the employees and their store manager regarding service climate on store-level turnover and subsequently sales performance. In addition, we test the moderating effect of perceived employee fit with customers on these relationships. Using polynomial regression and response surface methodology with data from 753 frontline employees and 125 managers nested in 125 stores, we found that collective turnover is lower when the store manager and the employees both perceive (vertical agreement) that customer service is prioritized at moderate levels. However, turnover is higher when managers and employees do not agree on the level of the service climate (vertical disagreement). The results indicate that the beneficial effect of vertical service climate agreement on turnover was higher when perceived employee-customer fit was high. The detrimental effect of vertical service climate disagreement on turnover was reduced when the strength of employees’ service climate was strong (high horizontal agreement). Furthermore, our examination found that the level of turnover in stores was negatively related to sales performance and that the effect of vertical service climate agreement on sales performance was conditional on the degree of perceived employee-customer fit.
... In general, perceptual congruence among individuals in a work team is linked to positive employee and organizational outcomes, whereas incongruence has negative effects. For example, when leaders and teams agree about high levels of organizational support, team performance and positive affect also are high (Bashshur et al., 2011). ...
... The leader-team congruence and incongruence literature has indicated that when teams perceive that a highly problematic issue exists (e. g., supervisor's passive leadership; Hasson et al., 2019;Yang & Li, 2018) but the leader does not, this amplifies the negative repercussions of perceptual congruence and incongruence. When leaders do not notice problems, they are unable to offer help and take actions that correspond with the team's needs (Bashshur et al., 2011). Bashshur et al. (2011) demonstrated that the negative effects of disagreement were most amplified when managers perceived that the team received higher levels of support than the team itself reported. ...
... When leaders do not notice problems, they are unable to offer help and take actions that correspond with the team's needs (Bashshur et al., 2011). Bashshur et al. (2011) demonstrated that the negative effects of disagreement were most amplified when managers perceived that the team received higher levels of support than the team itself reported. Similarly, in the case of employee-team congruence and incongruence, researchers have suggested that when individuals do not agree with their teammates on the pace and rhythm of work, they feel less satisfied with their jobs (Jansen & Kristof-Brown, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Organizational constraints (OCs) represent work conditions that interfere with employees’ performance. Although employees share the same work environment, perceptions of OCs may vary among team members. In this study, we examined employee–teammate perceptual congruence and incongruence regarding three types of OCs (i.e., social, structural, and infrastructure) and the associated consequences for employee work engagement among health care employees from two Spanish hospitals (N = 141). Multilevel polynomial regression with response surface analyses revealed that the perceptual congruence and incongruence effects depended on the type of OCs. Congruence in perceptions was linked with greater work engagement only for social OCs. Incongruence had an effect in cases of social and structural OCs, but not infrastructure OCs: work engagement was worse when an employee rated OCs as higher (i.e., more problematic) than their teammates did. Our findings suggest that the negative effects of OCs are additionally exacerbated by perceptual incongruence with teammates and indicate the need to include social contexts in the study of work environment perceptions.
... Furthermore, with regard to the DLOQ's practical relevance in small business contexts, we also investigated how the DLOQ promotes desired outcomes such as employees' commitment or work satisfaction and how it supports criterion validity. In addition, we wanted to investigate how leaders and nonleaders differ in their perception of learning culture since such differences may have a negative impact on performance and health (Bashshur, Hernández, & González-Romá, 2011;Hasson, Tafvelin, & von Thiele Schwarz, 2013). ...
... The study also revealed a positive effect of age on the perception of learning culture: Older workers rated learn-ing culture higher than younger workers did. These perceptual differences may have a negative impact on health and team performance (e. g., Bashshur et al., 2011;Hasson et al., 2013). While in large organizations the performance of single teams may be compensated by better performance of other teams, in small craft companies possible differences may directly affect the company performance and have an even worse effect. ...
Article
An explicit learning culture can help to systematize learning in small companies with a high degree of informal human resource development. The Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ; Marsick & Watkins, 2003) has already been used to assess learning culture in many international studies mainly with large organizations. However, the multidimensional structure of the DLOQ was criticized in the past. Therefore, this study (N = 856) investigated the dimensionality of a German translation of the DLOQ in the German crafts sector and the effect of the DLOQ dimensions on two criterions (i. e., commitment, job satisfaction). The results confirm the expected seven-factor structure of the German DLOQ (21 items) with good psychometric characteristics that were stable in different subsamples (i. e., different work levels and sectors). The correlations with the criterions confirm the external validity of the DLOQ. Furthermore, leaders rated all seven DLOQ dimensions higher than nonleaders did.
... In the current study, we aim to assess the reliability and validity of an ultra-short measure of affective well-being used by Erdogan, Tomás, Valls, and Gracia (2018) and proposed in a research project carried out by our team (González-Romá & Hernández, 2013). This reduced affective well-being scale (RAWS) is based on the 12-item affective well-being scale elaborated by Segura and González-Romá (2003), which has been successfully applied in organizational research in the past few years (Bashshur et al., 2011;Gamero, González-Romá, & Peiró, 2008;González-Romá & Hernández, 2016;González-Romá & Gamero, 2012). Segura and González-Romá's scale (2003) is composed of a set of six items that measure positive affect [three with a positive valence (cheerful, optimistic, lively) and three with a negative valence (sad, pessimistic, discouraged)] and a set of six items that measure negative affect [three with a negative valence (tense, jittery, anxious) and three with a positive valence (relaxed tranquil, calm)] . ...
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In applied organizational research, where economy of scale is often a crucial factor in successful assessment, ultra-short measures are often needed. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Reduced Affective Well-Being Scale (RAWS), an ultra-short measure of positive and negative affect in the workplace. This 6-item ultra-short version was compared with the original 12-item scale proposed by Segura and González-Romá (2003) in terms of internal consistency and criterion validity, using a sample of 1117 bank employees. In addition, longitudinal measurement invariance and within-subject reliability of the RAWS over time were assessed in a longitudinal sample of 458 employees at 12 time points. Results provide evidence that the RAWS is similar to the full scale in terms of reliability and validity. In addition, the RAWS shows satisfactory within-person reliability and factor loading invariance over time. In studies with intensive longitudinal designs that require repeated measures of affective well-being, the use of RAWS is a recommendable option.
... This leaderteam fit perspective submits that supervisor-team interactions are not only driven by the respective supervisor's own traits, preferences, and goals, but also by the extent to which such supervisory characteristics are (mis)aligned with the respective characteristics within a supervisor's team of subordinates (see also Gibson, Cooper, & Conger, 2009). In this regard, this stream of research acknowledges that the team as a whole (rather than individual subordinates) represents a key reference point for supervisors' (mis)fit judgments (Bashshur, Hernández, & González-Romá, 2011;Cole et al., 2013). This is because one's team constitutes a highly salient and central part of a supervisor's social context at work such that supervisors often perceive the team as a collective entity and, thus, tend to direct their influence behaviors toward the team in its entirety (Hu & Judge, 2017;Oc, 2018). ...
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This study seeks to advance our understanding of the leadership consequences that may ensue when supervisors and their teams have similar vs. differing orientations toward the past. Integrating a leader‐team fit perspective with functional leadership theory, we cast (in)congruence between supervisor and team past temporal focus as a key antecedent of supervisors' active (i.e., task‐oriented and relationship‐oriented) and passive (i.e., laissez‐faire) leadership behaviors toward the team. We tested our hypotheses in a team‐level study that included a field sample of 84 supervisors and their teams using polynomial regression and response surface analyses. Results illustrated that supervisors demonstrated more task‐oriented and relationship‐oriented leadership when supervisors' and their team's past temporal focus were incongruent rather than aligned. Furthermore, in situations of supervisor‐team congruence, supervisors engaged in less task‐oriented and relationship‐oriented leadership and more laissez‐faire leadership with higher (rather than lower) levels of supervisor and team past temporal focus. In sum, these findings support a complex (mis)fit model, such that supervisors' attention to the past may hinder their productive leadership behaviors in some team contexts but not in others. Hence, this research advances a novel, multiple‐stakeholder perspective on the role of both supervisors' and their team's past temporal focus for important leadership behaviors.
... Prior studies have demonstrated that there is a strong link between leadership and the work environment (e.g., Bashshur et al., 2011;Dragoni and Kuenzi, 2012;Eisenbeiss et al., 2008;Kozlowski and Doherty, 1989). For example, Kozlowski and Doherty (1989) found that leadership is a major driver of the organizational climate. ...
Article
This paper experimentally investigates two control mechanisms that firms can use to avoid negotiation conflicts in negotiated transfer pricing decisions: leadership tone and performance evaluation schemes. When division managers are evaluated using a competitive performance evaluation scheme, a supportive leadership tone leads to a higher likelihood that divisions will settle on a transfer price close to the equal-profit transfer price. In contrast, when division managers are evaluated using a cooperative performance evaluation scheme, leadership tone does not significantly affect the likelihood that divisions settle on an equal-profit transfer price. These results demonstrate that firms, maintaining individual performance evaluations in a decentralized company structure, can use an informal control such as leadership tone to manage negotiation conflicts.
... Within teams, cognitive and load theories imply that member differences and diversity can consume cognitive resources via team compilation developments (Kozlowski et al., 1999) and performance processes (Bashshur et al., 2011;Burke et al., 2006). Thus, during a team's compilation, members evaluate each other and assess the team's potential. ...
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Purpose: Teams in extreme and disruptive contexts face unique challenges that can undermine coordination and decision-making. In this study, we evaluated how affective differences between team members and team process norms affected the team’s decision-making effectiveness. Approach: Teams were placed in a survival simulation where they evaluated how best to maximize the team’s survival prospects given scarce resources. We incorporated multi-source and multi-rater (i.e., team, observer, and archival) data to ascertain the impacts of affect asymmetry and team process norms on decision-making effectiveness. Findings: Results suggest that teams with low positive affect asymmetry and low process norms generate the most effective decisions. The least effective team decision performance occurred in teams characterized by high variance in team positive affectivity (high positive affect asymmetry) and low process norms. We found no similar effect for teams with high process norms and no effect for negative affect asymmetry, however, irrespective of team process norms. Originality: These findings support the affect infusion model and extend cognitive resource theory, by highlighting how affect infusion processes and situational constraints influence team decision-making in extreme and disruptive contexts.
... Previous studies on CEO-TMT interface and leader-team congruence suggest that congruence can benefit firm performance by facilitating CEO-TMT interaction and coordination (e.g., Bashshur et al., 2011;Gibson et al., 2009), which play a vital role because positive CEO-TMT interaction can improve decision quality and the handling of non-routine tasks to benefit firm growth (De Jong et al., 2013). Building on such literature, we expect CEO openness to the TMT could provide a relevant characterization of CEO-TMT interaction to deal with the challenging tasks associated with firm growth. ...
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The literature on the CEO-TMT interface has called for research on the implications of CEO-TMT congruence or fit. We examine the effect of CEO-TMT degree of congruence, forms of congruence and forms of incongruence in growth-need strength on firm growth based on decades of research on leader-team congruence. Using five-wave survey data from the CEOs and other TMT members of 128 new firms, we find CEO-TMT incongruence in growth-need strength is negatively related to firm growth by reducing CEO openness to the TMT. Our study charts a new avenue for upper echelons research, particularly on CEO-TMT interface, by providing a nuanced theoretical framework and evidence on CEO-TMT congruence.
... Furthermore, when leaders and subordinates acknowledge and perceive similar leadership tendencies, ambiguity and uncertainty are reduced while expectations converge (Bashshur et al., 2011). This should inspire subordinates to put forth greater effort as a synergistic understanding saves time and resources. ...
... In terms of unfavorable treatment that may diminish perceptions of project transition support, a study of research scientists in a university setting found that providing insufficient time for an individual to reflect on an exited project obstructs the employee's learning from the experience and commitment to the organization (Shepherd et al., 2011). Finally, the way organizational managers compose project teams is a critical factor influencing an employee's perception of organizational support (Bashshur et al., 2011;Kennedy et al., 2008) and may play a key role in shaping his or her perception of support during project transitions. Although these studies provide initial evidence of employees experiencing various types of support during their project transitions, there has not yet been an attempt to identify systematically the range of relevant factors that constitute an employee's perception of transition support. ...
... This leaderteam fit perspective submits that supervisor-team interactions are not only driven by the respective supervisor's own traits, preferences, and goals, but also by the extent to which such supervisory characteristics are (mis)aligned with the respective characteristics within a supervisor's team of subordinates (see also Gibson, Cooper, & Conger, 2009). In this regard, this stream of research acknowledges that the team as a whole (rather than individual subordinates) represents a key reference point for supervisors' (mis)fit judgments (Bashshur, Hernández, & González-Romá, 2011;Cole et al., 2013). This is because one's team constitutes a highly salient and central part of a supervisor's social context at work such that supervisors often perceive the team as a collective entity and, thus, tend to direct their influence behaviors toward the team in its entirety (Hu & Judge, 2017;Oc, 2018). ...
... In terms of unfavorable treatment that may diminish perceptions of project transition support, a study of research scientists in a university setting found that providing insufficient time for an individual to reflect on an exited project obstructs the employee's learning from the experience and commitment to the organization (Shepherd et al., 2011). Finally, the way organizational managers compose project teams is a critical factor influencing an employee's perception of organizational support (Bashshur et al., 2011;Kennedy et al., 2008) and may play a key role in shaping his or her perception of support during project transitions. Although these studies provide initial evidence of employees experiencing various types of support during their project transitions, there has not yet been an attempt to identify systematically the range of relevant factors that constitute an employee's perception of transition support. ...
... One explanation is that these managers ignore negative feedback (Yammarino and Atwater, 1997), which may prevent them from developing their leadership (Bass and Yammarino, 1991). Over-rating managers have also been associated with passive (laissez-faire) leadership, as these managers lack understanding of what support their subordinates need (Bashshur et al., 2011;Berson and Sosik, 2007). Furthermore, managers who overrate their leadership have been associated with poor decision-making and setting unrealistic goals, which may result in negative outcomes for themselves and for their organizations (Bass and Yammarino, 1991;Yammarino and Atwater, 1997;Kruger and Dunning, 1999). ...
Article
Purpose A common component in leadership interventions is the provision of feedback on leadership behaviors. The assumption is that, when there is a discrepancy in this feedback between managers’ and others’ ratings of leadership, this will increase managers’ self-awareness and motivate them to close this gap. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how agreement between managers and their subordinates changes over time as a result of a leadership intervention. Design/methodology/approach Questionnaire data were collected from line managers (N=18) and their subordinates (N=640) at pre-intervention, post-intervention and at a six-month follow-up. The managers participated in a leadership intervention that aimed to increase their knowledge and skills related to the leadership behaviors described in the Full-Range Leadership Model. Inter-rater agreement and reliability were calculated to justify aggregating the subordinates’ ratings. The managers and their subordinates were grouped according to three agreement categories: in agreement, managers’ over-rating and managers’ under-rating based on the managers’ views of their leader behaviors in relation to their subordinates’. Findings Manager-subordinate agreement on the managers’ leadership increased between pre-intervention and post-intervention but then decreased at the six-month follow-up (17, 61 and 44 percent, respectively). Most managers (n=15) changed agreement categories over time, and only three managers remained in the same agreement category throughout. The subordinates’ mean leadership ratings changed more than the managers’ mean ratings. Originality/value This is the first study to explore how manager-subordinate agreement changes when managers participate in a leadership intervention in a health care context. It shows that an intervention that includes upward feedback, by which managers self-rating of their leadership is compared with their subordinates’ ratings, can be an effective way to increase agreement.
... First, unlike TL, transactional leadership shifts control from the follower to the leader (Burns, 1998). Similarly, and contrary to the functions of TL, the laissez-faire leadership is demotivating and associated with stress, conflict, and reduced SDM (Bashshur, Hernández, & González-Romá, 2011). Second, TL is related to the subjective perceptions of employees or followers (Ilies, Judge, & Wagner, 2006). ...
Article
While research on the role of employees’ characteristics as core to transformational leadership theory is burgeoning, limited research has focused on the differing aspects of employees’ self-determined motivation as mediating mechanism through which transformational leadership may impact outcomes. Drawing on the self-determined theory of motivation, we build and test a theoretical model linking employees’ perceptions of transformational leadership with engagement through an intervening variable of differing aspects of employees’ self-determined motivation. Data from a sample of 155 participants revealed that employees’ perceptions of transformational leadership were positively related to employees’ self-determined motivation (intrinsic, autonomous, and controlled) and work engagement. Specifically, self-determined motivation (intrinsic, autonomous) was positively linked with work engagement while intrinsic, autonomous and controlled dimensions of self-determined motivation mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and work engagement. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the results.
... We extended the guanxi research by showing that TSSG influences the likelihood that employees' personal guanxi with a supervisor will translate into positive perceptions of justice. Our results provide support for the personenvironment fit theory that congruence will have a reinforcement effect (Bashshur, Hernández, & González-Romá, 2011 Second, we found that subordinates were inclined to judge the supervisors as more just when individual SSG exceeded TSSG. ...
Article
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The study examines how subordinates’ perceptions of justice in Chinese working teams are influenced by the person–team fit (or the misfit) of the supervisor–subordinate guanxi (SSG). We tested our hypotheses on a sample of 1,086 employees from 149 work groups in one state‐owned enterprise; using a combination of cross‐level polynomial regression and response surface analysis. The results showed that subordinates’ perceptions of justice, in terms of procedural, interactional, and distributive justice, were higher when individual SSG was congruent with the average SSG in the team (TSSG) at a high level than when an individual SSG was congruent with TSSG at a low level. Meanwhile, in the misfit situation, subordinates’ perceptions of the three dimensions of justice were higher when the individual SSG relative to TSSG (relative SSG, or RSSG) was surplus (individual SSG exceeded TSSG) versus RSSG deficient (TSSG exceeded individual SSG). Nevertheless, the subordinates’ perceptions of distributive justice were the highest when SSG and TSSG were almost equal in high level, as observed by integrating the fit with the misfit line. These findings highlight the important boundary cultural conditions of the psychological processes of justice and provide useful insights for international managers conducting their business in China.
... The number of studies using PRA has grown exponentially since its proposal (13 studies in the 1990s, 47 studies in the 2000s, and 129 studies from 2010 to 2018). In addition to P-E fit, PRA has been applied to studying a broad range of organizational phenomena, including self-other agreement (also termed as perceptual fit; e.g., Bashshur, Hernández, & González-Romá, 2011;Matta, Scott, Koopman, & Conlon, 2015), issues of (in) justice due to social comparison, psychological contract fulfillment/breach, or (mis)alignment of information or treatment from different sources in the organization (e.g., Harris, Anseel, & Lievens, 2008;Lambert, Edwards, & Cable, 2003;Vidyarthi, Erdogan, Anand, Liden, & Chaudhry, 2014), temporal change in perceptions and behaviors (e.g., Jansen, Shipp, & Michael, 2016), and more generally, moderated regression models with quadratic as well as interaction effects (e.g., Andrevski & Ferrier, 2016). Regardless of the theoretical underpinning, these studies all share one common research question: To what extent does congruence (or incongruence) matter? ...
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A growing volume of research has used polynomial regression analysis (PRA) to examine congruence effects in a broad range of organizational phenomena. However, conclusions from congruence studies, even ones using the same theoretical framework, vary substantially. We argue that conflicting findings from congruence research can be attributable to several methodological artifacts, including measurement error, collinearity among predictors, and sampling error. These methodological artifacts can significantly affect the estimation accuracy of PRA and undermine the validity of conclusions from primary studies as well as meta-analytic reviews of congruence research. We introduce two alternative methods that address this concern by modeling congruence within a latent variable framework: latent moderated structural equations (LMS) and reliability-corrected single-indicator LMS (SI-LMS). Using a large-scale simulation study with 6,322 conditions and close to 1.9 million replications, we showed how methodological artifacts affected the performance of PRA, specifically, its (un)biasedness, precision, Type I error rate, and power in estimating linear, quadratic, and interaction effects. We also demonstrated the substantial advantages of LMS and SI-LMS compared with PRA in providing accurate and precise estimates, particularly under undesirable conditions. Based on these findings, we discuss how these new methods can help researchers find more consistent effects and draw more meaningful theoretical conclusions in future research. We offer practical recommendations regarding study design, model selection, and sample size planning. In addition, we provide example syntax to facilitate the application of LMS and SI-LMS in congruence research.
... We try to improve such limitation and try to test the dissonance process empirically. However, we found that most of the studies investigating cognitive dissonance have used the experimental method (e.g., Gino, 2008;Bashshur et al., 2011;Stoverink et al., 2014). Studies have also suggested that experimental manipulation can ensure that psychological state is created under the context (Spencer et al., 2005). ...
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This paper proposes that role stressors decrease helping behavior by undermining employees’ normative commitment from a cognitive dissonance perspective and social exchange theory. We also propose two competitive assumptions of the moderating effect of perceived organizational support (POS). In this paper, we first examine these hypotheses in Study 1 and then verify the cognitive dissonance perspective in Study 2. In Study 1, we collected data from 350 employees of two enterprises in China. The results indicated that role stressors had a negative link with helping behavior via the mediating role of normative commitment. The results also showed that POS strengthened the negative relationship between role stressors and normative commitment. In Study 2, we invited 104 employees to participate in a scenario experiment. The results found that role stressors had an impact on normative commitment via dissonance. Our studies verified the combination of cognitive dissonance perspective and social exchange theory to explain the impact of role stressors on helping behavior.
... The data analyzed here were part of a broader research project (Bashshur, Hernandez, & Gonzalez-Roma, 2011;González-Romá & Hernandez, 2014). Except for one previously published paper in which the same charismatic leadership data were used, none of the variables (scales) used in the present study have been used in previous publications based on data from the same project (see Appendix). ...
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Although the importance of leadership for innovation processes has been acknowledged, the understanding of the relationships between leadership styles and levels of innovation in work teams is still limited. This study among team managers and team members of 133 Spanish bank branches (i.e., work teams) investigated whether the influence of charismatic leadership on work team innovative behavior comes about via team potency, and whether the relationship between charismatic leadership and team potency is moderated by the level of task interdependence within the team. Data were collected at three different time points. Results of structural equation modeling showed that only at high levels of task interdependence, team managers’ charismatic leadership at Time 1 was significantly positively related to an increase in team potency at Time 2, which in turn was positively related to manager ratings of their work teams’ innovative behavior at Time 3. Meaning that only at high levels of task interdependence, charismatic leadership had a significant indirect effect on team innovative behavior via team potency. Thus, our study sheds light on the boundary conditions of this effect.
... Furthermore, when leaders and subordinates acknowledge and perceive similar leadership tendencies, ambiguity and uncertainty are reduced while expectations converge (Bashshur et al., 2011). This should inspire subordinates to put forth greater effort as a synergistic understanding saves time and resources. ...
... Followers are unlikely to report any changes to the leadership styles of the over-estimator leader. Bashshur, Hernández, and González-Romá (2011) suggested when leaders' ratings are higher than those of their followers, the leaders enact passive leadership as they fail to understand the needs of their followers. It has been suggested that such leaders may be hostile towards their followers (Yammarino & Atwater, 1997). ...
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Based on Yammarino and Atwater’s self-other agreement typology of leaders, we explored whether leaders’ and followers’ agreement influenced their ratings of leadership behaviors after training where leaders received multi-source feedback to stimulate behavior change. We used a prospective study design including 68 leaders and 237 followers from a Swedish forest industry company. Leaders underwent training to increase their transformational leadership and contingent reward styles and reduce management-by-exception passive and laissez-faire leadership. We found that self-other agreement influences followers and leaders reporting changes in leadership styles. We also found that although some leader types were perceived to improve their leadership behaviors, leaders and followers reported differential patterns in which types of leaders improved the most. Our results have important implications for how feedback should be used to support training to achieve changes in leadership styles.
... In other words, through a process of biased information, criticism, and debate during tasks, groups could unknowingly unleash relationship conflict and reduce the chances of working in a positive and enthusiastic environment. With regard to biases in companies, Bashshur, Hernández, and González-Romá [44] addressed the importance of organizational support climate agreement through two steps: (1) Team climate for organizational support has a positive impact on group positive affect over time; (2) Differences in team and manager perceptions of team climate produce detrimental effects on group positive affect, whereas their agreement boosts group positive affect when both the team and manager perceive high levels of team climate. Moreover, Mason [64] suggested a series of predictors of group positive affect by means of semi partial correlations. ...
Article
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Group positive affect is defined as homogeneous positive affect among group members that emerges when working together. Considering that previous research has shown a significant relationship between group positive affect and a wide variety of group outcomes (e.g., behaviors, wellbeing, and performance), it is crucial to boost our knowledge about this construct in the work context. The main purpose is to review empirical research, to synthesize the findings and to provide research agenda about group positive affect, in order to better understand this construct. Through the PsycNET and Proquest Central databases, an integrative review was conducted to identify articles about group positive affect published between January 1990 and March 2019. A total of 44 articles were included and analyzed. Finding suggests that scholars have been more interested in understanding the outcomes of group positive affect and how to improve the productivity of groups than in knowing what the antecedents are. A summary conclusion is that group positive affect is related to leadership, job demands, job resources, diversity/similarity, group processes, and contextual factors, all of which influence the development of several outcomes and different types of wellbeing at the individual and group levels. However, with specific combinations of other conditions (e.g., group trust, negative affect, and interaction), high levels of group positive affect could cause harmful results. Conclusions shed light on group positive affect research and practice and might help Human Resources professionals to initiate empirically-based strategies related to recruitment, group design and leadership training.
... This method emphasizes sharedness of well-being, a core quality of collective well-being, however there are calls to investigate the effects of the strength of well-being among team-members and over time. Additionally, an issue of substantial interest is to examine the amount of variability and dispersion of work-unit well-being within a team and its influence on collective performance [12,96]. ...
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The happy-productive worker thesis (HPWT) assumes that happy employees perform better. Given the relevance of teams and work-units in organizations, our aim is to analyze the state of the art on happy-productive work-units (HPWU) through a systematic review and integrate existing research on different collective well-being constructs and collective performance. Research on HPWU (30 studies, 2001–2018) has developed through different constructs of well-being (hedonic: team satisfaction, group affect; and eudaimonic: team engagement) and diverse operationalizations of performance (self-rated team performance, leader-rated team performance, customers’ satisfaction, and objective indicators), thus creating a disintegrated body of knowledge about HPWU. The theoretical frameworks to explain the HPWU relationship are attitude–behavior models, broaden-and-build theory, and the job-demands-resources model. Research models include a variety of antecedents, mediators, and moderating third variables. Most studies are cross-sectional, all propose a causal happy–productive relationship (not the reverse), and generally find positive significant relationships. Scarce but interesting time-lagged evidence supports a causal chain in which collective well-being leads to team performance (organizational citizenship behavior or team creativity), which then leads to objective work-unit performance. To conclude, we identify common issues and challenges across the studies on HPWU, and set out an agenda for future research.
... Studies show that leadership tone and workplace environment are closely related (Bashshur et al., 2011;Dragoni & Kuenzi, 2012;Kozlowski & Doherty, 1989). A supportive leadership tone suggests a workplace environment that encourages social networking and social relationship building. ...
Article
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This study examines the effect of negotiators’ role (sellers vs. buyers), leadership tone (supportive vs. non-supportive), and social value orientation (prosocials vs. proselfs) on expected transfer prices outcomes as expressed by negotiation managers. Using a 2 × 2 experiment, we find that prosocial managers’ expected transfer prices are closer to an equal-profit price compared with those of proself managers. We further find that the transfer price expectation gap between proself selling managers and buying managers under a non-supportive leadership tone is larger than it is under a supportive leadership tone, suggesting that the negative effect of prosel.
... At this time, followers must make additional efforts to deal with these differences or conflicts [54] to reduce their PE and ensure their work is not affected. It often produces negative emotions such as tension, anxiety, and unhappiness [55]. Moreover, the difference in expectations also leads to uncertainty in the interaction process and motivates leaders to focus on their own interests [56] and reduce working resources for followers. ...
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The innovation behavior (IB) of followers is vital for individuals and organizations. It is not only an important part of individual performance but also an essential foundation of organizational innovation. In general, understanding the formation mechanism of followers’ IB could enhance organizational innovation performance and sustainable competitiveness. The innovation of this study includes the following points. First, in the previous research on the antecedent variables of the IB of followers, the key factor of implicit follow cognitive difference (IFCD) was not examined. We add this key factor to the independent variables of our formation mechanism. Second, in the relationship between IFCD and followers’ IB, we investigate the mediating role of psychological empowerment (PE) and the moderating role of person-organization Fit (P-O Fit), further shown as a mediation model with moderating variables. Third, this study adopts a longitudinal research design, and the data were obtained from 1:1 matched leaders and their followers of large and medium-sized enterprises in China. To avoid deviation in the homologous method, this study gathers data at three-month intervals to ensure that leadership’s influence on followers is effective. In this study, Amos 24.0 and SPSS 24.0 are used for empirical research. The results show IFCD has a negative effect on the IB of followers; PE has a partial mediating effect on the relationship between IFCD and IB of followers; P-O Fit plays a positive regulatory role in the relationship between IFCD and PE, and P-O Fit moderates the mediating effect of PE on the relationship between IFCD and IB. Based on our empirical research, we put forward some feasible suggestions for company managers to increase sustainability in market competition by promoting the formation of the IB of followers.
... This reflects our primary research question: Why do some individuals not adopt virtual work options where such options are available? However, we are also cognizant of the value in taking a multilevel perspectiveagain, as more recent research in human resource management and organization studies demonstrates (e.g., Bashshur et al., 2011). While we included only one organization in our study, future research would benefit from study designs that involve data across many organizations to investigate whether employees form shared perceptions regarding virtual work climate (see research on climate strength, Schneider et al. 2017). ...
Article
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Previous research has shown that virtual work provides benefits to individual employees (e.g. less stress, higher job satisfaction, and higher productivity), the organization (e.g. lower real estate costs and higher commitment and performance) and, potentially, society at large (less traffic, less pollution, and lower healthcare costs through reduced stress and work-family conflict). To realize the potential benefits associated with virtual work, many organizations have introduced new policies to enable employees to work virtually. However, research evidence and media reports indicate that many employees are hesitant to utilize the opportunity to work virtually. To better understand this gap between formal organizational policies and actual adoption, we investigate the predictors and conditions of virtual work adoption. Drawing on Lewin’s field theory and Bandura’s social cognitive theory, we examine the extent to which virtual work self-efficacy, virtual work climate, and their interaction predict individual adoption of virtual work arrangements. To test our hypotheses, we conducted a survey study of 256 employees from a multinational information technology company. Our results suggest that an effective virtual work climate encourages employees with low virtual work self-efficacy to engage in more virtual work.
... This accumulated reservoir of resources in turn relates to work outcomes (Luthans et al., 2008). Specifically, organizational support has been confirmed as a predictor of employee's positive affect (Bashshur et al., 2011). And previous research has also found significant role of positive affect in predicting employee engagement (Wang et al., 2017;Yan et al., 2021). ...
Article
The main purpose of this research is to examine the role of psychological resources in predicting the engagement of night shift employees. Specifically, it tests how resources like supportive organizational climate, family support, and self-efficacy could help employees stay engaged during night shift work. Additionally, this study explores the mediating role of positive affect and ego-resilience. The cross-sectional data collected from night shift employees ( n = 208) working full-time in Canada, the UK, and the US were collected over a period of 3 months. Results of the statistical analysis confirm the significant direct role of self-efficacy and supportive organizational climate in predicting employee engagement. Furthermore, the indirect role of such resources through the mediation of positive affect and ego-resilience was also found. The impact of family support on employee engagement appears significant only through mediators. The current study extends the existing understanding about the role of psychological resources in determining the engagement of night shift employees. It further adds to the literature by explaining mechanisms using positive affect and ego-resilience as mediators.
... This downward comparison may result in less adverse effects. Previous research about perceptual incongruences between managers and their subordinates has demonstrated that when teams perceive that a problematic issue exists but the leader does not, it is linked with worse employee outcomes than if the situation was reversed (Bashshur et al., 2011;Hasson et al., 2019). Thus, a relevant problem being assessed as severe combined with the experience of being misunderstood or not 'in sync' with others (i.e., lack of congruence) may exacerbate the negative outcomes of job insecurity. ...
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Background: In healthcare, employees are exposed to continuous change when new methods are implemented to optimize care. Such changes may result in qualitative job insecurity (QJI), i.e., a fear concerning the potential loss of important job features. QJI is an individual experience; however, it may be shared within a team to a varying extent. This study examines how QJI perceptual (in)congruence between individuals and their teammates relates to individuals’ well-being. Method: Healthcare employees (N = 305) from 30 healthcare units completed questionnaires measuring QJI, work engagement, and recovery. Results: Multi-level polynomial regression analyses showed that QJI congruence had a curvilinear relationship with well-being: employees reported higher work engagement when QJI perceptions were in agreement, both when QJI was low and high. We observed a negative relationship between QJI congruence and recovery. Recovery was lower when perceptions of QJI were in agreement and were high (vs. low). Finally, we found support for the effects of perceptual incongruence: when employees reported higher QJI than their teammates, they experienced lower recovery and engagement. Conclusions: To understand how employees’ QJI relates to their well-being, it is essential to consider their teammates’ perceptions. The social context can augment or reduce individuals’ stress reactions to job insecurity.
Article
Mental health is important to individuals, employers, and HR Professionals. The present study explores how teams can influence individual wellbeing. We use team-level job insecurity as an antecedent and team-level perceived organisational support (POS) climate as a mediator. In addition, we explore team-level cooperative team norms as a moderator within our study model. We expect teams that share job insecurities to have a lower POS, which ultimately predicts wellbeing, with cooperative team norms buffering these effects. Surveying employee teams within New Zealand, using a sample of 313 New Zealand employees (121 teams, with 2–4 people in each team), and multi-level modelling, we find support that job insecurity is positively related to anxiety and depression, as well as negatively related to POS climate. POS climate mediates the insecurity effects towards anxiety and depression, while cooperative team norms buffer the effects of high job insecurity towards anxiety but not depression. Moderated-mediation effects show the indirect effect of insecurity strengthens as norms do. The implications for organisations and HR are discussed.
Article
The concept of climate strength – the extent of agreement among group members regarding climate perceptions – has evolved from a statistical criterion for aggregation to a focal management construct. We review 156 empirical team climate studies spanning the last decade, observing a widely held assumption that environmental stimuli influence climate strength. However, closer inspection suggests that this relationship is far more complex and nuanced than previously considered. This is problematic since an oversimplified view of how climate strength develops may lead to erroneous conclusions: for example, that everyone will share similar perceptions if exposed to the same stimuli. Our review: (1) distinguishes experiences from interpretations, explaining how some stimuli are experienced by all (some) yet are interpreted differently (the same); (2) distinguishes stimuli from the contexts in which they occur, explaining how contextual elements – specifically, the structural dimensions of teams – are not stimuli but rather act as a lenses through which experiences and interpretations occur; and (3) develops a more complete theory of climate strength reflecting contemporary work practices – including informal structures and teams with more fluid boundaries – by explaining how these lenses simultaneously filter multiple stimuli in either complementary or competing ways. Keywords: Climate (Organization), Teams, Sensemaking, Groups, Social Networks; Climate Strength; Stimuli; Discretionary Stimuli; Ambient Stimuli
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Organizational climates are instrumental in guiding patterns of worker behavior across varied domains; yet it is noteworthy that climates do not exist in vacuums. Rather, climates are embedded within broader contexts with which they are not always congruent or harmonious. Incongruence between a climate and its context can occur when a climate emerges from strategic values that are divergent from meaningful features of the group or organization's environment. We propose, based on congruence theory, that when climates are incongruent with their context, they are less able to affect group performance. We tested a general hypothesis of climate-context congruence (CCC) by considering both the nature of the work performed by group members (CCC-work) and the predominant societal culture values (CCC-culture) as contextual boundary conditions for climate-performance associations. Using the competing values framework to conceptually distinguish climates based on their underlying values, we examined the extent to which CCC-work and CCC-culture explain variance in climate-performance relationships using meta-analytic regression. Our meta-analyses support the congruence hypothesis in several instances for both CCC-work and CCC-culture but also support a divergent compensatory perspective in others, where climate-context incongruence appears to provide offsetting performance benefits in some cases. We elaborate on the implications of these findings. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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Leaders’ positions as external brokers in organizational networks—those acting as a bridge between individuals outside the boundaries of their team—can enhance or constrain their effectiveness. Yet, whereas extant research on network brokerage views it as a private good whose benefits accrue directly to the broker, recent research suggests brokering between external communities can serve as both a public good as well as a public liability that can spillover to team members. We integrate network leadership theory with the externalities of network brokerage perspective to examine the countervailing effects of leaders’ external brokerage in an information network with peer leaders and executives on team performance. In a sample of 465 team members in 80 teams distributed across 10 sister companies within one conglomerate, we used multilevel structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. On one hand, we found that leader external brokerage was positively associated with team performance through team members’ perceptions of organizational support; on the other hand, we found that leader brokerage is detrimental to team performance by compromising leaders’ commitment to their teams. Our results suggest that, while leaders are encouraged to forge connections outside their team to harvest social capital benefits, there are both public benefits and liabilities of team leaders’ external networks that can impact team performance.
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Deriving from the analogy between contingent reward transactional leaders (featured by clarity, consistency, consideration, and consequences) and “good parents,” we develop a moderated mediation model where attachment insecurity (avoidance and anxiety attachment) mediates the relationship of contingent reward transactional leadership with follower job insecurity, burnout, job performance, and organizational citizenship behaviors, and meaningful work moderates the relationship between contingent reward transactional leadership and attachment insecurity. Results based on two-wave data from two independent samples largely support our hypotheses. Specifically, supporting attachment theory, the relationship of contingent reward transactional leadership and follower outcomes (i.e., job insecurity, burnout, and job performance) is mediated by both avoidance attachment and anxiety attachment. Supporting the contingency theory of leadership, meaningful work strengthens the relationship between contingent reward transactional leadership and avoidance and anxiety attachment. Additionally, the indirect effect of contingent reward transactional leadership and follower outcomes via avoidance and anxiety attachment is contingent upon meaningful work. © 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.
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Attachment personality theory provides an interpersonal and relational perspective of human functioning. The current research examines the role of attachment diversity within the theoretical framework of the categorization‐elaboration model (CEM). We hypothesized that teams comprised of diverse attachment orientations would be beneficial to team performance. Specifically, diverse anxiety teams may have members who would be more vigilant to team threats, whereas diverse avoidance teams could comprise individuals who may be more goal‐oriented. Also, we examined whether perceived organizational support (POS) moderates the association between attachment diversity and team performance. The study was conducted at a large private communications company. Data were obtained for 44 sales teams (N = 404). Supplementing this data, the company’s administrative systems provided team performance ratings derived from team achievements. Findings indicated that the relationship between anxiety diversity and performance were stronger under lower POS levels than under higher POS levels. Interpersonal avoidance strategies seem to be less productive in avoidance diversity teams under lower levels of POS. However, higher POS levels buffered the negative impact of avoidance diversity on team performance.
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Objective: To investigate whether agreement and disagreement between teams and their managers on safety climate relates to their health and work performance. Methods: Questionnaire ratings of 47 managers and 211 employees on safety climate and self-rated health, stress, work ability, and work performance were analyzed using polynomial regression with response surface analyses. Results: Teams' stress was lower when there was agreement between the team and the manager on safety climate, and their work performance was lower when the manager rated safety climate higher than the team did. Managers' health, but not their work performance, was higher for managers who were in agreement with their teams. Conclusions: Agreement between managers and teams on safety climate was related to both employee and manager health outcomes. Disagreement (managers' ratings higher than teams') was negatively related to employee work performance.
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Despite a growing importance and understanding of emotions and affective processes in leadership, the specific role of positive and negative emotional tone in leader follower relationships, as perceived by both parties to the relationship, is less well understood. We draw upon the Emotions in Relationships Model (ERM) in adult relationship sciences to posit that convergence in positive and negative emotional tone in leader-follower relationships affects reciprocity based LMX as reported by both parties: leaders and followers. Our assertions, based on findings for matched dyadic reports of all constructs, are largely supported for convergence in positive emotional tone but not supported for convergence in negative emotional tone in LMX relationships. In addition, nuanced findings for leader rated LMX as well as negative emotional tone convergence emerged. Implications for future theory and research in LMX and emotions are discussed.
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Through their empathy, care and nurturance, benevolent leaders can help employees with disabilities surmount their disability stigma and smile at their work and work environment. The primary aim of our research is to examine how benevolent leadership contributes to the well-being of employees with disabilities. The participants in our study comprised employees with disabilities from firms located in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Our results revealed the relationships between benevolent leadership and the three components of the well-being among employees with disabilities including perceived discrimination, job satisfaction and need for recovery. Disability inclusive climate was also found to mediate these relationships. Moreover, attachment anxiety acted as an enhancer for the effects of disability inclusive climate on the well-being while attachment avoidance was found to attenuate these effects except for the impact on need for recovery.
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Despite a continued interest in team climates (i.e., team members’ shared perceptions regarding policies, practices, and procedures within their organization), scholars lament a lack of theory regarding their formation and maintenance. Multilevel theory serves as the underlying foundation for most team climate constructs: team members are exposed to similar “ambient stimuli” – including team member and supervisor interactions – allowing them to form shared perceptions. Advancing this perspective and integrating the literature on teams, we argue that shared perceptions among team members will be more or less likely depending on the degree to which teams exhibit skill differentiation, temporal stability, and supervisor prominence. We also explain how the increasing prevalence of (a) social networks within organizations, and (b) influences from employees’ lives outside of work can reduce shared perceptions within any type of team. Overall, we add to theory on team climates by highlighting the various ways in which “discretionary stimuli” uniquely experienced by individual team members can reduce the degree to which perceptions are shared. Our work is also of practical importance since positive team climates are associated with a variety of positive outcomes for both teams and individuals.
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The contribution of psychological factors in project relationships has received limited attention. Taking the standpoint of vendor project managers, we examine their justice perceptions, affect, and consequent behavior in response to client opportunism. Data collected from 182 respondents from the information technology industry reveal that vendor project managers perceive reduced distributive and interpersonal justice, and experience lower positive and higher negative affective states, resulting in more venting and disengagement and less constructive discussion and passive acceptance. Findings suggest that psychological factors can bring about detrimental behavior in client–vendor relationships. This has long-term implications for project relationships where client opportunism occurs.
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The purpose of this investigation was to examine the psychometric properties (interrater reliabilities within source and correlations between sources) of subordinate, supervisor, peer, and self-ratings of job performance. Different job types and dimension types were compared. Using meta-analytic methodology, we found that subordinates showed the lowest mean reliability (.30) and supervisors showed the highest (.50), with peers in between (.37). Mean correlations between sources were low for subordinate ratings (.22 with supervisor, .22 with peer, and .14 with self-ratings) and for self-ratings (.22 with supervisor and .19 with peer ratings). The mean supervisor-peer correlation was higher at .34. Both reliabilities and correlations between sources tended to be higher for nonmanagerial and lower complexity jobs. Comparisons of between-source correlations with within-source reliabilities indicated that, with some qualifications, the different sources had somewhat different perspectives on performance. Dimension reliabilities differed somewhat for interpersonal and cognitive dimensions.
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The aim of the present study is to study the validity of affective work team clima tes in a sample of 33 health care work teams using a two-wave panel data designo The results obtained showed: (1) a high level of within-team agreement regarding the studied af­ fective variables (satisfaction and commitment) and a satisfactory degree of discrimi­ nation among work teams' scores, (2) that within-team agreement in one dimension of work team climate (goal orientation) measured at time 1 was related to within-team agreement in satisfaction and commitment at time 2, (3) that aggregated work team support predicted aggregated work team satisfaction and commitment over time, and that change in the four aggregated cognitive climate dimensions (support, innovation, goal orientation and rule orientation) predicted change in aggregated satisfaction. The results obtained supported the validity ofthe affective work team climate concept.
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In this chapter a theory of motivation and emotion developed from an attributional perspective is presented. Before undertaking this central task, it might be beneficial to review the progression of the book. In Chapter 1 it was suggested that causal attributions have been prevalent throughout history and in disparate cultures. Studies reviewed in Chapter 2 revealed a large number of causal ascriptions within motivational domains, and different ascriptions in disparate domains. Yet some attributions, particularly ability and effort in the achievement area, dominate causal thinking. To compare and contrast causes such as ability and effort, their common denominators or shared properties were identified. Three causal dimensions, examined in Chapter 3, are locus, stability, and controllability, with intentionality and globality as other possible causal properties. As documented in Chapter 4, the perceived stability of a cause influences the subjective probability of success following a previous success or failure; causes perceived as enduring increase the certainty that the prior outcome will be repeated in the future. And all the causal dimensions, as well as the outcome of an activity and specific causes, influence the emotions experienced after attainment or nonattainment of a goal. The affects linked to causal dimensions include pride (with locus), hopelessness and resignation (with stability), and anger, gratitude, guilt, pity, and shame (with controllability).
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In this article we examine the meaning of team process. We first define team process in the context of a multiphase episodic framework related to goal accomplishment, arguing that teams are multitasking units that perform multiple processes simultaneously and sequentially to orchestrate goal-directed taskwork. We then advance a taxonomy of team process dimensions synthesized from previous research and theorizing, a taxonomy that reflects our time-based conceptual framework. We conclude with implications for future research and application.
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Climate has been viewed as a function of: (a) the organization's structure; (b) the organization's membership; and (c) more recently the memberships' efforts to understand the organization. The third view-interactionism-has been offered as a reconciliation of the objectivism of the first and the subjectivism of the second. The interactionist approach is extended here by a consideration of the roles of the workgroup, affect, corporate culture, symbolic management, and physical setting.
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In this study we develop a model of how diversity in positive affect (PA) among group members influences individual attitudes, group processes, and group performance. We test the model on a sample of 62 U.S. top management teams. Greater affective fit between a team member and his or her group is related to more positive attitudes about group relations and perceptions of greater influence within the group. Results also suggest there is a negative relationship between a team's diversity in trait positive affect and both the chief executive officers' use of participatory decision making and financial performance. Exploratory analyses reveal that affectively diverse, low mean trait PA groups experienced the greatest task and emotional conflict and the least cooperation. Analyses of diversity in trait negative affect produced no significant results. We discuss the implications of our study for the group emotion, team composition, group performance, and top management team literatures.
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A multimethod field study of 92 workgroups explored the influence of three types of workgroup diversity (social category diversity, value diversity, and informational diversity) and two moderators (task type and task interdependence) on workgroup outcomes. Informational diversity positively influenced group performance, mediated by task conflict. Value and social category diversity, task complexity, and task interdependence all moderated this effect. Social category diversity positively influenced group member morale. Value diversity decreased satisfaction, intent to remain, and commitment to the group; relationship conflict mediated the effects of value diversity. We discuss the implications of these results for group leaders, managers, and organizations wishing to create and manage a diverse workforce successfully.
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The authors present guidelines for establishing a useful range for interrater agreement and a cutoff for acceptable interrater agreement when using Burke, Finkelstein, and Dusig’s average deviation (AD) index as well as critical values for tests of statistical significance with the AD index. Under the assumption that judges respond randomly to an item or set of items in a measure, the authors show that a criterion for acceptable interrater agreement or practical significance when using the AD index can be approximated as c/6, where c is the number of response options for a Likert-type item. The resulting values of 0.8, 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8 are discussed as standards for acceptable interrater agreement when using the AD index with 5-, 7-, 9-, and 11-point items, respectively. Using similar logic, the AD agreement index and interpretive standard are generalized to the case of a response scale that involves percentages or proportions, rather than discrete categories, or at the other extreme, the assessment of interrater agreement with respect to the rating of a single target on a dichotomous item (e.g., yes-no, agree-disagree, true-false item formats). Finally, the usefulness of these guidelines for judging acceptable levels of interrater agreement with respect to the metric (or units) of the original response scale is discussed.
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In this investigation, the authors report the results of two studies designed to investigate the efficacy of two proposed indices of interrater agreement based on average deviations from the mean and from the median (ADM and ADMd, respectively). Using survey response data collected from 6,549 sales employees in 119 stores of a national retail company, Study 1 compared the results of six interrater agreement indices across four types of Likert-type response scales (i.e., 5-, 6-, 7-, and 11-point scales). The results indicated that the AD indices were highly correlated with an index of proportional agreement and with within-group interrater agreement indices. Study 2, based on survey data collected from 4,158 sales employees in 109 other stores of this company, constructively replicated Study 1 and examined the consistency of interrater agreement decisions across six indices with respect to a priori decision rules. Study 2 results also supported the use of AD indices. Practical issues concerning the use of AD indices for estimating interrater agreement and future research directions are discussed.
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The authors examined the effect of procedural justice climate, defined as a distinct group-level cognition about how the work group as a whole is treated, on work group performance in a sample of 34 work groups from two organizations. They hypothesized that the relationship between procedural justice climate and performance is indirect, operating through helping behavior. Group-level helping behavior fully mediated the relationship between procedural justice climate and perceived performance. However, the same results were not found when financial performance data were used as a measure of work group performance. Implications for the study’s findings are discussed.
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This paper examines approaches to the formation of organizational climate. Three perspectives appearing in the literature the structural, the perceptual, and the interactive are identified and examined. Additionally, a perspective termed the "cultural approach" is developed. This approach posits that organizational climate arises from the intersubjectivity of members as they interact within a context established by an organization's culture. A definition of organizational climate, informed by this approach, is presented. Finally, distinctions between organizational climate and organizational culture are examined.
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The political nature of work environments has been discussed for quite some time; however surprisingly little is known about the personal and situational factors that influence employees' perceptions of organizational politics. In this study, portions of a model of organizational politics perceptions proposed by Ferris, Russ, and Fandt (1989) were tested in two studies using samples reflecting considerable variability on jobs, age, sex, and education, as well as hierarchical level, across four different organizations. In Study 1, regression analyses, used to empirically examine a proposed model of organizational politics perceptions, demonstrated that feedback, job autonomy, skill variety, and opportunity for promotion contributed significantly to the explanation of variance in perceptions of organizational politics, after controlling for variance due to organization. In Study 2, a new expanded measure of organizational politics perceptions was used to provide a more refined analysis of the antecedents and consequences of politics perceptions. Directions for theoretical and empirical research on organizational politics are discussed in light of the present results.
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The purpose of this investigation was to examine the psychometric properties (interrater reliabilities within source and correlations between sources) of subordinate, supervisor, peer, and self-ratings of job performance. Different job types and dimension types were compared. Using meta-analytic methodology, we found that subordinates showed the lowest mean reliability (.30) and supervisors showed the highest (.50), with peers in between (.37). Mean correlations between sources were low for subordinate ratings (.22 with supervisor, .22 with peer, and .14 with self-ratings) and for self-ratings (.22 with supervisor and .19 with peer ratings). The mean supervisor-peer correlation was higher at .34. Both reliabilities and correlations between sources tended to be higher for nonmanagerial and lower complexity jobs. Comparisons of between-source correlations with within-source reliabilities indicated that, with some qualifications, the different sources had somewhat different perspectives on performance. Dimension reliabilities differed somewhat for interpersonal and cognitive dimensions.
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We develop and test a theory of relational cohesion, which predicts how and when people in exchange become committed to their relationship. The theory focuses on dyads within networks and predicts that more equal power and greater total, or mutual, power promote exchanges that arouse positive emotions and create perceptions of the relation as a cohesive unit. The behavioral consequences are a tendency for actors to (1) stay in the exchange relation despite attractive alternatives, (2) provide each other token gifts, and (3) contribute to a new joint venture. Three laboratory experiments test and support the theory. Our results suggest that complementary emotional/ affective and uncertainty-reduction processes explain the effect of repetitive exchanges on commitment formation. The broad implication is that frequent exchanges by the same actors in a network result in their relation becoming a valued object in itself and a source of informal constraint on malfeasance.
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Group emotional contagion, the transfer of moods among people in a group, and its influence on work group dynamics was examined in a laboratory study of managerial decision making using multiple, convergent measures of mood, individual attitudes, behavior, and group-level dynamics. Using a 2 times 2 experimental design, with a trained confederate enacting mood conditions, the predicted effect of emotional contagion was found among group members, using both outside coders' ratings of participants' mood and participants' self-reported mood. No hypothesized differences in contagion effects due to the degree of pleasantness of the mood expressed and the energy level with which it was conveyed were found. There was a significant influence of emotional contagion on individual-level attitudes and group processes. As predicted, the positive emotional contagion group members experienced improved cooperation, decreased conflict, and increased perceived task performance. Theoretical implications and practical ramifications of emotional contagion in groups and organizations are discussed.
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In recent years, researchers have paid increasing attention to the idea of “climate strength”—the level of agreement about climate within a work group or organization. However, at present the literature is unclear about the extent to which climate strength is a positive attribute, and is concerned predominantly with small teams or organizational units. This article considers three theoretical perspectives of climate strength, and extends these to the organizational level. These three roles of climate strength were tested in 56 hospitals in the United Kingdom. Positive relationships were discovered between two of three climate dimensions (Quality and Integration) and expert ratings of organizational performance, and a curvilinear effect between Integration climate strength and performance was also found. Very high or very low Integration climate strength was less beneficial than a moderate level of climate strength. However, there were no interaction effects discovered between climate and climate strength. Implications for future climate strength research are discussed.
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The research domains of climate and leadership are implicitly entwined, yet there has been little theoretical development or empirical research directly addressing the linkage between these constructs. In this study we developed a framework integrating interactionist-based climate theory (B. Schneider, 1983) and the vertical dyad linkage theory of leadership (G. Graen, 1976; Graen and J. F. Cashman, 1975). Three propositions derived from the integrative framework were supported. Subordinates with high-quality supervisor relations had more positive climate perceptions, exhibited greater consensus on climate, and had perceptions more similar to those of their supervisors than did subordinates with low-quality relations. The value of a synthesis of the two research domains is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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R. Eisenberger et al (1986) recently conducted a study focused on a measure of perceived employer commitment that they called the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support (SPOS). In the present study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the dimensionality of the SPOS and to determine the distinctiveness of this construct from other similar constructs. Participants were 330 employees (mean age 47 yrs) in a large corporation headquartered in the southeastern United States. The results support the SPOS as a unidimensional scale that is distinguishable from affective and continuance commitment. However, the data raise some question as to the empirical distinction between the SPOS and satisfaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Suggests that a variety of sources of information are used to reach causal inferences in achievement-related contexts. The primary perceived causes of success and failure are ability and effort, but they also include a small number of salient factors such as home environment and the teacher. These causes can be grouped within 3 primary dimensions of causality: stability, locus, and control. There are also an undetermined number of subordinate causal dimensions that may include intentionality and globality. These primary dimensions are linked to expectancy changes, esteem-related affects, and interpersonal judgments, respectively. In addition, there are secondary linkages between the causal dimensions and psychological effects: Stability relates to depression-type affects, and control is associated with particular feeling states and behaviors. The dimension–consequence linkages influence motivated behaviors such as persistence and choice. The role of anxiety in this attributional theory of motivation and emotion is discussed in terms of anxiety as a causal antecedent; anxiety and perceived causality; and anxiety, expectancy, and affect. (71 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The authors reviewed more than 70 studies concerning employees' general belief that their work organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being (perceived organizational support; POS). A meta-analysis indicated that 3 major categories of beneficial treatment received by employees (i.e., fairness, supervisor support, and organizational rewards and favorable job conditions) were associated with POS. POS, in turn, was related to outcomes favorable to employees (e.g., job satisfaction, positive mood) and the organization (e.g., affective commitment, performance, and lessened withdrawal behavior). These relationships depended on processes assumed by organizational support theory: employees' belief that the organization's actions were discretionary, feeling of obligation to aid the organization, fulfillment of socioemotional needs, and performance-reward expectancies.
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Studies using the single-aggregate approach (L. R. James, 1982), where assessments made by individual respondents are correlated with other assessments that have been averaged across multiple respondents, can exhibit a systematic bias of 20 to 70% or more if they are used to estimate individual level relationships. Not only may results of such studies be erroneous, but theory development based on such studies may be misguided. A comprehensive solution (nested and crossed designs) to the single–aggregation problem is provided through generalizability theory. Results show that the aggregation bias is a function of both the generalizability (reliability) of individual responses and the number of individuals per group. Conceptual parallels to classical measurement theory are discussed. Factors are presented for converting single–aggregated correlations and standard deviations to estimates of the corresponding values using the individual as the level of analysis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
Hunt (1965) has indicated that, in the context of progress in the field of personality, “knowledge of persons has been disturbingly static over the centuries” (p. 80). This may be partially because many of our theories and beliefs are dissonant with the empirical evidence, as is discussed in this chapter.
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This paper reports the development and psychometric validation of a multi-dimensional measure of facet-specific climate for innovation within groups at work: the Team Climate Inventory (TCI). Brief reviews of the organizational climate and work group innovation literatures are presented initially, and the need for measures of facet-specific climate at the level of the proximal work group asserted. The four-factor theory of facet-specific climate for innovation, which was derived from these reviews, is described, and the procedures used to operationalize this model into the original version measure described. Data attesting to underlying factor structure, internal homogeneity, predictive validity and factor replicability across groups of the summarized measure are presented. An initial sample of 155 individuals from 27 hospital management teams provided data for the exploratory factor analysis of this measure. Responses from 121 further groups in four occupations (35 primary health care teams, 42 social services teams, 20 psychiatric teams and 24 oil company teams; total N = 971) were used to apply confirmatory factor analysis techniques. This five-factor, 38-item summarized version demonstrates robust psychometric properties, with acceptable levels of reliability and validity. Potential applications of this measure are described and the implication of these findings for the measurement of proximal work group climate are discussed.
Article
Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchinson, and Sowa (1986) recently conducted a study focused on a measure of perceived employer commitment that they called the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support (SPOS). In the present study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the dimensionality of the SPOS and to determine the distinctiveness of this construct from other similar constructs. Participants were 330 employees in a large corporation headquartered in the southeastern United States. The results support the SPOS as a unidimensional scale that is distinguishable from affective and continuance commitment. However, the data raise some question as to the empirical distinction between the SPOS and satisfaction.
Article
Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.
Article
This paper considers the concept of organizational climate and examines the relationships to be expected between different aspects of climate and various dimensions of organizational structure and context. The suggested relationships are examined using data from 387 respondents working at all levels in 14 different work organizations. Examination of the effect of hierarchical level on perceptions of organizational climate showed significant variations by level.
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Difference scores have been widely used in studies of fit, similarity, and agreement. Despite their widespread use, difference scores suffer from numerous methodological problems. These problems can be mitigated or avoided with polynomial regression analysis, and this method has become increasingly prevalent during the past decade. Unfortunately, a number of potentially damaging myths have begun to spread regarding the drawbacks of difference scores and the advantages of polynomial regression. If these myths go unchecked, difference scores and the problems they create are likely to persist in studies of fit, similarity, and agreement. This article reviews 10 difference score myths and attempts to dispel these myths, focusing on studies conducted since polynomial regression was formally introduced as an alternative to difference scores.
Article
Evidence is presented that (a) employees in an organization form global beliefs concerning the extent to which the organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being, (b) such perceived organizational support reduces absenteeism, and (c) the relation between perceived organizational support and absenteeism is greater for employees with a strong exchange ideology than those with a weak exchange ideology. These findings support the social exchange view that employees’ commitment to the organization is strongly influenced by their perception of the organization’s commitment to them. Perceived organizational support is assumed to increase the employee’s affective attachment to the organization and his or her expectancy that greater effort toward meeting organizational goals will be rewarded. The extent to which these factors increase work effort would depend on the strength of the employee’s exchange ideology favoring the trade of work effort for material and symbolic benefits.
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This chapter reviews research on multi-level organizational justice. The first half of the chapter provides the historical context for this issue, discusses organizational-level antecedents to individual-level justice perceptions (i.e., culture and organizational structure), and then focuses on the study of justice climate. A summary model depicts the justice climate findings to date and gives recommendations for future research. The second half of the chapter discusses the process of justice climate emergence. Pulling from classical bottom-up and top-down climate emergence models as well as contemporary justice theory, it outlines a theoretical model whereby individual differences and environmental characteristics interact to influence justice judgments. Through a process of information sharing, shared and unique experiences, and interactions among group members, a justice climate emerges. The chapter concludes by presenting ideas about how such a process might be empirically modeled.
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This research examines mood as a collective property of work groups. We argue that work group members experience group moods when they can detect and display mood information through observable behavioral expressions. To test the hypothesis that work group moods are manifested behaviorally, we developed an observational instrument and compared observers' reports of work group mood with self-reported measures from 70 work groups. As predicted, groups converged for eight distinct mood categories, and observers' reports of work group mood were consistent with groups' aggregated self-reported values. Convergence in members' moods was positively associated with task and social interdependence, membership stability, and mood regulation norms. Theoretical and practical implications of work group mood are discussed.
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Most clinical and counseling psychologists have identified three distinct skills required in true empathy: the ability to share the other person’s feelings, the cognitive ability to intuit what another person is feeling, and a “socially beneficial” intention to respond compassionately to that person’s distress. Scholars from various disciplines, including sociology, biology, neuroscience, social psychology, and life-span psychology, argue that primitive emotional contagion—a basic building block of human interaction that allows people to understand and to share the feelings of others—can shed light on human cognition, emotion, and behavior. This chapter discusses emotional contagion and describes three stages in the process of emotional contagion: mimicry, feedback, and contagion.