Article

The Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Science-Policy Interface

School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA.
Science (Impact Factor: 33.61). 02/2011; 331(6021):1139-40. DOI: 10.1126/science.1202400
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Assessments must provide conditional predictions of specific policy outcomes, at well-defined spatial and temporal scales.

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    • "The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment has provided important evidence of both the past and ongoing degradation of global biodiversity and ecosystem services (MA, 2005). In response, a variety of international initiatives has been developed, including the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), which provides mechanisms to identify information and tools needed for policy makers (Perrings et al., 2011), and The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity initiative (TEEB), which has stimulated increased scientific interest in the economic valuation of ecosystem services (TEEB, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed the state of the art in research on the economic valuation of ecosystem services in Spain. A review of 150 publications was conducted and included 649 economic value estimates. The results showed an increase in the number of scientific studies on the economic valuation of ecosystem services and a dissimilar distribution across regions. Cultural ecosystem services received the most attention, and coastal systems and forested areas were the most studied ecosystem types. We found differences in the economic value estimates among categories of services and among economic valuation methods, with provisioning services and market-based methods as those that elicited the highest economic values, respectively. Our results provide an overview of past and current economic valuation studies in Spain. In addition the results depict patterns that help in understanding the effects of different factors on economic value estimates and in providing insights for future research on ecosystem services assessment in Spain. We conclude that although economic assessments remain important in scientific and policy forums, we should also recognize additional approaches that are able to incorporate the plurality of values attached to ecosystem services.
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    • "Practical conservation is a social-ecological system involving government agencies, private enterprises, community organizations, and non-government organizations, as well as species and ecosystems (Karanth and deFries, 2010; Perrings et al., 2011; Balmford, 2012; McCarthy et al., 2012; Buckley and Pegas, 2014; Ferraro and Hanauer, 2014; Hauser et al., 2014; Pouzols et al., 2014; Schwitzer et al., 2014). Immediate threats to conservation of biodiversity are wellknown . "

    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
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    • "Understanding the link between scientific evidence and decision-making for policy setting or management is challenging (see for example [26] [27] [28] [29] and references therein), as policy development is not a linear process with complex connections between scientific evidence and policy decisions (e.g. [30]). "
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    ABSTRACT: Marine legislation is becoming ever more complex, so new cost-effective ways of obtaining and processing increasingly large data sets are required to support evidence-based policy making. Citizen science is one solution, but the uptake of the evidence generated by citizens among policy makers is often limited. Here, the importance of citizen science in delivery of the evidence-base that underpins marine policy was assessed using a series of case-studies. There was no consistent rationale for developing policy-relevant citizen science, but drivers included: lack of existing data, difficulty in collecting data by other means, the use of citizen science data by other organisations, and the capabilities of volunteers. Challenges to the uptake of marine citizen science were identified from policy-maker, scientist and citizen perspectives, and these related to data quality, data access, motivation of volunteers, and physical location. Citizen science has good potential to contribute to the evidence-base alongside traditional monitoring, remote sensing, and modelling, but only if outputs from citizen science projects are judged individually on quality. If this is the case, citizen science has an important role in delivery and understanding of future marine policy, but is only one part of an integrated solution. Crown
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