ArticlePDF Available
Nursing History Review 19 (2011): 179–182. A Publication of the American Association for the History
of Nursing. Copyright © 2011 Springer Publishing Company.
DOI: 10.1891/1062–8061.19.179
e History of Nursing in Turkey
F T
Hacettepe University
e traditional roots of modern nursing in Turkey date back to the eff orts of
Florence Nightingale, who cared for wounded English and Turkish soldiers in
Selimiye Barracks in Istanbul during the Crimean War (1854 1856).
1 Until
then, care of the wounded and sick was the responsibility of informally trained
women. After the Crimean War, eleven nurses came to Turkey from Germany
with Nightingale’s care principles in mind.
2
e necessity for trained nurses in Turkey reached its peak, however, during
the Balkan War (1912 1913) and World War I (1914 1918), which brought
large numbers of wounded and sick soldiers and refugees to hospitals. While
early eff orts in nursing were infl uenced by nurses from Western Europe, it was
a local Turkish physician, Besim Ömer Akalın Pasha, who fi rst emphasized the
need for special training in nursing education in Turkey.
3 With his eff orts, the
rst formal six-month nursing education program started in 1911. In 1920,
the American Bristol Health School began a two-and-a-half-year nursing edu-
cation program to train nurses for the American Hospital, followed in 1925
with the two-year Society of Red Crescent Nursing School, established through
the eff orts of the famed Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Republic
of Turkey. is school became a four-year program in 1958.
4 Kızılay Nursing
School also began a nursing program in 1925 requiring twenty-seven months
of study, and it set certain conditions for acceptance: being literate, in good
physical condition, and morally educated. After 1946, this institution became
the key school that sent graduates to other nursing schools as educators and
administrators.
5
Other nursing schools opened in the 1940s and 1950s, but not bacca-
laureate and post baccalaureate programs.  e rst bachelor-degree program
opened in 1955, a master in nursing in 1968,
6 and the fi rst nursing doctorate
program in 1972 at Hacettepe University School of Nursing (HUSN).
7 Even
though there are currently eighty-one schools of health with departments of
nursing, each needs faculty who are well trained in the health professions. By
2006, there were only six universities that off ered doctoral degrees in nursing.
180 F T
Hence, graduates of the Haceteppe University program have provided the
faculty needed to raise the qualifi cations of understaff ed and underfunded
universities in Turkey.
e professionalization of nursing in Turkey was enhanced in 1933
when the Turkish Nurses Association (TNA) was established. It became an
active member of the International Council of Nurses (ICN) in 1949; and
currently, with fi fteen branch offi ces, the association has its own journal for
2,785 members nationwide.
8 In addition to the TNA, there are twenty-
two nursing associations for specifi c specialties.  e TNA has periodically
sponsored a journal since 1959.
Despite its accomplishments in education and professional organizations,
nursing in Turkey is still primarily a fi eld for women; this leads to nurses
being neglected by decision makers at work.
9 Environments are entrenched in
a steep hierarchy, and societal factors such as the nursing shortage have also
contributed to the muting of nurses’ voices, especially in the decision-making
arena that drives the health care market and policy.
Nursing functions and roles are defi ned by law as well as other regula-
tions and directives.  e Nursing Law of 1954 cited very restricted roles, with
nurses working primarily to assist other professionals. As such, it was not in
accordance with twenty-fi rst-century hospital and nursing practice realities.
Nurses receive insuffi cient and inappropriate education related to the services
they are supposed to give. Insuffi cient education along with the lack of legisla-
tion appropriate to changing conditions have created problems concerning the
protection of nurses’ rights, which lead to their neglect by decision makers.
10
In addition, there are few accepted standards for nursing services, and few
continuing education and in-service training programs existed until 1993.
11
To correct these defi ciencies, TNA nurses worked for more than fi fteen years
to update nursing laws, and their eff orts were successful with the approval of
a new law in April 2007. Although it will take fi ve years for implementation,
these new changes have given nurses many opportunities to acquire expertise,
earn a training certifi cate, and obtain more men into nursing, along with the
professional articulation of nursing roles and standardized nursing education
at the university level.
Political forces have also aff ected the nursing profession in Turkey. To
meet European Union requirements, nurses are trying to change the total
number of hours of nursing education, including theory and clinical practice.
ey recently established a system of academic credits such as the European
Credits Transfer System in order to promote student and educator mobility.
us nurses and nurse educators are revising nursing practice and curricula to
meet the ever-changing needs of society.
History of Nursing in Turkey 181
In summary, advances in technology, rising acuity of clients, and early
discharge of clients from health care institutions require nurses to have up-to-
date knowledge of nursing skills. Contradicting this is the low social position
of women in medical facilities and Turkish society in general. Despite their
gains, nurses are still frequently perceived as physicians’ assistants rather than
autonomous professionals in their own right. Nursing is commonly perceived
as “lowly womens” work, thus undermining nurses’ abilities to bring change.
12
With the 2007 change in nursing law allowing more men into schools of
nursing, this could change. Yet the nursing shortage remains.
F T
Associate Professor
Vice President of Nursing Department
Hacettepe University
Faculty of Health Science
Nursing Department
06100, Ankara, Turkey
Notes
1. N. Eren and G. Uyer, Saglik Meslek Tarihi ve Ahlaki [History and Deontology of
Health Professionals], 4th ed. (Ankara: Hatiboglu Yayinevi, 1991); and S. Erhan, Hemsire-
lik Tarihi [History of Nursing] (Istanbul: Divan Matbaacilik Tesisleri, 1978).
2. ere is a Florence Nightingale museum in Istanbul, Turkey. F. Ulusoy, “Nursing
Education History in Turkey,Cumhuriyet University Journal of School of Nursing 2, no. 1
(1998):1 8; Ş. Özaydın, “Start of Nursing in Turkey and Samples from its Development
in the Last  irty Years, T Klin J Med Ethics , Law and History 10 (2002):258 62; and
Z. Özaydın, “Upper Social Strata Women in Nursing in Turkey,Nursing History Review
14 (2006): 161 74.
3. Ulusoy, “Nursing Education History.
4. Ulusoy, “Nursing Education History,” and L. Birol, Red Crescent Nurses Serving
to Human (Ankara; Doğuş Publishing, 1975).
5. K. Kukulu, “Nursing in Turkey,Nurse Educator 30, no. 3 (2005):101 103.
6. F. Erdil and N. Bayraktar, “Hacettepe Üniversitesinde Hemşirelikte Lisans Üstü
Eğitimin Gelişimi,” in 1st International and 5th National Nursing Education Congress Book
(Nevşehir, Turkey, 2001), 199 202.
7. B. Yurugen, Turkiye’de Hemsirelik ve Hemsirelik Egitimi Tarihi [Nursing and
History of Nursing Education in Turkey] (Gaziantep, Turkey: Yuksek Ogretim Kurumu,
2005); Turkish Council of Higher Education, “Turkey Health Manpower Situation Report,
2007,” Turkish Council of Higher Education, http://www.yok.gov.tr; and  e Council of
182 F T
Higher Education of the Republic of Turkey, “Homepage,” http://www.hemsirelersitesi.
com/hemsitar.htm.
8. History of Turkish Nurses Association, “History,” http://www.turkhemsire
lerdernegi.org.tr/?page=page&cmd=show&lid=0&pid=10.
9. Kukulu, “Nursing in Turkey.
10. Ibid.
11. S. Aksayan and G. Cimete, “Nursing Education and Practice in Turkey,Journal
of Nursing Scholarship 32, no. 2 (2000): 211–12.
12. Kukulu, “Nursing in Turkey.
Reproducedwithpermissionofthecopyright owner. Further reproduction prohibitedwithoutpermission.
... which was followed in 1925 by the 2-year Society of Kizilay Nursing School, established through the efforts of the Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Republic of Turkey (Dal and Kitiş 2008;Can 2010;Terzioglu 2011). ...
... The Master of Science in Nursing Program initiated in 1968, followed by the Nursing Doctoral Education Program in 1972 in Hacettepe University (Dal and Kitiş 2008;Bahçecik and Alpar 2009;Terzioglu 2011) (Table 15.1). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Although the clinical nurse specialist was recognized as an expert practitioner in the United States for 50 years, there is an absence of a framework for the clinical nurse specialist role in Nigeria. There are three pathways through which the federal government, state government, and private sector provide specialist education and training for nurses in Nigeria. Nurses who have received graduate education should practice to the full extent of their education and training. Also, nurses who have their practice expanded in the treatment of communicable diseases and reproductive, maternal, newborn, and childcare should be appropriately recognized. This chapter explores challenges to developing the clinical specialist nurse role in Nigeria and the extent to which the clinical nurse specialist role is evolving in Nigeria through specialist education and training for nurses. Regardless of the pathway, setting, or specialty, Nigerian nurses may have achieved many clinical nurse specialist core competencies without a formal master’s education. Hence, Nigeria is long overdue for the development, recognition, and legal inclusion of the clinical nurse specialist role and practice in the career structure of nurses at all levels of the Nigerian health system.
Chapter
Clinical nurse specialists play an essential role in delivering care in a variety of settings. In Turkey, areas of specialization in nursing show a parallel development in the progress and demand for healthcare and the nursing profession. The term “nurse specialist” has become an officially recognized title in nursing practice in Turkey, following the new arrangements in nursing law. This chapter will address the history of nursing education, roles and practice, regulations, available programs, challenges, and the future of clinical nurse specialist in Turkey.
Article
Materials and methods: A survey of 377 nurses working in 5 hospitals in Turkey was conducted using the conditions of work effectiveness questionnaire, psychological empowerment instrument, universal precautions compliance scale, and occupational health and safety obligations compliance scale. The relations between the variables were tested using Pearson's correlation and path analysis. Results: There was a moderate and statistically significant relationship between psychological and structural empowerment and complying with universal safety measures and meeting occupational health and safety obligations. It was also found that an increase of 1 unit on the level of psychological empowerment corresponds to an increase of 0.37 units on the level of universal precautions compliance and to an increase of 0.46 units on the level of occupational health and safety obligations compliance. As such, an increase of 1 unit in structural empowerment corresponds to an increase of 0.53 units on the level of universal precautions compliance and to an increase of 0.36 units (total effect) on the level of occupational health and safety obligations compliance. Conclusions: The findings reveal that empowerment is a valuable tool for nurses' positive job safety behaviours.
Article
Full-text available
The pressing need for educated nursing staff in Greece was first recognized by Queen Olga and Crown Princess Sofia, at the end of the nineteenth century with significant international aid.As a result, the School of Nursing Sisters of the Sanatorium "Evangelismos" was founded in 1875 and the first Greek "School of Certified Nurses" of the "Saint Sophia" Children's Hospital was established in 1897. This Children's Hospital has provided Greece with excellent trained nurses in Pediatric as well as Neonatal and Infant Nursing ever since. Distinguished nurses from abroad as well as a plethora of professors and physicians have taught at the school which has effectively made a mark in forming a tradition until today. The international concept of the school, including enhancing the young nurses' practice with experience from abroad is one of its most interesting features. The first Greek nursing schools rank among the first in the world.
Article
Une tradition historique complexe a opposé jadis de nombreux obstacles à la formation de personnel infirmier en Turquie. Pendant des siècles, les infirmiers, et plus encore les infirmières, étaient considérés avec dédain et se voyaient refuser l'accès à la société. Les membres turcs de la profession ont dû mener pendant ces 45 dernières années une lutte longue et ardue pour modifier cette attitude du grand public et pour faire comprendre que le seul moyen d'arriver au niveau social des confrères et consoeurs des autres pays modernes était celui d'un effort d'amélioration continuel. Il fallait élever le niveau qualitatif et quantitatif et le statut même de personnel pour effacer l'antique préjugé, selon lequel le nursing était une profession décriéc, ne convenant pas aux jeunes filles. Ce préjugé était à l'origine de la grave pénurie en infirmières capables.
Article
Keywords:nursing education;nursing practice;Turkey
Article
The development of nursing education in Turkey was influenced by the twentieth-century political changes that encouraged the involvement of women in social life in Turkey. This study examines this development, beginning in the early twentieth century, including the role of relations between nurses in Turkey and the United States in advancing nursing education. The work is based on Ottoman archival sources, publications of the Ottoman-Turkish Red Crescent, and research on the history of nursing education in Turkey. The names of the institutions mentioned in documents and published works are in English, with the original Turkish names in parentheses. The dates in the Ottoman calendar (reckoned from the Hegira, Muslim era) and Roman calendar (adapted from the Gregorian calendar) that were used by Ottoman officials in their correspondence have been converted to the Western Christian calendar. English translations of Turkish references are in parentheses.
Turkiye'de Hemsirelik ve Hemsirelik Egitimi Tarihi [Nursing and History of Nursing Education in Turkey
  • B Yurugen
B. Yurugen, Turkiye'de Hemsirelik ve Hemsirelik Egitimi Tarihi [Nursing and History of Nursing Education in Turkey] (Gaziantep, Turkey: Yuksek Ogretim Kurumu, 2005);
Saglik Meslek Tarihi ve Ahlaki [History and Deontology of Health Professionals
  • N Eren
  • G Uyer
  • S Erhan
  • Hemsirelik Tarihi
N. Eren and G. Uyer, Saglik Meslek Tarihi ve Ahlaki [History and Deontology of Health Professionals], 4th ed. (Ankara: Hatiboglu Yayinevi, 1991); and S. Erhan, Hemsirelik Tarihi [History of Nursing] (Istanbul: Divan Matbaacilik Tesisleri, 1978).
Nursing Education History
  • Ulusoy
Ulusoy, "Nursing Education History."
Nursing Education History Red Crescent Nurses Serving to Human (Ankara
  • L Ulusoy
  • Birol
Ulusoy, " Nursing Education History, " and L. Birol, Red Crescent Nurses Serving to Human (Ankara; Doğuş Publishing, 1975).
Hacettepe Üniversitesinde Hemşirelikte Lisans Üstü Eğitimin Gelişimi
  • F Erdil
  • N Bayraktar
F. Erdil and N. Bayraktar, "Hacettepe Üniversitesinde Hemşirelikte Lisans Üstü Eğitimin Gelişimi," in 1st International and 5th National Nursing Education Congress Book (Nevşehir, Turkey, 2001), 199 -202.
Turkish Council of Higher Education
Turkish Council of Higher Education, " Turkey Health Manpower Situation Report, 2007, " Turkish Council of Higher Education, http://www.yok.gov.tr; and Th e Council of Fusun Terzioglu