The role of vanin-1 and oxidative stress-related pathways in distinguishing acute and chronic pediatric ITP

Departments of Pathology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
Blood (Impact Factor: 10.45). 02/2011; 117(17):4569-79. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2010-09-304931
Source: PubMed


Pediatric immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is usually self-limited. However, approximately 20% of children develop chronic ITP, which can be associated with significant morbidity because of long-term immunosuppression and splenectomy in refractory cases. To explore the molecular mechanism of chronic ITP compared with acute ITP, we studied 63 pediatric patients with ITP. Gene expression analysis of whole blood revealed distinct signatures for acute and chronic ITP. Oxidative stress-related pathways were among the most significant chronic ITP-associated pathways. Overexpression of VNN1, an oxidative stress sensor in epithelial cells, was most strongly associated with progression to chronic ITP. Studies of normal persons demonstrated VNN1 expression in a variety of blood cells. Exposure of blood mononuclear cells to oxidative stress inducers elicited dramatic up-regulation of VNN1 and down-regulation of PPARγ, indicating a role for VNN1 as a peripheral blood oxidative stress sensor. Assessment of redox state by tandem mass spectrometry demonstrated statistically significant lower glutathione ratios in patients with ITP versus healthy controls; lower glutathione ratios were also seen in untreated patients with ITP compared with recently treated patients. Our work demonstrates distinct patterns of gene expression in acute and chronic ITP and implicates oxidative stress pathways in the pathogenesis of chronic pediatric ITP.

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Available from: Tina Cowan, May 02, 2014
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    • "Two previous studies on paediatric AITP patients investigated antioxidant parameters including serum MDA, total antioxidant capacity (AOC), and total oxidant status, which were found to be significantly elevated in acute and chronic AITP [22]. Gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs) revealed OS-related pathways to be most significant in chronic AITP [23]. In adult AITP patients, elevated levels of plasma and erythrocyte malonyldialdehyde (MDA), reduced erythrocyte glutathione, and ascorbic acid have also been reported [24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: As the involvement of oxidative stress (OS) in autoimmune thrombocytopenia (AITP) has been reported, a fast and rapid test for the reliable measurement of OS and antioxidant capacities (AOCs) might be a useful tool in extending current diagnostic possibilities. The free oxygen radical test (FORT) and free oxygen radical defence (FORD) assay (Callegari, Italy) are easy to perform and reliable, with results available within 15 minutes. Thirty-seven AITP patients and 37 matched healthy individuals were included in this study. All participants responded to a standard questionnaire provided by these assays. Female patients with AITP were observed to demonstrate significantly higher OS in comparison to female controls (P = 0.0027) and male AITP patients (P = 0.0018). The AOCs were not reduced in patients with AITP (P = 0.7648). Correlation of OS with platelet count identified a weak positive correlation (P = 0.0327, Spearman R = 0.4672). The questionnaire revealed that ITP patients in comparison to healthy controls are more stressed, feel exhausted and fatigued, and eat a healthier diet. In conclusion, OS is predominant in female but not in male patients with AITP suggesting gender-specific differences in the pathomechanisms of AITP. Identification of patients with high levels of OS might be beneficial in the management of AITP.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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    • "Therefore, in light of the existing concerns, we decided to assess miRNA signature in circulating PBMCs. Gene expression studies on PBMCs isolated from patients with chronic diseases like pediatric immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), psychiatric disorders or chronic fatigue syndrome [28] [29] [30] [31] had expression profiles that were specific to the pathology. Furthermore, a recent study indicates that miRNAs in PBMCs from end-stage heart failure patients are altered compared to the non-failing controls [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract High fidelity genome-wide expression analysis has strengthened the idea that microRNA (miRNA) signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can be potentially used to predict the pathology when anatomical samples are inaccessible like the heart. PBMCs from 48 non-failing controls and 44 patients with relatively stable chronic heart failure (ejection fraction of ≤ 40%) associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) were used for miRNA analysis. Genome-wide miRNA-microarray on PBMCs from chronic heart failure patients identified miRNA signature uniquely characterized by the downregulation of miRNA-548 family members. We have also independently validated downregulation of miRNA-548 family members (miRNA-548c & 548i) using real time-PCR in a large cohort of independent patient samples. Independent in silico Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) of miRNA-548 targets shows unique enrichment of signaling molecules and pathways associated with cardiovascular disease and hypertrophy. Consistent with specificity of miRNA changes with pathology, PBMCs from breast cancer patients showed no alterations in miRNA-548c expression compared to healthy controls. These studies suggest that miRNA-548 family signature in PBMCs can therefore be used to detect early heart failure. Our studies show that cognate networking of predicted miRNA-548 targets in heart failure can be used as a powerful ancillary tool to predict the ongoing pathology.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
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    • "Vanin-1 promotes inflammation partly by suppression of both PPARγ expression and PPARγ signal transduction [15]. PPARγ functions as an anti-inflammatory checkpoint in multiple inflammatory settings, and in a variety of cell types [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The pantetheinase vanin-1 generates cysteamine, which inhibits reduced glutathione (GSH) synthesis. Vanin-1 promotes inflammation and tissue injury partly by inducing oxidative stress, and partly by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) expression. Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) contribute to neointimal hyperplasia in response to injury, by multiple mechanisms including modulation of oxidative stress and PPARγ. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that vanin-1 drives SMC activation and neointimal hyperplasia. We studied reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and functional responses to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and the pro-oxidant diamide in cultured mouse aortic SMCs, and also assessed neointima formation after carotid artery ligation in vanin-1 deficiency. Vnn1(-/-) SMCs demonstrated decreased oxidative stress, proliferation, migration, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activity in response to PDGF and/or diamide, with the effects on proliferation linked, in these studies, to both increased GSH levels and PPARγ expression. Vnn1(-/-) mice displayed markedly decreased neointima formation in response to carotid artery ligation, including decreased intima:media ratio and cross-sectional area of the neointima. We conclude that vanin-1, via dual modulation of GSH and PPARγ, critically regulates the activation of cultured SMCs and development of neointimal hyperplasia in response to carotid artery ligation. Vanin-1 is a novel potential therapeutic target for neointimal hyperplasia following revascularization.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2012 · PLoS ONE
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