Intakes and breast-milk concentrations of essential fatty acids are low among Bangladeshi women with 24-48-month-old children

Department of Nutrition, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
The British journal of nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.45). 02/2011; 105(11):1660-70. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114510004964
Source: PubMed


Maternal fat intake and adipose reserves are major sources of PUFA during lactation. The present study examined the cross-sectional relationship between prolonged breast-feeding and maternal BMI, assessed adequacy of fat intake among lactating and non-lactating mothers of children 24-48 months of age and determined breast-milk fatty acid composition. Multi-stage sampling was used to select a representative sample of mothers from two rural districts in Bangladesh (n 474). Dietary data were collected during two non-consecutive 24 h periods via 12 h in-home daytime observations and recall. The National Cancer Institute method for episodically consumed foods was used to estimate usual intake distributions. Breast milk samples were collected from ninety-eight women, and breast-milk fatty acid methyl esters were quantified using GC. Approximately 42 % of lactating v. 26 % of non-lactating mothers were underweight (BMI < 18·5 kg/m2; P = 0·0003). The maternal diet was low in total fat (approximately 8 % of mean total energy) and food sources of PUFA, including oil and animal source foods, resulting in a low estimated mean total consumption of PUFA (5·1 g/d). Almost all women were estimated to consume less than the recommended intake levels for total fat, total PUFA, α-linolenic acid (ALA) and DHA. Median breast-milk linoleic acid (8·5 % weight) and ALA (0·2 %) concentrations were among the lowest reported in the literature, in contrast with arachidonic acid (0·5 %) and DHA (0·3 %) concentrations, which were mid-range. Bangladeshi women in general, and especially those who practise prolonged breast-feeding, may benefit from increased consumption of food sources of PUFA.

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Available from: M Munirul Islam, Jun 26, 2014
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    • "The prevalence of adequacy was less than 50 percent for iron, calcium, riboflavin, folate, and vitamin B12. In the same population we observed that children consumed sub-optimal amounts of fat and in most children, only one to four percent of the total energy came from essential fatty acids [5]. These observations reflect food insecurity which affects about 20–30 percent of the population of the country, as well as low dietary diversity and low feeding frequency of young children among a larger part of the population. "
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    • "l been reported to vary , to some extent , among non - Western pop - ulations ( Jelliffe and Jelliffe , 1978 ; Martin et al . , 2012 ; Prentice and Prentice , 1995 ) . Micronutrients and fatty acids may be wholly or partially derived from current maternal diets ( Francois et al . , 1998 ; Innis , 2007 ; Milli - gan , 2013 ; Stuetz et al . , 2012 ; Yakes et al . , 2011 ) , although macronutrients appear moderately buffered from short - term nutritional fluctuations because mothers can mobi - lize body reserves for milk synthesis during lactation ( Prentice et al . , 1981b ; Villalpando and Del Prado , 1999 ) ."
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