Article

Intakes and breast-milk concentrations of essential fatty acids are low among Bangladeshi women with 24-48-month-old children

Department of Nutrition, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
The British journal of nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.45). 02/2011; 105(11):1660-70. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114510004964
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Maternal fat intake and adipose reserves are major sources of PUFA during lactation. The present study examined the cross-sectional relationship between prolonged breast-feeding and maternal BMI, assessed adequacy of fat intake among lactating and non-lactating mothers of children 24-48 months of age and determined breast-milk fatty acid composition. Multi-stage sampling was used to select a representative sample of mothers from two rural districts in Bangladesh (n 474). Dietary data were collected during two non-consecutive 24 h periods via 12 h in-home daytime observations and recall. The National Cancer Institute method for episodically consumed foods was used to estimate usual intake distributions. Breast milk samples were collected from ninety-eight women, and breast-milk fatty acid methyl esters were quantified using GC. Approximately 42 % of lactating v. 26 % of non-lactating mothers were underweight (BMI < 18·5 kg/m2; P = 0·0003). The maternal diet was low in total fat (approximately 8 % of mean total energy) and food sources of PUFA, including oil and animal source foods, resulting in a low estimated mean total consumption of PUFA (5·1 g/d). Almost all women were estimated to consume less than the recommended intake levels for total fat, total PUFA, α-linolenic acid (ALA) and DHA. Median breast-milk linoleic acid (8·5 % weight) and ALA (0·2 %) concentrations were among the lowest reported in the literature, in contrast with arachidonic acid (0·5 %) and DHA (0·3 %) concentrations, which were mid-range. Bangladeshi women in general, and especially those who practise prolonged breast-feeding, may benefit from increased consumption of food sources of PUFA.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: M Munirul Islam, Jun 26, 2014
  • Source
    • "The prevalence of adequacy was less than 50 percent for iron, calcium, riboflavin, folate, and vitamin B12. In the same population we observed that children consumed sub-optimal amounts of fat and in most children, only one to four percent of the total energy came from essential fatty acids [5]. These observations reflect food insecurity which affects about 20–30 percent of the population of the country, as well as low dietary diversity and low feeding frequency of young children among a larger part of the population. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inadequate energy and micronutrient intake during childhood is a major public health problem in developing countries. Ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) made of locally available food ingredients can improve micronutrient status and growth of children. The objective of this study was to develop RUSF using locally available food ingredients and test their acceptability. A checklist was prepared of food ingredients available and commonly consumed in Bangladesh that have the potential of being used for preparing RUSF. Linear programming was used to determine possible combinations of ingredients and micronutrient premix. To test the acceptability of the RUSF compared to Pushti packet (a cereal based food-supplement) in terms of amount taken by children, a clinical trial was conducted among 90 children aged 6–18 months in a slum of Dhaka city. The mothers were also asked to rate the color, flavor, mouth-feel, and overall liking of the RUSF by using a 7-point Hedonic Scale (1 = dislike extremely, 7 = like extremely). Two RUSFs were developed, one based on rice-lentil and the other on chickpea. The total energy obtained from 50 g of rice-lentil, chickpea-based RUSF and Pushti packet were 264, 267 and 188 kcal respectively. Children were offered 50 g of RUSF and they consumed (mean ± SD) 23.8 ± 14 g rice-lentil RUSF, 28.4 ± 15 g chickpea based RUSF. Pushti packet was also offered 50 g but mothers were allowed to add water, and children consumed 17.1 ± 14 g. Mean feeding time for two RUSFs and Pushti packet was 20.9 minutes. Although the two RUSFs did not differ in the amount consumed, there was a significant difference in consumption between chickpea-based RUSF and Pushti packet (p = 0.012). Using the Hedonic Scale the two RUSFs were more liked by mothers compared to Pushti packet. Recipes of RUSF were developed using locally available food ingredients. The study results suggest that rice-lentil and chickpea-based RUSF are well accepted by children. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01553877. Registered 24 January 2012.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BMC Pediatrics
  • Source
    • "l been reported to vary , to some extent , among non - Western pop - ulations ( Jelliffe and Jelliffe , 1978 ; Martin et al . , 2012 ; Prentice and Prentice , 1995 ) . Micronutrients and fatty acids may be wholly or partially derived from current maternal diets ( Francois et al . , 1998 ; Innis , 2007 ; Milli - gan , 2013 ; Stuetz et al . , 2012 ; Yakes et al . , 2011 ) , although macronutrients appear moderately buffered from short - term nutritional fluctuations because mothers can mobi - lize body reserves for milk synthesis during lactation ( Prentice et al . , 1981b ; Villalpando and Del Prado , 1999 ) ."
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human milk is a complex and variable fluid of increasing interest to human biologists who study nutrition and health. The collection and analysis of human milk poses many practical and ethical challenges to field workers, who must balance both appropriate methodology with the needs of participating mothers and infants and logistical challenges to collection and analysis. In this review, we address various collection methods, volume measurements, and ethical considerations and make recommendations for field researchers. We also review frequently used methods for the analysis of fat, protein, sugars/lactose, and specific biomarkers in human milk. Finally, we address new technologies in human milk research, the MIRIS Human Milk Analyzer and dried milk spots, which will improve the ability of human biologists and anthropologists to study human milk in field settings. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · American Journal of Human Biology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evidence from observational studies and randomised trials has suggested a potential association between intake of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) during pregnancy and certain pregnancy and birth outcomes. Marine foods (e.g. fatty sea fish, algae) and select freshwater fish contain pre-formed n-3 LCPUFA, which serve as precursors for bioactive molecules (e.g. prostaglandins) that influence a variety of biological processes. The main objective of this analysis was to summarise evidence of the effect of n-3 LCPUFA intake during pregnancy on select maternal and child health outcomes. Searches were performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and other electronic databases to identify trials where n-3 LCPUFA were provided to pregnant women for at least one trimester of pregnancy. Data were extracted into a standardised abstraction table and pooled analyses were conducted using RevMan software. Fifteen randomised controlled trials were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis, and 14 observational studies were included in the general review. n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy resulted in a modest increase in birthweight (mean difference = 42.2 g; [95% CI 14.8, 69.7]) and no significant differences in birth length or head circumference. Women receiving n-3 LCPUFA had a 26% lower risk of early preterm delivery (<34 weeks) (RR = 0.74; [95% CI 0.58, 0.94]) and there was a suggestion of decreased risk of preterm delivery (RR = 0.91; [95% CI 0.82, 1.01]) and low birthweight (RR = 0.92; [95% CI 0.83, 1.02]). n-3 LCPUFA in pregnancy did not influence the occurrence of pre-eclampsia, high blood pressure, infant death, or stillbirth. Our review of observational studies revealed mixed findings, with several large studies reporting positive associations between fish intake and birthweight and several reporting no associations. In conclusion, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy resulted in a decreased risk of early preterm delivery and a modest increase in birthweight. More studies in low- and middle-income countries are needed to determine any effect of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation in resource-poor settings, where n-3 PUFA intake is likely low.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Show more